Countermarketing campaigns use health communications to reduce the demand for unhealthy products by exposing motives and undermining marketing practices of producers. These campaigns can contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by denormalizing the marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. By portraying these activities as outside the boundaries of civilized corporate behavior, countermarketing can reduce the demand for unhealthy products and lead to changes in industry marketing practices. Countermarketing blends consumer protection, media advocacy, and health education with the demand for corporate accountability. Countermarketing campaigns have been demonstrated to be an effective component of comprehensive tobacco control. This review describes common elements of tobacco countermarketing such as describing adverse health consequences, appealing to negative emotions, highlighting industry manipulation of consumers, and engaging users in the design or implementation of campaigns. It then assesses the potential for using these elements to reduce consumption of alcohol and unhealthy foods.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Agostinelli G, Grube J. 1.  2002. Alcohol counter-advertising and the media. Alcohol Res. Health 26:115–21 [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. Alcohol Concern. 2013. It's the drink talking: giving young people a voice on alcohol Alcohol Concern, London. http://www.itsthedrinktalking.co.uk/ [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. Alcohol Justice. 2007. Stop Alcopops San Rafael, CA. https://alcoholjustice.org/campaigns/stop-alcopops [Google Scholar]
  4. Alhabash S, McAlister AR, Quilliam ET, Richards JI, Lou C. 4.  2015. Alcohol's getting a bit more social: when alcohol marketing messages on Facebook increase young adults’ intentions to imbibe. Mass Commun. Soc. 18:3350–75 [Google Scholar]
  5. Allen JA, Duke JC, Davis KC, Kim AE, Nonnemaker JM, Farrelly MC. 5.  2015. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review. Am. J. Health Promot. 30:2e71–82 [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. Am. Med. Assoc., Alcohol Policy MD. 2004. Teenage girls targeted for sweet-flavored alcoholic beverages Press Release, Dec. 16. http://www.alcoholpolicymd.com/press_room/Press_releases/girlie_drinks_release.htm [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. Am. Public Health Assoc. 1982. Nestle boycott. Am. J. Public Health 72:2205 [Google Scholar]
  8. Anderson SJ, Glantz SA, Ling PM. 8.  2005. Emotions for sale: cigarette advertising and women's psychosocial needs. Tob. Control 14:2127–35 [Google Scholar]
  9. Andreasen AR. 9.  2002. Marketing social marketing in the social change marketplace. J. Public Policy Mark. 21:13–13 [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. Balance. 2011. See what Sam sees Balance North East, Durham, UK. http://www.balancenortheast.co.uk/library/documents/See_What_Sam_Sees_leaflet.pdf [Google Scholar]
  11. 11. Balance. 2012. The real price of cheap alcohol Balance North East, Durham, UK. http://www.balancenortheast.co.uk/our-campaigns/mup/ [Google Scholar]
  12. Balbach ED, Gasior RJ, Barbeau EM. 12.  2003. R.J. Reynolds’ targeting of African Americans: 1988–2000. Am. J. Public Health 93:822–27 [Google Scholar]
  13. Banerjee SC, Greene K. 13.  2006. Analysis versus production: adolescent cognitive and attitudinal responses to anti-smoking interventions. J. Commun. 56:773–94 [Google Scholar]
  14. Beaglehole R, Bonita R, Horton R, Adams C, Alleyne G. 14.  et al. 2011. Priority actions for the non-communicable disease crisis. Lancet 377:1438–47 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bearden WO, Etzel MJ. 15.  1982. Reference group influence on product and brand purchase decision. J. Consum. Res. 9:10183–94 [Google Scholar]
  16. Beauchamp DE. 16.  1976. Public health as social justice. Inquiry 13:13–14 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bergsma LJ, Carney ME. 17.  2008. Effectiveness of health-promoting media literacy education: a systematic review. Health Educ. Res. 23:3522–42 [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. Berkeley Media Stud. Group. 2009. Working Upstream: Skills for Social Change Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Media Stud. Group http://bmsg.org/sites/default/files/bmsg_handbook_working_upstream.pdf [Google Scholar]
  19. Biener L, Ji M, Gilpin EA, Albers AB. 19.  2004. The impact of emotional tone, message, and broadcast parameters in youth anti-smoking advertisements. J. Health Commun. 9:3259–74 [Google Scholar]
  20. Blecher E. 20.  2015. Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages: linkages and lessons learned. Soc. Sci. Med. 136:175–79 [Google Scholar]
  21. Bochner S. 21.  1994. The effectiveness of same-sex versus opposite-sex role models in advertisements to reduce alcohol consumption in teenagers. Addict. Behav. 19:169–82 [Google Scholar]
  22. Bonnie R, Stratton K, Wallace R. 22.  2007. Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  23. Bradley N, Blythe J. 23.  2013. Demarketing London/New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group [Google Scholar]
  24. Burton S, Dadich A, Soboleva A. 24.  2013. Competing voices: marketing and counter-marketing alcohol on Twitter. J. Nonprofit Public Sector Mark. 25:2186–209 [Google Scholar]
  25. 25. Cancer Counc. 2016. Junk busters Cancer Counc., Woolloomooloo, NSW, Aust. http://junkbusters.com.au/ [Google Scholar]
  26. Carducci V. 26.  2006. Culture jamming: a sociological perspective. J. Consum. Cult. 6:1116–38 [Google Scholar]
  27. Carson KV, Brinn MP, Labiszewski NA, Esterman AJ, Chang AB, Smith BJ. 27.  2011. Community interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database Syst7D001291 [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2007. Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs—2007. Atlanta: US Dep. Health Hum. Serv., CDC, Natl. Cent. Chronic Dis. Prev. Health Promot., Off. Smok. Health [Google Scholar]
  29. 29. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2010. Selected Actions of the US Government Regarding the Regulation of Tobacco Sales, Marketing, and Use (Excluding Laws Pertaining to Agriculture or Excise Tax) Atlanta: CDC [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. Cent. Sci. Public Interest. 2004. American College Health Association praised for commitment to end alcohol ads on college sports broadcasts July 24, Cent. Sci. Public Interest, Washington, DC. https://cspinet.org/new/200407301.html [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. Cent. Sci. Public Interest. 2012. The real bears Cent. Sci. Public Interest, Washington, DC. http://www.therealbears.org/ [Google Scholar]
  32. 32. Cent. Sci. Public Interest. 2015. Change the tune Video posted June 23, 1 min 40 s. Cent. Sci. Public Interest, Washington, DC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3F1U95v0JPs [Google Scholar]
  33. Chan S. 33.  2009. New targets in the fat fight: soda and juice. New York Times Aug. 31, p. A22 [Google Scholar]
  34. Chapman S. 34.  1996. Civil disobedience and tobacco control: the case of BUGA UP. Billboard Utilising Graffitists Against Unhealthy Promotions. Tob. Control 5:3179–85 [Google Scholar]
  35. Chester J, Montgomery K, Dorfman L. 35.  2010. Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Media Stud. Group [Google Scholar]
  36. Cheyne A, Dorfman L, Daynard RA, Mejia P, Gottlieb M. 36.  2014. The debate on regulating menthol cigarettes: closing a dangerous loophole versus removing the right to have a choice. Am. J. Public Health 104:1048–51 [Google Scholar]
  37. Cheyne A, Mejia P, Nixon L, Dorfman L. 37.  2014. Food and beverage marketing to youth. Curr. Obes. Rep. 3:4440–50 [Google Scholar]
  38. Christian A, Sunday E. 38.  2013. Factors influencing brand preference of beer consumption in Port-Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Eur. J. Bus. Manag. 5:776–87 [Google Scholar]
  39. Cohen L. 39.  2003. A Consumers’ Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America New York: Vintage [Google Scholar]
  40. Dichter E. 40.  1960. The Strategy of Desire Garden City, NY: Doubleday [Google Scholar]
  41. Dixon H, Scully M, Kelly B, Chapman K, Wakefield M. 41.  2014. Can counter-advertising reduce pre-adolescent children's susceptibility to front-of-package promotions on unhealthy foods? Experimental research. Soc. Sci. Med. 116:211–19 [Google Scholar]
  42. Dixon H, Scully M, Kelly B, Donovan R, Chapman K, Wakefield M. 42.  2014. Counter-advertising may reduce parent's susceptibility to front-of-package promotions on unhealthy foods. J. Nutr. Educ. Behav. 46:6476–74 [Google Scholar]
  43. Dorfman L, Cheyne A, Friedman LC, Wadud A, Gottlieb M. 43.  2012. Soda and tobacco industry corporate social responsibility campaigns: How do they compare?. PLOS Med 9:6e1001241 [Google Scholar]
  44. Dorfman L, Krasnow ID. 44.  2014. Public health and media advocacy. Public Health 35:293–306 [Google Scholar]
  45. Dorfman L, Wallack L. 45.  1993. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads. Public Health Rep 108.6:716–26 [Google Scholar]
  46. Doyle P. 46.  1987. Managing the marketing mix. The Marketing Book MJ Baker 287–313 Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. Dunk the Junk. 2016. Defeat SodaTron Dunk the Junk, Camden, ME. http://www.dunkthejunk.org/ [Google Scholar]
  48. Evans WD, Blitstein J, Vallone D, Post S, Nielsen W. 48.  2015. Systematic review of health branding: growth of a promising practice. Transl. Behav. Med. 5:124–36 [Google Scholar]
  49. Fallin A, Neilands TB, Jordan JW, Hong JS, Ling PM. 49.  2015. Wreaking “havoc” on smoking: social branding to reach young adult “partiers” in Oklahoma. Am. J. Prev. Med. 48:1S78–85 [Google Scholar]
  50. Farrelly MC, Healton CG, Davis KC, Messeri P, Hersey JC, Haviland ML. 50.  2002. Getting to the “truth”: evaluating national tobacco countermarketing campaigns. Am. J. Public Health 92:6901–7 [Google Scholar]
  51. Farrelly MC, Niederdeppe J, Yarsevich J. 51.  2003. Youth tobacco prevention mass media campaigns: past, present, and future directions. Tob. Control 12:Suppl. 1i35–47 [Google Scholar]
  52. Foraker RE, Patten CA, Lopez KN, Croghan IT, Thomas JL. 52.  2005. Beliefs and attitudes regarding smoking among young adult Latinos: a pilot study. Prev. Med. 41:1126–33 [Google Scholar]
  53. Fournier S, Lee L. 53.  2009. Getting brand communities right. Harvard Bus. Rev. 87:4105–11 [Google Scholar]
  54. Fox M. 54.  2016. Philadelphia council passes sweet drink tax. NBC News June 16. http://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/philadelphia-council-passes-sugary-drink-tax-n593936 [Google Scholar]
  55. Freeman B. 55.  2012. New media and tobacco control. Tob. Control 21:2139–44 [Google Scholar]
  56. Freudenberg N. 56.  2014. Lethal but Legal: Corporations, Consumption and Protecting Public Health New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  57. Galvan FH, Caetano R. 57.  2003. Alcohol use and related problems among ethnic minorities in the United States. Alcohol Res. Health 27:187–95 [Google Scholar]
  58. García JL, Sharif MZ. 58.  2015. Black Lives Matter: a commentary on racism and public health. Am. J. Public Health 105:8e27–30 [Google Scholar]
  59. Gerbaudo P. 59.  2012. Tweets and the Streets: Social Media and Contemporary Activism London: Pluto Press [Google Scholar]
  60. Gitlin T. 60.  2012. Occupy Nation: The Roots, the Spirit, and the Promise of Occupy Wall Street New York: Harper Collins [Google Scholar]
  61. Gonzales R, Glik D, Davoudi M, Ang A. 61.  2004. Media literacy and public health integrating theory, research, and practice for tobacco control. Am. Behav. Sci. 48:2189–201 [Google Scholar]
  62. Green LW. 62.  2006. Public health asks of systems science: To advance our evidence-based practice, can you help us get more practice-based evidence?. Am. J. Public Health 96:3406–9 [Google Scholar]
  63. Green M, Nader R. 63.  1973. Economic regulation versus competition: Uncle Sam the monopoly man. Yale Law J 82:5871–89 [Google Scholar]
  64. Grier S, Bryant CA. 64.  2005. Social marketing in public health. Annu. Rev. Public Health 26:319–39 [Google Scholar]
  65. Grier SA, Kumanyika S. 65.  2010. Targeted marketing and public health. Annu. Rev. Public Health 31:349–69 [Google Scholar]
  66. Grube JW, Lawrence W. 66.  1994. Television beer advertising and drinking knowledge, beliefs, and intentions among schoolchildren. Am. J. Public Health 84:2254–59 [Google Scholar]
  67. Hafez N, Ling PM. 67.  2005. How Philip Morris built Marlboro into a global brand for young adults: implications for international tobacco control. Tob. Control 14:4262–71 [Google Scholar]
  68. Hamilton JL. 68.  1972. The demand for cigarettes: advertising, the health scare, and the cigarette advertising ban. Rev. Econ. Stat. 54:401–11 [Google Scholar]
  69. Hammond D, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Thrasher JF, Borland R. 69.  2006. Tobacco denormalization and industry beliefs among smokers from four countries. Am. J. Prev. Med. 31:3225–32 [Google Scholar]
  70. Harris JL, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD, Javadizadeh J, Weinberg M. 70.  2011. Evaluating Sugary Drink Nutrition and Marketing to Youth New Haven, CT: Yale Rudd Cent. Food Policy and Obesity [Google Scholar]
  71. Hastings G. 71.  2009. “They'll drink bucket loads of the stuff”: an analysis of internal alcohol industry advertising documents Memo. AL 81, Alcohol Educ. Res. Counc. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmhealth/memo/alcohol/al81memo.pdf [Google Scholar]
  72. Herd D. 72.  2011. Voices from the field: the social construction of alcohol problems in inner-city communities. Contemp. Drug Probl. 38:17–39 [Google Scholar]
  73. Hersey JC, Niederdeppe J, Ng SW, Mowery P, Farrelly M, Messeri P. 73.  2005. How state counter-industry campaigns help prime perceptions of tobacco industry practices to promote reductions in youth smoking. Tob. Control 14:6377–83 [Google Scholar]
  74. Hershey JC, Niederdeppe J, Evans WD, Nonnemaker J, Blahut S. 74.  et al. 2005. The theory of “truth”: how counter industry campaigns affect smoking behavior among teens. Health Psychol 24:122–31 [Google Scholar]
  75. Hicks JJ. 75.  2001. The strategy behind Florida's “truth” campaign. Tob. Control 10:13–5 [Google Scholar]
  76. Hoek J, Jones SC. 76.  2011. Regulation, public health and social marketing: a behaviour change trinity. J. Soc. Mark. 1:132–44 [Google Scholar]
  77. Hoffman SJ, Tan C. 77.  2015. Overview of systematic reviews on the health-related effects of government tobacco control policies. BMC Public Health 15:1744 [Google Scholar]
  78. Holmberg C, Chaplin J, Hillman T, Berg C. 78.  2016. Adolescents’ presentation of food in social media: an explorative study. Appetite 99:121–29 [Google Scholar]
  79. Ibrahim JK, Glantz S. 79.  2007. The rise and fall of tobacco control media campaigns, 1967–2006. Am. J. Public Health 97:81383–96 [Google Scholar]
  80. Jou J, Niederdeppe J, Barry CL, Gollust SE. 80.  2014. Strategic messaging to promote taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages: lessons from recent political campaigns. Am. J. Public Health 104:5847–53 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kassarjian HH. 81.  1969. The Negro and American advertising, 1946–1965. J. Mark. Res. 6:29–39 [Google Scholar]
  82. Kell J. 82.  2016. Coke spent more on health research than previously reported. Fortune March 25. http://fortune.com/2016/03/25/coke-health-research-spending/ [Google Scholar]
  83. Kelly Y, Goisis A, Sacker A, Cable N, Watt RG, Britton A. 83.  2016. What influences 11-year-olds to drink? Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. BMC Public Health 16:1169 [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. Kick the Can. 2016. Kick the Can. Giving the boot to sugary drinks. Public Health Advocates, Davis, CA. http://www.kickthecan.info/ [Google Scholar]
  85. 85. Kidz Bite Back. 2011. Kidz Bite Back campaigns St. Petersburg, FL: http://www.kidzbiteback.com [Google Scholar]
  86. Kietzmann JH, Hermkens K, McCarthy IP, Silvestre BS. 86.  2011. Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Bus. Horiz. 54:3241–51 [Google Scholar]
  87. Klein N. 87.  2010. No Logo London: Fourth Estate, 10th anniv. ed.. [Google Scholar]
  88. Kotler P, Levy SJ. 88.  1971. Demarketing, yes, demarketing. Harvard Bus. Rev. 49:674–80 [Google Scholar]
  89. Kwate NOA. 89.  2014. Racism still exists: a public health intervention using racism “countermarketing” outdoor advertising in a Black neighborhood. J. Urban Health 91:5851–72 [Google Scholar]
  90. Lee YO, Jordan JW, Djakaria M, Ling PM. 90.  2014. Using peer crowds to segment Black youth for smoking intervention. Health Promot. Pract. 15:4530–37 [Google Scholar]
  91. Lefebvre RC, Kotler P. 91.  2011. Design Thinking, Demarketing and Behavioral Economics London: Sage [Google Scholar]
  92. Lefevre-Gonzalez C. 92.  2013. Restoring historical understandings of the ‘public interest’ standard of American broadcasting: an exploration of the Fairness Doctrine. Int. J. Commun. 7:89–109 [Google Scholar]
  93. Ling PM, Glantz SA. 93.  2002. Why and how the tobacco industry sells cigarettes to young adults: evidence from industry documents. Am. J. Public Health 92:6908–16 [Google Scholar]
  94. Ling PM, Lee YO, Hong J, Neilands TB, Jordan JW, Glantz SA. 94.  2014. Social branding to decrease smoking among young adults in bars. Am. J. Public Health 104:4751–60 [Google Scholar]
  95. Lynn J. 95.  2016. City Council votes to allocate ‘soda tax’ revenue to school district, city organizations. Daily Californian Jan. 20. http://www.dailycal.org/2016/01/20/city-council-votes-allocate-soda-tax-revenue-school-district-city-organizations/ [Google Scholar]
  96. Mahood G. 96.  2004. Tobacco Industry Denormalization: Telling the Truth about the Tobacco Industry's Role in the Tobacco Epidemic Ottawa: Can. Non-Smokers’ Rights Assoc http://www.nsra-adnf.ca/cms/file/files/pdf/TID_Booklet.pdf [Google Scholar]
  97. Mayer RN. 97.  1989. Consumer Movement: Guardians of the Marketplace New York: Twayne [Google Scholar]
  98. Mays J. 98.  2013. Coors Light to stop producing beer cans that offended Puerto Ricans. DNAinfo May 30. https://www.dnainfo.com/new-york/20130530/east-harlem/coors-light-stop-producing-beer-can-that-offended-puerto-ricans [Google Scholar]
  99. McChesney RW. 99.  1993. Telecommunications, Mass Media, and Democracy New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  100. Mercer SL, Green LW, Rosenthal AC, Husten CG, Khan LK, Dietz WH. 100.  2003. Possible lessons from the tobacco experience for obesity control. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77:41073S–82 [Google Scholar]
  101. 101. MICA Cent. Soc. Design, Oliver Youth Counter-Ad Worksh. 2015. Advocacy Through Creativity Baltimore, MD: MICA Cent. Soc. Design https://issuu.com/micasocialdesign/docs/oycaw_book_final_lulu [Google Scholar]
  102. Montgomery KC, Chester J. 102.  2009. Interactive food and beverage marketing: targeting adolescents in the digital age. J. Adolesc. Health 45:Suppl. 3S18–29 [Google Scholar]
  103. Moodie R, Stuckler D, Monteiro C, Sheron N, Neal B. 103.  et al. 2013. Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries. Lancet 381:670–79 [Google Scholar]
  104. Morales X, Lebeau M, Lew R, Poole S. 104.  2016. Big Soda targets communities of color—It's time to fight back!. Los Angeles Sentinel Mar. 30. http://bit.ly/1ooizxC [Google Scholar]
  105. Murphy PC. 105.  2005. What a Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring Amherst/Boston: Univ. Mass. Press [Google Scholar]
  106. Murray RL, Heumann JK. 106.  2012. Contemporary eco-food films: the documentary tradition. Stud. Doc. Film 6:143–59 [Google Scholar]
  107. Nader R. 107.  2002. Crashing the Party: Taking on the Corporate Government in an Age of Surrender New York: St. Martin's Press/Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  108. 108. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2005. ASSIST: Shaping the Future of Tobacco Prevention and Control Tob. Control Monogr. No. 16 Bethesda, MD: US Dep. Health Hum. Serv., Natl. Inst. Health, Natl. Cancer Inst. [Google Scholar]
  109. 109. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2008. The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use Tob. Control Monogr. 19 Bethesda, MD: US Dep. Health Hum. Serv., Natl. Inst. Health, Natl. Cancer Inst http://umm.edu/programs/cancer/healthinfo/overviews/for-patients/monograph-19 [Google Scholar]
  110. Nesheim MC, Nestle M. 110.  2015. The Fight Against Hunger and Malnutrition: The Role of Food, Agriculture, and Targeted Policies New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  111. Nestle M. 111.  2015. Soda Politics: Taking on Big Soda (and Winning) New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  112. Nicholls J. 112.  2012. Everyday, everywhere: alcohol marketing and social media—current trends. Alcohol Alcohol 47:4486–93 [Google Scholar]
  113. Niederdeppe J, Farrelly MC, Haviland ML. 113.  2004. Confirming “truth”: more evidence of a successful tobacco countermarketing campaign in Florida. Am. J. Public Health 94:2255–57 [Google Scholar]
  114. Open Truth. 114.  2016. Open Truth/Destapa La Verdad campaign Open Truth, San Francisco. http://www.opentruthnow.org/ [Google Scholar]
  115. Park S, Onufrak S, Sherry B, Blanck HM. 115.  2014. The relationship between health-related knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage intake among US adults. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet 114:71059–66 [Google Scholar]
  116. Parmley WW. 116.  1995. The tobacco industry: blowing smoke. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 25:71736–37 [Google Scholar]
  117. Pechacek TF. 117.  1999. Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs Darby, PA: Diane Publ. [Google Scholar]
  118. Perkins HW. 118.  2002. Social norms and the prevention of alcohol misuse in collegiate contexts. J. Stud. Alcohol Suppl. 14:64–172 [Google Scholar]
  119. Post JE. 119.  1985. Assessing the Nestlé boycott: corporate accountability and human rights. Calif. Manag. Rev. 27:2113–31 [Google Scholar]
  120. Poyntz SR. 120.  2006. Independent media, youth agency, and the promise of media education. Can. J. Educ./Rev. Can. l'éduc. 29:154–75 [Google Scholar]
  121. 121. Prev. Inst. 2011. We're not buying it Prev. Inst., Oakland, CA. http://preventioninstitute.org/focus-areas/supporting-healthy-food-a-activity/supporting-healthy-food-and-activity-environments-advocacy.html [Google Scholar]
  122. 122. Prev. Inst. 2015. Sustainable Investments in Health: Prevention and Wellness Funds Oakland, CA: Prev. Inst. [Google Scholar]
  123. Randolph W, Viswanath K. 123.  2004. Lessons learned from public health mass media campaigns: marketing health in a crowded media world. Annu. Rev. Public Health 25:419–37 [Google Scholar]
  124. Ribisl KM, Jo C. 124.  2012. Tobacco control is losing ground in the Web 2.0 era: invited commentary. Tob. Control 21:2145–46 [Google Scholar]
  125. Roeseler A, Burns D. 125.  2010. The quarter that changed the world. Tob. Control 19:Suppl. 1i3–15 [Google Scholar]
  126. Rogow F. 126.  2004. Shifting from media to literacy: one opinion on the challenges of media literacy education. Am. Behav. Sci. 48:130–34 [Google Scholar]
  127. Rothman RL, Housam R, Weiss H, Davis D, Gregory R. 127.  et al. 2006. Patient understanding of food labels: the role of literacy and numeracy. Am. J. Prev. Med. 31:5391–98 [Google Scholar]
  128. Rothschild ML. 128.  2000. Carrots, sticks, and promises: a conceptual framework for the management of public health and social issue behaviors. Soc. Mark. Q. 6:486–114 [Google Scholar]
  129. Ruane KA. 129.  2012. Fairness doctrine: history and controversial issues. J. Curr. Issues Media Telecommun. 4:3189–202 [Google Scholar]
  130. Schar E, Gutierrez K, Murphy-Hoefer R, Nelson DE. 130.  2006. Tobacco Use Prevention Media Campaigns Atlanta: US Dep. Health Hum. Serv., Cent. Dis. Control Prev., Off. Smok http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco [Google Scholar]
  131. Sethi SP. 131.  1994. Multinational corporations and the impact of public advocacy on corporate strategy: Nestlé and the infant formula controversy. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 25:3658–60 [Google Scholar]
  132. Shadel WG, Cervone D. 132.  2011. The role of the self in smoking initiation and smoking cessation: a review and blueprint for research at the intersection of social-cognition and health. Self Identity 10:3386–95 [Google Scholar]
  133. Sly DF, Trapido E, Ray S. 133.  2002. Evidence of the dose effects of an antitobacco counteradvertising campaign. Prev. Med. 35:5511–18 [Google Scholar]
  134. Stautz K, Marteau TM. 134.  2016. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment. BMC Public Health 16:1530 [Google Scholar]
  135. Stevenson RW. 135.  1990. The media business: advertising; tough anti-smoking effort aims at cigarette marketers. New York Times April 25. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/04/26/business/media-business-advertising-tough-anti-smoking-effort-aims-cigarette-marketers.html [Google Scholar]
  136. Stuckler D, McKee M, Ebrahim S, Basu S. 136.  2012. Manufacturing epidemics: the role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco. PLOS Med 9:6e1001235 [Google Scholar]
  137. Szmigin I, Bengry-Howell A, Griffin C, Hackley C, Mistral W. 137.  2011. Social marketing, individual responsibility and the “culture of intoxication.”. Eur. J. Mark. 45:5759–79 [Google Scholar]
  138. Tufekci Z, Wilson C. 138.  2012. Social media and the decision to participate in political protest: observations from Tahrir Square. J. Commun. 62:2363–79 [Google Scholar]
  139. Tye L. 139.  1998. The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of Public Relations. New York: Crown [Google Scholar]
  140. Wakefield MA, Loken B, Hornik RC. 140.  2010. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour. Lancet 376:1261–71 [Google Scholar]
  141. Wallack L, Dorfman L, Jernigan D, Themba-Nixon M. 141.  1993. Media Advocacy and Public Health: Power for Prevention Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  142. Wallack LM, Woodruff K, Dorfman L, Diaz I. 142.  1999. News for a Change: An Advocate's Guide to Working with the Media Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  143. Warner KE. 143.  1979. Clearing the airwaves: the cigarette ad ban revisited. Policy Anal 5:435–50 [Google Scholar]
  144. 144. WHO (World Health Organ.). 2011. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases, 2010. Description of the Global Burden of NCDs, Their Risk Factors and Determinants33–37 Geneva: WHO [Google Scholar]
  145. Williams S. 145.  2013. Action needed to combat food and drink companies’ social media to adolescents. Perspect. Public Health 133:3146–47 [Google Scholar]
  146. Wilsnack RW, Vogeltanz ND, Wilsnack SC, Harris TR. 146.  2000. Gender differences in alcohol consumption and adverse drinking consequences: cross-cultural patterns. Addiction 95:2251–65 [Google Scholar]
  147. Winpenny EM, Marteau TM, Nolte E. 147.  2014. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol marketing on social media websites. Alcohol Alcohol 49:2154–59 [Google Scholar]
  148. Witt RE, Bruce GD. 148.  1970. Purchase decisions and group influence. J. Mark. Res. 7:4533–35 [Google Scholar]
  149. Yach D, Hawkes C, Gould CL, Hofman KJ. 149.  2004. The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control. JAMA 291:212616–22 [Google Scholar]
  150. Youth Speaks. 150.  2016. The Bigger Picture campaign Youth Speaks, San Francisco. http://youthspeaks.org/thebiggerpicture/about/ [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error