1932

Abstract

In recent decades, there has been remarkable growth in scientific research examining the multiple ways in which racism can adversely affect health. This interest has been driven in part by the striking persistence of racial/ethnic inequities in health and the empirical evidence that indicates that socioeconomic factors alone do not account for racial/ethnic inequities in health. Racism is considered a fundamental cause of adverse health outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities and racial/ethnic inequities in health. This article provides an overview of the evidence linking the primary domains of racism—structural racism, cultural racism, and individual-level discrimination—to mental and physical health outcomes. For each mechanism, we describe key findings and identify priorities for future research. We also discuss evidence for interventions to reduce racism and describe research needed to advance knowledge in this area.

[Erratum, Closure]

An erratum has been published for this article:
Erratum: Racism and Health: Evidence and Needed Research
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043750
2019-04-01
2024-05-30
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/40/1/annurev-publhealth-040218-043750.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043750&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    Akee RKQ, Copeland WE, Keeler G, Angold A, Costello EJ 2010. Parents’ incomes and children's outcomes: a quasi-experiment using transfer payments from casino profits. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 2:86–115
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. 
    Albert MA, Cozier Y, Ridker PM, Palmer JR, Glynn RJ et al. 2010. Perceptions of race/ethnic discrimination in relation to mortality among black women: results from the Black Women's Health Study. Arch. Intern. Med. 170:896–904
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. 
    Almond D, Chay KY 2006. The long-run and intergenerational impact of poor infant health: evidence from cohorts born during the Civil Rights Era Work. Pap., Dep. Econ., Univ. Calif Berkeley: https://users.nber.org/∼almond/chay_npc_paper.pdf
  4. 4. 
    Almond D, Chay KY, Greenstone M 2006. Civil rights, the war on poverty, and black-white convergence in infant mortality in the rural South and Mississippi Work. Pap. 07-04, Dep. Econ. Mass. Inst. Technol Cambridge: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=961021
  5. 5. 
    Arias E, Xu J, Jim MA 2014. Period life tables for the non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native population, 2007–2009. Am. J. Public Health 104:Suppl. 3S312–19
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    Aronson J, Burgess D, Phelan SM, Juarez L 2013. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities. Am. J. Public Health 103:50–56
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. 
    Bailey ZD, Krieger N, Agénor M, Graves J, Linos N, Bassett MT 2017. Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Lancet 389:1453–63
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8. 
    Barkan SE 2018. Measuring perceived mistreatment: potential problems in asking about “discrimination. .” Sociol. Inq. 88:245–53
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    Barnes LL, Mendes de Leon CF, Lewis TT, Bienias JL, Wilson RS, Evans DA 2008. Perceived discrimination and mortality in a population-based study of older adults. Am. J. Public Health 98:1241–47
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. 
    Bécares L, Nazroo J, Jackson J, Heuvelman H 2012. Ethnic density effects on health and experienced racism among Caribbean people in the US and England: a cross-national comparison. Soc. Sci. Med. 75:2107–15
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11. 
    Ben J, Cormack D, Harris R, Paradies Y 2017. Racism and health service utilisation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 12:e0189900
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12. 
    Bernardo CdO, Bastos JL, González‐Chica DA, Peres MA, Paradies YC 2017. Interpersonal discrimination and markers of adiposity in longitudinal studies: a systematic review. Obes. Rev. 18:1040–49
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. 
    Bonilla-Silva E 1997. Rethinking racism: toward a structural interpretation. Am. Sociol. Rev. 62:465–80
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. 
    Bor J, Venkataramani AS, Williams DR, Tsai AC 2018. Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study. Lancet 392:302–10
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    Brave Heart MY, DeBruyn LM 1998. The American Indian holocaust: healing historical unresolved grief. Am. Indian Alaska Native Ment. Health Res. 8:56–78
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. 
    Braveman PA, Cubbin C, Egerter S, Williams DR, Pamuk E 2010. Socioeconomic disparities in health in the United States: what the patterns tell us. Am. J. Public Health 100:S186–96
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. 
    Brody GH, Lei MK, Chae DH, Yu T, Kogan SM, Beach SRH 2014. Perceived discrimination among African American adolescents and allostatic load: a longitudinal analysis with buffering effects. Child Dev 85:989–1002
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. 
    Brosschot JF, Gerin W, Thayer JF 2006. The perservative cognition hypothesis: a review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. J. Psychosom. Res. 60:113–24
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    Burkley M, Burkley E, Andrade A, Bell AC 2017. Symbols of pride or prejudice? Examining the impact of Native American sports mascots on stereotype application. J. Soc. Psychol. 157:223–35
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. 
    Campbell FA, Conti G, Heckman JJ, Moon SH, Pinto R et al. 2014. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science 343:1478–85
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21. 
    Chae DH, Clouston S, Hatzenbuehler ML, Kramer MR, Cooper HLF et al. 2015. Association between an Internet-based measure of area racism and black mortality. PLOS ONE 10:e0122963
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22. 
    Chae DH, Clouston S, Martz CD, Hatzenbuehler ML, Cooper HLF et al. 2018. Area racism and birth outcomes among blacks in the United States. Soc. Sci. Med. 199:49–55
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. 
    Chandler MJ, Lalonde C 1998. Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada's First Nations. Transcult. Psychiatry 35:191–219
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. 
    Clark R, Benkert RA, Flack JM 2006. Large arterial elasticity varies as a function of gender and racism-related vigilance in black youth. J. Adolesc. Health 39:562–69
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25. 
    Cohen GL, Sherman DK 2014. The psychology of change: self-affirmation and social psychological intervention. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 65:333–71
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. 
    Cooper LA, Roter DL, Carson KA, Beach MC, Sabin JA et al. 2012. The associations of clinicians’ implicit attitudes about race with medical visit communication and patient ratings of interpersonal care. Am. J. Public Health 102:979–87
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. 
    Cooper RS, Steinhauer M, Schatzkin A, Miller W 1981. Improved mortality among U.S. blacks, 1968–1978: the role of antiracist struggle. Int. J. Health Serv. 11:511–22
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. 
    Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Copeland W, Angold A 2010. Association of family income supplements in adolescence with development of psychiatric and substance use disorders in adulthood among an American Indian population. JAMA 303:1954–60
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29. 
    Cutler DM, Glaeser EL 1997. Are ghettos good or bad?. Q. J. Econ. 112:827–72
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. 
    Devine PG, Forscher PS, Austin AJ, Cox WTL 2012. Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: a prejudice habit-breaking intervention. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 48:1267–78
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. 
    Diez Roux AV 2011. Complex systems thinking and current impasses in health disparities research. Am. J. Public Health 101:1627–34
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32. 
    Do DP, Frank R, Iceland J 2017. Black-white metropolitan segregation and self-rated health: investigating the role of neighborhood poverty. Soc. Sci. Med. 187:85–92
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33. 
    Do DP, Frank R, Zheng C, Iceland J 2017. Hispanic segregation and poor health: It's not just black and white. Am. J. Epidemiol. 186:990–99
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34. 
    Dolezsar CM, McGrath JJ, Herzig AJM, Miller SB 2014. Perceived racial discrimination and hypertension: a comprehensive systematic review. Health Psychol 33:20–34
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35. 
    Dunlay SM, Lippmann SJ, Greiner MA, O'Brien EC, Chamberlain AM et al. 2017. Perceived discrimination and cardiovascular outcomes in older African Americans: insights from the Jackson Heart Study. Mayo Clin. Proc. 92:699–709
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. 
    Fryberg SA, Markus HR, Oyserman D, Stone JM 2008. Of warrior chiefs and Indian princesses: the psychological consequences of American Indian mascots. Basic Appl. Soc. Psychol. 30:208–18
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37. 
    Fuller-Rowell TE, Evans GW, Ong AD 2012. Poverty and health: the mediating role of perceived discrimination. Psychol. Sci. 23:734–39
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38. 
    Gebremariam MK, Nianogo RA, Arah OA 2018. Weight gain during incarceration: systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obes. Rev. 19:98–110
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39. 
    Gee GC, Ford CL 2011. Structural racism and health inequities: old issues, new directions. Du Bois Rev 8:115–32
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40. 
    Gee GC, Walsemann KM, Brondolo E 2012. A life course perspective on how racism may be related to health inequities. Am. J. Public Health 102:967–74
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    Gibbons FX, Stock ML 2017. Perceived racial discrimination and health behavior: mediation and moderation. See Ref. 76 355–77
  42. 42. 
    Gilbert PA, Zemore SE 2016. Discrimination and drinking: a systematic review of the evidence. Soc. Sci. Med. 161:178–94
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43. 
    Glaeser E, Vigdor J 2012. The end of the segregated century: racial separation in America's neighborhoods, 1890–2010 Civ. Rep. 66, Manhattan Inst. Policy Res New York: https://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/cr_66.pdf
  44. 44. 
    Glaeser EL, Vigdor JL 2001. Racial segregation in the 2000 Census: promising news. Survey Ser Rep., Cent. Urban Metrop., Policy, Brookings Inst Washington, DC: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/glaeser.pdf
  45. 45. 
    Hahn RA, Truman BI, Williams DR 2018. Civil rights as determinants of public health and racial and ethnic health equity: health care, education, employment, and housing in the United States. SSM Popul. Health 4:17–24
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46. 
    Hatzenbuehler ML, Prins SJ, Flake M, Philbin M, Frazer MS et al. 2017. Immigration policies and mental health morbidity among Latinos: a state-level analysis. Soc. Sci. Med. 174:169–78
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. 
    Heard-Garris NJ, Cale M, Camaj L, Hamati MC, Dominguez TP 2018. Transmitting trauma: a systematic review of vicarious racism and child health. Soc. Sci. Med. 199:230–40
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. 
    Hicken MT, Kravitz-Wirtz N, Durkee M, Jackson JS 2018. Racial inequalities in health: framing future research. Soc. Sci. Med. 199:11–18
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49. 
    Hicken MT, Lee H, Ailshire J, Burgard SA, Williams DR 2013. “Every shut eye, ain't sleep”: the role of racism-related vigilance in racial/ethnic disparities in sleep difficulty. Race Soc. Probl. 5:100–12
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50. 
    Hicken MT, Lee H, Hing AK 2018. The weight of racism: vigilance and racial inequalities in weight-related measures. Soc. Sci. Med. 199:157–66
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51. 
    Hicken MT, Lee H, Morenoff J, House JS, Williams DR 2014. Racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence: reconsidering the role of chronic stress. Am. J. Public Health 104:117–23
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. 
    House JS, Kessler RC, Herzog AR, Mero R, Kinney A, Breslow M 1990. Age, socioeconomic status, and health. Milbank Q 68:383–411
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. 
    Hunte HE, Williams DR 2009. The association between perceived discrimination and obesity in a population-based multiracial and multiethnic adult sample. Am. J. Public Health 99:1285–92
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54. 
    Jones JM 1997. Prejudice and Racism New York: McGraw Hill, 2nd ed..
  55. 55. 
    Kaestner R, Pearson JA, Keene D, Geronimus AT 2009. Stress, allostatic load, and health of Mexican immigrants. Soc. Sci. Q. 90:1089–111
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56. 
    Kalev A, Dobbin F, Kelly E 2006. Best practices or best guesses? Assessing the efficacy of corporate affirmative action and diversity policies. Am. Sociol. Rev. 71:589–617
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57. 
    Kaplan GA, Ranjit N, Burgard S 2008. Lifting gates, lengthening lives: did civil rights policies improve the health of African American woman in the 1960s and 1970s?. Making Americans Healthier: Social and Economic Policy as Health Policy RF Schoeni, JS House, GA Kaplan, H Pollack 145–70 New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58. 
    Kessler RC, Mickelson KD, Williams DR 1999. The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. J. Health Soc. Behav. 40:208–30
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. 
    Kramer MR, Hogue CR 2009. Is segregation bad for your health?. Epidemiol. Rev. 31:178–94
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60. 
    Krause A, Rinne U, Zimmermann KF 2012. Anonymous job applications in Europe. IZA J. Eur. Labor Stud. 1:5
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. 
    Krieger N 2014. Discrimination and health inequities. Int. J. Health Serv. 44:643–710
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62. 
    Krieger N, Chen JT, Coull BA, Beckfield J, Kiang MV, Waterman PD 2014. Jim Crow and premature mortality among the US black and white population, 1960–2009: an age–period–cohort analysis. Epidemiology 25:494–504
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63. 
    Krysan M, Farley R, Couper MP 2008. In the eye of the beholder: racial beliefs and residential segregation. Du Bois Rev 5:5–26
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. 
    Landrine H, Corral I, Lee JGL, Efird JT, Hall MB, Bess JJ 2017. Residential segregation and racial cancer disparities: a systematic review. J. Racial Ethn. Health Disparities 4:1195–205
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. 
    LaVeist TA, Thorpe RJ, Pierre G, Mance GA, Williams DR 2014. The relationships among vigilant coping style, race, and depression. J. Soc. Issues 70:241–55
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. 
    Lee H, Wildeman C, Wang EA, Matusko N, Jackson JS 2014. A heavy burden: the cardiovascular health consequences of having a family member incarcerated. Am. J. Public Health 104:421–27
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67. 
    Leitner JB, Hehman E, Ayduk O, Mendoza-Denton R 2016. Blacks’ death rate due to circulatory diseases is positively related to whites’ explicit racial bias. Psychol. Sci. 27:1299–311
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68. 
    Leventhal AM, Cho J, Andrabi N, Barrington-Trimis J 2018. Association of reported concern over increasing societal discrimination and adverse behavioral health outcomes in late adolescence, 2016–2017. JAMA Pediatr 172:924–33
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69. 
    Lewis TT, Cogburn CD, Williams DR 2015. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 11:407–40
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70. 
    Lewis TT, Van Dyke ME 2018. Discrimination and the health of African Americans: the potential importance of intersectionalities. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 27:176–82
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71. 
    Lewis TT, Williams DR, Tamene M, Clark CR 2014. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and cardiovascular disease. Curr. Cardiovasc. Risk Rep. 8:365
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72. 
    Lieberson S 1985. Making it Count: The Improvement of Social Research and Theory Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  73. 73. 
    Link BG, Phelan J 1995. Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. J. Health Soc. Behav. 1995:Spec. Issue80–94
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74. 
    Lukachko A, Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM 2014. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States. Soc. Sci. Med. 103:42–50
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75. 
    Maina IW, Belton TD, Ginzberg S, Singh A, Johnson TJ 2018. A decade of studying implicit racial/ethnic bias in healthcare providers using the implicit association test. Soc. Sci. Med. 199:219–29
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76. 
    Major B, Dovidio JF, Link BG, eds. 2017. The Oxford Handbook of Stigma, Discrimination, and Health New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  77. 77. 
    Malat J, Mayorga-Gallo S, Williams DR 2018. The effects of whiteness on the health of whites in the USA. Soc. Sci. Med. 199:148–56
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78. 
    Mallett CA 2016. The school-to-prison pipeline: a critical review of the punitive paradigm shift. Child Adolesc. Soc. Work J. 33:15–24
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79. 
    Margerison-Zilko C, Perez-Patron M, Cubbin C 2017. Residential segregation, political representation, and preterm birth among U.S.- and foreign-born Black women in the U.S. 2008–2010. Health Place 46:13–20
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80. 
    Martinez O, Wu E, Sandfort T, Dodge B, Carballo-Dieguez A et al. 2015. Evaluating the impact of immigration policies on health status among undocumented immigrants: a systematic review. J. Immigr. Minor. Health 17:947–70
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81. 
    Massey DS 2004. Segregation and stratification: a biosocial perspective. Du Bois Rev 1:7–25
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82. 
    Massey DS 2016. Segregation and the perpetuation of disadvantage. The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Poverty D Brady, LM Burton 369–93 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83. 
    Massey DS, Denton NA 1988. The dimensions of residential segregation. Soc. Forces 67:281–315
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. 
    Mauer M, Huling T 1995. Young black Americans and the criminal justice system: five years later Rep., Sentencing Proj Washington, DC: https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/young-black-americans-and-the-criminal-justice-system-five-years-later/
  85. 85. 
    Mehra R, Boyd LM, Ickovics JR 2017. Racial residential segregation and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Soc. Sci. Med. 191:237–50
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86. 
    Mendez DD, Hogan VK, Culhane JF 2014. Institutional racism, neighborhood factors, stress, and preterm birth. Ethn. Health 19:479–99
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87. 
    Miranda ML, Maxson P, Edwards S 2009. Environmental contributions to disparities in pregnancy outcomes. Epidemiol. Rev. 31:67–83
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88. 
    Monk EP 2015. The cost of color: skin color, discrimination, and health among African-Americans. Am. J. Sociol. 121:396–444
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89. 
    Morey BN, Gee GC, Muennig P, Hatzenbuehler ML 2018. Community-level prejudice and mortality among immigrant groups. Soc. Sci. Med. 199:56–66
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90. 
    Novak NL, Geronimus AT, Martinez-Cardoso AM 2017. Change in birth outcomes among infants born to Latina mothers after a major immigration raid. Int. J. Epidemiol. 46:839–49
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91. 
    Orfield G, Frankenberg E, Garces LM 2008. Statement of American social scientists of research on school desegregation to the US Supreme Court in Parents v. Seattle School District and Meredith v. Jefferson County. Urban Rev 40:96–136
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92. 
    Orr MG, Kaplan GA, Galea S 2016. Neighbourhood food, physical activity, and educational environments and black/white disparities in obesity: a complex systems simulation analysis. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 70:862–67
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93. 
    Pager D, Shepherd H 2008. The sociology of discrimination: racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit, and consumer markets. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 34:181–209
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94. 
    Paradies Y 2005. Anti-racism and indigenous Australians. Anal. Soc. Issues Public Policy 5:1–28
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95. 
    Paradies Y, Ben J, Denson N, Elias A, Priest N et al. 2015. Racism as a determinant of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 10:e0138511
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96. 
    Pascoe EA, Smart Richman L 2009. Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychol. Bull. 135:531–54
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97. 
    Perreira KM, Telles EE 2014. The color of health: skin color, ethnoracial classification, and discrimination in the health of Latin Americans. Soc. Sci. Med. 116:241–50
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98. 
    Pettigrew TF, Tropp LR 2006. A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 90:751–83
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99. 
    Phelan JC, Link BG 2015. Is racism a fundamental cause of inequalities in health?. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 41:311–30
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100. 
    Phelan JC, Link BG, Tehranifar P 2010. Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: theory, evidence, and policy implications. J. Health Soc. Behav. 51:Suppl.S28–40
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101. 
    Pool LR, Carnethon MR, Goff DC, Gordon-Larsen P, Robinson WR, Kershaw KN 2018. Longitudinal associations of neighborhood-level racial residential segregation with obesity among blacks. Epidemiology 29:207–14
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102. 
    Priest N, Paradies Y, Trenerry B, Truong M, Karlsen S, Kelly Y 2013. A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and wellbeing for children and young people. Soc. Sci. Med. 95:115–27
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103. 
    Priest N, Slopen N, Woolford S, Philip JT, Singer D et al. 2018. Stereotyping across intersections of race and age: racial stereotyping among White adults working with children. PLOS ONE 13:e0205614
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104. 
    Priest N, Williams DR 2017. Racial discrimination and racial disparities in health. See Ref. 76 163–82
  105. 105. 
    Pyke KD 2010. What is internalized racial oppression and why don't we study it? Acknowledging racism's hidden injuries. Sociol. Perspect. 53:551–72
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106. 
    Reskin B 2012. The race discrimination system. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 38:17–35
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107. 
    Rothstein R 2017. The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America New York/London: Liveright
  108. 108. 
    Sampson RJ, Winter AS 2018. Poisoned development: assessing childhood lead exposure as a cause of crime in a birth cohort followed through adolescence. Criminology 56:269–301
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109. 
    Schmitt MT, Branscombe NR, Postmes T, Garcia A 2014. The consequences of perceived discrimination for psychological well-being: a meta-analytic review. Psychol. Bull. 140:921–48
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110. 
    Semega JL, Fontenot KR, Kollar MA 2017. Income and poverty in the United States: 2016 Curr. Popul. Rep. P60–259, US Census Bur Washington, DC: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2017/demo/P60-259.pdf
  111. 111. 
    Slopen N, Lewis TT, Williams DR 2016. Discrimination and sleep: a systematic review. Sleep Med 18:88–95
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112. 
    Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR 2003. Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care Rep., Natl. Acad. Press Washington, DC: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/10260/unequal-treatment-confronting-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-health-care
  113. 113. 
    Speight SL 2007. Internalized racism: one more piece of the puzzle. Couns. Psychol. 35:126–34
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 114. 
    Spencer SJ, Logel C, Davies PG 2016. Stereotype threat. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 67:415–37
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115. 
    Sternthal MJ, Slopen N, Williams DR 2011. Racial disparities in health: How much does stress really matter?. Du Bois Rev 8:95–113
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 116. 
    Tesler M 2012. The spillover of racialization into health care: how President Obama polarized public opinion by racial attitudes and race. Am. J. Political Sci. 56:690–704
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 117. 
    Toomey RB, Umaña-Taylor AJ, Williams DR, Harvey-Mendoza E, Jahromi LB, Updegraff KA 2014. Impact of Arizona's SB 1070 immigration law on utilization of health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures. Am. J. Public Health 104:S28–34
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 118. 
    Truong M, Paradies Y, Priest N 2014. Interventions to improve cultural competency in healthcare: a systematic review of reviews. BMC Health Serv. Res. 14:99
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 119. 
    Turecki G, Meaney MJ 2016. Effects of the social environment and stress on glucocorticoid receptor gene methylation: a systematic review. Biol. Psychiatry 79:87–96
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 120. 
    Umaña-Taylor AJ, Tynes BM, Toomey RB, Williams DR, Mitchell KJ 2015. Latino adolescents' perceived discrimination in online and offline settings: an examination of cultural risk and protective factors. Dev. Psychol. 51:87–100
    [Google Scholar]
  121. 121. 
    Umberson D 2017. Black deaths matter: race, relationship loss, and effects on survivors. J. Health Soc. Behav. 58:405–20
    [Google Scholar]
  122. 122. 
    US Census Bur. 2014. Wealth, asset ownership, and debt of household detailed tables: 2011. US Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2011/demo/wealth/wealth-asset-ownership.html
  123. 123. 
    van Ryn M, Burgess DJ, Dovidio JF, Phelan SM, Saha S et al. 2011. The impact of racism on clinician cognition, behavior, and clinical decision making. Du Bois Rev 8:199–218
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 124. 
    Vargas ED, Winston NC, Garcia JA, Sanchez GR 2016. Latina/o or Mexicana/o? The relationship between socially assigned race and experiences with discrimination. Sociol. Race Ethn. 2:498–515
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 125. 
    Wallace S, Nazroo J, Bécares L 2016. Cumulative effect of racial discrimination on the mental health of ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom. Am. J. Public Health 106:1294–300
    [Google Scholar]
  126. 126. 
    Walters KL, Mohammed SA, Evans-Campbell T, Beltrán RE, Chae DH, Duran B 2011. Bodies don't just tell stories, they tell histories: embodiment of historical trauma among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Du Bois Rev 8:179–89
    [Google Scholar]
  127. 127. 
    White K, Blackburn J, Manzella B, Welty E, Menachemi N 2014. Changes in use of county public health services following implementation of Alabama's immigration law. J. Health Care Poor Underserved 25:1844–52
    [Google Scholar]
  128. 128. 
    White K, Borrell LN 2011. Racial/ethnic residential segregation: framing the context of health risk and health disparities. Health Place 17:438–48
    [Google Scholar]
  129. 129. 
    White K, Haas JS, Williams DR 2012. Elucidating the role of place in health care disparities: the example of racial/ethnic residential segregation. Health Serv. Res. 47:1278–99
    [Google Scholar]
  130. 130. 
    Wildeman C, Wang EA 2017. Mass incarceration, public health, and widening inequality in the USA. Lancet 389:1464–74
    [Google Scholar]
  131. 131. 
    Williams AD, Wallace M, Nobles C, Mendola P 2018. Racial residential segregation and racial disparities in stillbirth in the United States. Health Place 51:208–16
    [Google Scholar]
  132. 132. 
    Williams DR 1990. Socioeconomic differentials in health: a review and redirection. Soc. Psychol. Q. 53:281–99
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 133. 
    Williams DR 1997. Race and health: basic questions, emerging directions. Ann. Epidemiol. 7:322–33
    [Google Scholar]
  134. 134. 
    Williams DR 2012. Miles to go before we sleep: racial inequities in health. J. Health Soc. Behav. 53:279–95
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 135. 
    Williams DR 2016. Improving the measurement of self-reported racial discrimination: challenges and opportunities. The Cost of Racism for People of Color: Contextualizing Experiences of Discrimination AN Alvarez, CTH Liang, HA Neville 55–83 Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. 136. 
    Williams DR, Collins C 2001. Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Rep 116:404–16
    [Google Scholar]
  137. 137. 
    Williams DR, Gonzalez HM, Williams S, Mohammed SA, Moomal H, Stein DJ 2008. Perceived discrimination, race and health in South Africa. Soc. Sci. Med. 67:441–52
    [Google Scholar]
  138. 138. 
    Williams DR, Medlock MM 2017. Health effects of dramatic societal events—ramifications of the recent presidential election. N. Engl. J. Med. 376:2295–99
    [Google Scholar]
  139. 139. 
    Williams DR, Mohammed SA 2009. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research. J. Behav. Med. 32:20–47
    [Google Scholar]
  140. 140. 
    Williams DR, Mohammed SA 2013. Racism and health I: pathways and scientific evidence. Am. Behav. Sci. 57:1152–73
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 141. 
    Williams DR, Mohammed SA 2013. Racism and health II: a needed research agenda for effective interventions. Am. Behav. Sci. 57:1200–26
    [Google Scholar]
  142. 142. 
    Williams DR, Purdie-Vaughns V 2016. Needed interventions to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in health. J. Health Politics Policy Law 41:627–51
    [Google Scholar]
  143. 143. 
    Williams DR, Yu Y, Jackson JS, Anderson NB 1997. Racial differences in physical and mental health: socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. J. Health Psychol. 2:335–51
    [Google Scholar]
  144. 144. 
    Yip T 2018. Ethnic/racial identity—a double-edged sword? Associations with discrimination and psychological outcomes. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 27:170–75
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043750
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error