Urbanization, resource exploitation, and lifestyle changes have diminished possibilities for human contact with nature in many societies. Concern about the loss has helped motivate research on the health benefits of contact with nature. Reviewing that research here, we focus on nature as represented by aspects of the physical environment relevant to planning, design, and policy measures that serve broad segments of urbanized societies. We discuss difficulties in defining “nature” and reasons for the current expansion of the research field, and we assess available reviews. We then consider research on pathways between nature and health involving air quality, physical activity, social cohesion, and stress reduction. Finally, we discuss methodological issues and priorities for future research. The extant research does describe an array of benefits of contact with nature, and evidence regarding some benefits is strong; however, some findings indicate caution is needed in applying beliefs about those benefits, and substantial gaps in knowledge remain. [Erratum]

Associated Article

There are media items related to this article:
Nature and Health

[Erratum, Closure]

An erratum has been published for this article:
Nature and Health

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Akbari H, Kurn DM, Bretz SE, Hanford JW. 1.  1997. Peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees. Energy Build. 25:139–48 [Google Scholar]
  2. Annerstedt M, Währborg P. 2.  2011. Nature-assisted therapy: systematic review of controlled and observational studies. Scand. J. Public Health 39:371–88 [Google Scholar]
  3. Barton J, Pretty J. 3.  2010. What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health? A multi-study analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44:3947–55 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baum FE, Ziersch AM, Zhang G, Osborne K. 4.  2009. Do perceived neighbourhood cohesion and safety contribute to neighbourhood differences in health?. Health Place 15:925–34 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bauman AE, Reis RS, Sallis JF, Wells JC, Loos RJ, Martin BW. 5.  2012. Correlates of physical activity: Why are some people physically active and others not?. Lancet 380:258–71 [Google Scholar]
  6. Beck AM, Meyers NM. 6.  1996. Health enhancement and companion animal ownership. Annu. Rev. Public Health 17:247–57 [Google Scholar]
  7. Beckett KP, Freer-Smith PH, Taylor G. 7.  2000. The capture of particulate pollution by trees at five contrasting urban sites. Arboric. J. 24:209–30 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bedimo-Rung AL, Mowen AJ, Cohen DA. 8.  2005. The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: a conceptual model. Am. J. Prev. Med. 28:159–68 [Google Scholar]
  9. Benjamin MT, Winer AM. 9.  1998. Estimating the ozone-forming potential of urban trees and shrubs. Atmos. Environ. 32:53–68 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bize R, Johnson JA, Plotnikoff RC. 10.  2007. Physical activity level and health-related quality of life in the general adult population: a systematic review. Prev. Med. 45:401–15 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bowler DE, Buyung-Ali LM, Knight TM, Pullin AS. 11.  2010. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments. BMC Public Health 10:456 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bowler DE, Buyung-Ali L, Knight TM, Pullin AS. 12.  2010. Urban greening to cool towns and cities: a systematic review of the empirical evidence. Landsc. Urban Plann. 97:147–55 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brack CL. 13.  2002. Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration by an urban forest. Environ. Pollut. 116:S195–200 [Google Scholar]
  14. Branas CC, Cheney RA, MacDonald JM, Tam VW, Jackson TD, Ten Have TR. 14.  2011. A difference-in-differences analysis of health, safety, and greening vacant urban space. Am. J. Epidemiol. 174:1296–306 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bratman GN, Hamilton JP, Daily GC. 15.  2012. The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1249:118–36 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bringslimark T, Hartig T, Patil GG. 16.  2009. The psychological benefits of indoor plants: a critical review of the experimental literature. J. Environ. Psychol. 29:422–33 [Google Scholar]
  17. Broekhuizen K, de Vries SI, Pierik FH. 17.  2013. Healthy Aging in a Green Living Environment: A Systematic Review of the Literature. TNO rep. R10154 Leiden: TNO [Google Scholar]
  18. Brooks GD, Bush RK. 18.  2009. Allergens and other factors important in atopic disease. Patterson's Allergic Diseases LC Grammer, PA Greenberger 73–103 Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 7th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  19. Cariñanos P, Casares-Porcel M. 19.  2011. Urban green zones and related pollen allergy: a review. Some guidelines for designing spaces with low allergy impact. Landsc. Urban Plann. 101:205–14 [Google Scholar]
  20. Chameides WL, Lindsay RW, Richardson J, Kiang CS. 20.  1989. The role of biogenic hydrocarbons in urban photochemical smog—Atlanta as a case-study. Science 241:1473–75 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cimprich B. 21.  1993. Development of an intervention to restore attention in cancer patients. Cancer Nurs. 16:83–92 [Google Scholar]
  22. Colfer CJP, Sheil D, Kishi M. 22.  2006. Forests and Human Health: Assessing the Evidence Bogor, Indones.: Cent. Int. For. Res http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-45.pdf [Google Scholar]
  23. Day LL. 23.  2000. Choosing a house: the relationship between dwelling type, perception of privacy and residential satisfaction. J. Plan Educ. Res. 19:265–75 [Google Scholar]
  24. de Vries S, Claßen T, Eigenheer-Hug S-M, Korpela K, Maas J. 24.  et al. 2011. Contributions of natural environments to physical activity. See Ref. 98 205–43 [Google Scholar]
  25. de Vries S, van Dillen SME, Groenewegen PP, Spreeuwenberg P. 25.  2013. Streetscape greenery and health: stress, social cohesion and physical activity as mediators. Soc. Sci. Med. 94:26–33 [Google Scholar]
  26. de Vries S, Verheij RA, Groenewegen PP, Spreeuwenberg P. 26.  2003. Natural environments—healthy environments? An exploratory analysis of the relationship between greenspace and health. Environ. Plann. A 35:1717–31 [Google Scholar]
  27. DellaValle CT, Triche EW, Leaderer BP, Bell ML. 27.  2012. Effects of ambient pollen concentrations on frequency and severity of asthma symptoms among asthmatic children. Epidemiology 23:55–63 [Google Scholar]
  28. Den Hertog F, Bronkhorst M, Moerman M, Van Wilgenburg R. 28.  2006. De Gezonde Wijk. Een onderzoek naar de relatie tussen fysieke wijkkenmerken en lichamelijke activiteit [The Healthy District. A Study on the Relationship Between Physical Characteristics of a District and Physical Activity]. Amsterdam: EMGO Inst. [Google Scholar]
  29. Ding D, Sallis JF, Kerr J, Lee S, Rosenberg DE. 29.  2011. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among youth: a review. Am. J. Prev. Med. 41:442–55 [Google Scholar]
  30. Domm J, Drew R, Greene A, Ripley E, Smardon R, Tordesillas J. 30.  2008. Recommended urban forest mixtures to optimize selected environmental benefits. EnviroNews: Int. Soc. Environ. Bot. 14:7–10 [Google Scholar]
  31. Donovan GH, Prestemon JP. 31.  2012. The effect of trees on crime in Portland, Oregon. Environ. Behav. 44:3–30 [Google Scholar]
  32. Eid J, Overman HG, Puga D, Turner MA. 32.  2008. Fat city: questioning the relationship between urban sprawl and obesity. J. Urban Econ. 63:385–404 [Google Scholar]
  33. Engel GL. 33.  1977. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 196:129–36 [Google Scholar]
  34. Escobedo FJ, Nowak DJ. 34.  2009. Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest. Landsc. Urban Plann. 90:102–10 [Google Scholar]
  35. Ferdinand AO, Sen B, Rahurkar S, Engler S, Menachemi N. 35.  2012. The relationship between built environments and physical activity: a systematic review. Am. J. Public Health 102:e7–13 [Google Scholar]
  36. Forrest R, Kearns A. 36.  2001. Social cohesion, social capital and the neighbourhood. Urban Stud. 38:2125–43 [Google Scholar]
  37. Fowler D. 37.  2002. Pollutant deposition and uptake by vegetation. Air Pollution and Plant Life JNB Bell, M Treshow 43–67 New York: Wiley, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  38. Francis J, Giles-Corti B, Wood L, Knuiman M. 38.  2012. Creating sense of community: the role of public space. J. Environ. Psychol. 32:401–9 [Google Scholar]
  39. Francis J, Wood LJ, Knuiman M, Giles-Corti B. 39.  2012. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between public open space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia. Soc. Sci. Med. 74:1570–77 [Google Scholar]
  40. Fraser SDS, Lock K. 40.  2011. Cycling for transport and public health: a systematic review of the effect of the environment on cycling. Eur. J. Public Health 21:738–43 [Google Scholar]
  41. Frost SS, Goins RT, Hunter RH, Hooker SP, Bryant LL. 41.  et al. 2010. Effects of the built environment on physical activity of adults living in rural settings. Am. J. Health Promot. 24:267–83 [Google Scholar]
  42. Frumkin H. 42.  2001. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment. Am. J. Prev. Med. 20:234–40 [Google Scholar]
  43. Frumkin H. 43.  2013. The evidence of nature and the nature of evidence. Am. J. Prev. Med. 44:196–97 [Google Scholar]
  44. Galea S, Vlahov D. 44.  2005. Urban health: evidence, challenges, and directions. Annu. Rev. Public Health 26:341–65 [Google Scholar]
  45. Gatersleben B, Andrews M. 45.  2013. When walking in nature is not restorative—the role of prospect and refuge. Health Place 20:91–101 [Google Scholar]
  46. Giles-Corti B, Broomhall MH, Knuiman M, Collins C, Douglas K. 46.  et al. 2005. Increasing walking: How important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space?. Am. J. Prev. Med. 28:169–76 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gonzalez MT, Hartig T, Patil GG, Martinsen EW, Kirkevold M. 47.  2010. Therapeutic horticulture in clinical depression: a prospective study of active components. J. Adv. Nurs. 66:2002–13 [Google Scholar]
  48. Hartig T. 48.  1993. Nature experience in transactional perspective. Landsc. Urban Plann. 25:17–36 [Google Scholar]
  49. Hartig T, Evans GW, Jamner LD, Davis DS, Gärling T. 49.  2003. Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. J. Environ. Psychol. 23:109–23 [Google Scholar]
  50. Hartig T, Fransson U. 50.  2009. Leisure home ownership, access to nature, and health: a longitudinal study of urban residents in Sweden. Environ. Plann. A 41:82–96 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hartig T, Johansson G, Kylin C. 51.  2003. Residence in the social ecology of stress and restoration. J. Soc. Iss. 59:611–36 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hartig T, Mang M, Evans GW. 52.  1991. Restorative effects of natural environment experiences. Environ. Behav. 23:3–26 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hartig T, van den Berg AE, Hagerhall CM, Tomalak M, Bauer N. 53.  et al. 2011. Health benefits of nature experience: psychological, social and cultural processes. See Ref. 98 127–68
  54. 54. Health Counc. Neth 2004. Nature and Health: The Influence of Nature on Social, Psychological and Physical Well-Being. The Hague: Health Counc. Neth., RMNO http://www.gezondheidsraad.nl/sites/default/files/Nature_and_health.pdf [Google Scholar]
  55. Heinen E, van Wee B, Maat K. 55.  2010. Commuting by bicycle: an overview of the literature. Transp. Rev. 30:59–96 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hillsdon M, Panter J, Foster C, Jones A. 56.  2006. The relationship between access and quality of urban green space with population physical activity. Public Health 120:1127–32 [Google Scholar]
  57. Holt-Lunstad J, Smith TB, Layton JB. 57.  2010. Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review. PLoS Med. 7:e1000316 [Google Scholar]
  58. Home R, Hunziker M, Bauer N. 58.  2012. Psychosocial outcomes as motivations for visiting nearby urban green spaces. Leis. Sci. 34:350–65 [Google Scholar]
  59. Islam MN, Rahman K-S, Bahar MM, Habib MA, Ando K, Hattori N. 59.  2012. Pollution attenuation by roadside greenbelt in and around urban areas. Urban For. Urban Green. 11:460–64 [Google Scholar]
  60. Jahncke H, Hygge S, Halin N, Green AM, Dimberg K. 60.  2011. Open-plan office noise: cognitive performance and restoration. J. Environ. Psychol. 31:373–82 [Google Scholar]
  61. Janssen I, LeBlanc AG. 61.  2010. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 7:40 [Google Scholar]
  62. Jansson M, Fors H, Lindgren T, Wiström B. 62.  2013. Perceived personal safety in relation to urban woodland vegetation—a review. Urban For. Urban Green. 12:127–33 [Google Scholar]
  63. Jim CY, Chen WY. 63.  2008. Assessing the ecosystem service of air pollutant removal by urban trees in Guangzhou (China). J. Environ. Manag. 88:665–76 [Google Scholar]
  64. Johansson M, Hartig T, Staats H. 64.  2011. Psychological benefits of walking: moderation by company and outdoor environment. Appl. Psychol. Health Well-Being 3:261–80 [Google Scholar]
  65. Kaczynski AT, Henderson KA. 65.  2007. Environmental correlates of physical activity: a review of evidence about parks and recreation. Leis. Sci. 29:315–54 [Google Scholar]
  66. Kaplan R. 66.  1993. The role of nature in the context of the workplace. Landsc. Urban Plann. 26:193–201 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kaplan R, Kaplan S. 67.  1989. The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  68. Kaplan S. 68.  1995. The restorative benefits of nature: toward an integrative framework. J. Environ. Psychol. 15:169–82 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kaplan S. 69.  2001. Meditation, restoration, and the management of mental fatigue. Environ. Behav. 33:480–506 [Google Scholar]
  70. Karl T, Harley P, Emmons L, Thornton B, Guenther A. 70.  et al. 2010. Efficient atmospheric cleansing of oxidized organic trace gases by vegetation. Science 330:816–19 [Google Scholar]
  71. Kaźmierczak A. 71.  2013. The contribution of local parks to neighbourhood social ties. Landsc. Urban Plann. 109:31–44 [Google Scholar]
  72. Knopf RC. 72.  1987. Human behavior, cognition, and affect in the natural environment. Handbook of Environmental Psychology D Stokols, I Altman 783–825 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  73. Korpela K, Hartig T. 73.  1996. Restorative qualities of favorite places. J. Environ. Psychol. 16:221–33 [Google Scholar]
  74. Kroll JH, Seinfeld JH. 74.  2008. Chemistry of secondary organic aerosol: formation and evolution of low-volatility organics in the atmosphere. Atmos. Environ. 42:3593–624 [Google Scholar]
  75. Kuo FE, Sullivan WC. 75.  2001. Aggression and violence in the inner city: effects of environment via mental fatigue. Environ. Behav. 33:543–71 [Google Scholar]
  76. Kuo FE, Sullivan WC. 76.  2001. Environment and crime in the inner city: Does vegetation reduce crime?. Environ. Behav. 33:343–67 [Google Scholar]
  77. Kuo FE, Sullivan WC, Coley RL, Brunson L. 77.  1998. Fertile ground for community: inner-city neighborhood common spaces. Am. J. Community Psychol. 26:823–51 [Google Scholar]
  78. Lachowycz K, Jones AP. 78.  2011. Greenspace and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence. Obes. Rev. 12:e183–89 [Google Scholar]
  79. Lachowycz K, Jones AP. 79.  2013. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between greenspace and health: development of a theoretical framework. Landsc. Urban Plann. 118:62–69 [Google Scholar]
  80. Lindheim R, Syme SL. 80.  1983. Environments, people, and health. Annu. Rev. Public Health 4:335–59 [Google Scholar]
  81. Liu Y-J, Mu Y-J, Zhu Y-G, Ding H, Arens NC. 81.  2007. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?. Atmos. Environ. 41:650–54 [Google Scholar]
  82. Lloyd GER, Chadwick J, Mann WN. 82.  1978. Hippocratic Writings Harmondsworth: Penguin [Google Scholar]
  83. Lovasi GS, O'Neil-Dunne JP, Lu JW, Sheehan D, Perzanowski MS. 83.  et al. 2013. Urban tree canopy and asthma, wheeze, rhinitis, and allergic sensitization to tree pollen in a New York City birth cohort. Environ. Health Perspect. 121:494–500 00e1–6 [Google Scholar]
  84. Maas J, Spreeuwenberg P, van Winsum-Westra M, Verheij RA, de Vries S, Groenewegen PP. 84.  2009. Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?. Environ. Plann. A 41:1763–77 [Google Scholar]
  85. Maas J, van Dillen SM, Verheij RA, Groenewegen PP. 85.  2009. Social contacts as a possible mechanism behind the relation between green space and health. Health Place 15:586–95 [Google Scholar]
  86. Maas J, Verheij RA, de Vries S, Spreeuwenberg P, Schellevis FG, Groenewegen PP. 86.  2009. Morbidity is related to a green living environment. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 63:967–73 [Google Scholar]
  87. Maas J, Verheij RA, Groenewegen PP, de Vries S, Spreeuwenberg P. 87.  2006. Green space, urbanity, and health: How strong is the relation?. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 60:587–92 [Google Scholar]
  88. Maas J, Verheij RA, Spreeuwenberg P, Groenewegen PP. 88.  2008. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: a multilevel analysis. BMC Public Health 8:206 [Google Scholar]
  89. Maller C, Townsend M, St Leger L, Henderson-Wilson C, Pryor A. 89.  et al. 2008. Healthy Parks, Healthy People: The Health Benefits of Contact with Nature in a Park Context Melbourne, Aust.: Deakin Univ. [Google Scholar]
  90. McCormack GR, Rock M, Toohey AM, Hignell D. 90.  2010. Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: a review of qualitative research. Health Place 16:712–26 [Google Scholar]
  91. McCurdy LE, Winterbottom KE, Mehta SS, Roberts JR. 91.  2010. Using nature and outdoor activity to improve children's health. Curr. Probl. Pediatr. Adolesc. Health Care 40:102–17 [Google Scholar]
  92. Mitchell R. 92.  2013. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?. Soc. Sci. Med. 91:130–34 [Google Scholar]
  93. Mitchell R, Popham F. 93.  2007. Greenspace, urbanity and health: relationships in England. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 61:681–83 [Google Scholar]
  94. Mitchell R, Popham F. 94.  2008. Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. Lancet 372:1655–60 [Google Scholar]
  95. Mitrione S. 95.  2008. Therapeutic responses to natural environments: using gardens to improve health care. Minn. Med. 91:31–34 [Google Scholar]
  96. Muñoz S-A. 96.  2009. Children in the Outdoors: A Literature Review Forres, Scotl.: Sustain. Dev. Res. Cent. [Google Scholar]
  97. Nieminen T, Martelin T, Koskinen S, Aro H, Alanen E, Hyyppä MT. 97.  2010. Social capital as a determinant of self-rated health and psychological well-being. Int. J. Public Health 55:531–42 [Google Scholar]
  98. Nilsson K, Sangster M, Gallis C, Hartig T, de Vries S. 98.  et al. 2011. Forests, Trees and Human Health Dordrecht: Springer [Google Scholar]
  99. Nilsson ME, Berglund B. 99.  2006. Soundscape quality in suburban green areas and city parks. Acta Acustica United Acustica 92:903–11 [Google Scholar]
  100. Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC. 100.  2006. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban For. Urban Green. 4:115–23 [Google Scholar]
  101. Olmsted FL. 101.  1970 (1870). Public Parks and the Enlargement of Towns New York: Arno (Cambridge, MA: Riverside) [Google Scholar]
  102. Orwell RL, Wood RA, Burchett MD, Tarran J, Torpy F. 102.  2006. The potted-plant microcosm substantially reduces indoor air VOC pollution: II. Laboratory study. Water Air Soil Poll. 177:59–80 [Google Scholar]
  103. Paoletti E, Bardelli T, Giovannini G, Pecchioli L. 103.  2011. Air quality impact of an urban park over time. Procedia Environ. Sci. 4:10–16 [Google Scholar]
  104. Powell KE, Paluch AE, Blair SN. 104.  2011. Physical activity for health: What Kind? How much? How Intense? On Top of What?. Annu. Rev. Public Health 32:349–65 [Google Scholar]
  105. Pretty J, Peacock J, Sellens M, Griffin M. 105.  2005. The mental and physical health outcomes of green exercise. Int. J. Environ. Health Res. 15:319–37 [Google Scholar]
  106. Proctor JD. 106.  1998. The social construction of nature: relativist accusations, pragmatist and critical realist responses. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 88:352–76 [Google Scholar]
  107. Richardson EA, Mitchell R. 107.  2010. Gender differences in relationships between urban green space and health in the United Kingdom. Soc. Sci. Med. 71:568–75 [Google Scholar]
  108. Richardson EA, Mitchell R, Hartig T, de Vries S, Astell-Burt T, Frumkin H. 108.  2012. Green cities and health: a question of scale?. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 66:160–65 [Google Scholar]
  109. Richardson EA, Pearce J, Mitchell R, Kingham S. 109.  2013. Role of physical activity in the relationship between urban green space and health. Public Health 127:318–24 [Google Scholar]
  110. Rios R, Aiken LS, Zautra AJ. 110.  2012. Neighborhood contexts and the mediating role of neighborhood social cohesion on health and psychological distress among Hispanic and non-Hispanic residents. Ann. Behav. Med. 43:50–61 [Google Scholar]
  111. Rose G. 111.  2001. Sick individuals and sick populations. Int. J. Epidemiol. 30:427–32 [Google Scholar]
  112. Sartelet KN, Couvidat F, Seigneur C, Roustan Y. 112.  2012. Impact of biogenic emissions on air quality over Europe and North America. Atmos. Environ. 53:131–41 [Google Scholar]
  113. Setälä H, Viippola V, Rantalainen AL, Pennanen A, Yli-Pelkonen V. 113.  2012. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?. Environ. Pollut. 183:104–12 [Google Scholar]
  114. Simpson JR, McPherson EG. 114.  1998. Simulation of tree shade impacts on residential energy use for space conditioning in Sacramento. Atmos. Environ. 32:69–74 [Google Scholar]
  115. Smardon RC. 115.  1988. Perception and aesthetics of the urban environment: review of the role of vegetation. Landsc. Urban Plann. 15:85–106 [Google Scholar]
  116. Staats H, Van Gemerden E, Hartig T. 116.  2010. Preference for restorative situations: interactive effects of attentional state, activity-in-environment, and social context. Leis. Sci. 32:401–17 [Google Scholar]
  117. Stigsdotter UK, Ekholm O, Schipperijn J, Toftager M, Kamper-Jørgensen F, Randrup TB. 117.  2010. Health promoting outdoor environments: associations between green space, and health, health-related quality of life and stress based on a Danish national representative survey. Scand. J. Public Health 38:411–17 [Google Scholar]
  118. Sugiyama T, Leslie E, Giles-Corti B, Owen N. 118.  2008. Associations of neighbourhood greenness with physical and mental health: Do walking, social coherence and local social interaction explain the relationships?. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 62:e9 [Google Scholar]
  119. Takano T, Nakamura K, Watanabe M. 119.  2002. Urban residential environments and senior citizens' longevity in megacity areas: the importance of walkable green spaces. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 56:913–18 [Google Scholar]
  120. Tallis M, Taylor G, Sinnett D, Freer-Smith P. 120.  2011. Estimating the removal of atmospheric particulate pollution by the urban tree canopy of London, under current and future environments. Landsc. Urban Plann. 103:129–38 [Google Scholar]
  121. Taylor AF, Kuo FE. 121.  2009. Children with attention deficits concentrate better after walk in the park. J. Atten. Disord. 12:402–9 [Google Scholar]
  122. Taylor AF, Kuo FE, Sullivan WC. 122.  2002. Views of nature and self-discipline: evidence from inner city children. J. Environ. Psychol. 22:49–63 [Google Scholar]
  123. Thompson Coon J, Boddy K, Stein K, Whear R, Barton J, Depledge MH. 123.  2011. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45:1761–72 [Google Scholar]
  124. Tsunetsugu Y, Park B, Miyazaki Y. 124.  2010. Trends in research related to “Shinrin-yoku” (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) in Japan. Environ. Health Prevent. Med. 15:27–37 [Google Scholar]
  125. Ulrich RS. 125.  1979. Visual landscapes and psychological well-being. Landsc. Res. 4:17–23 [Google Scholar]
  126. Ulrich RS. 126.  1983. Aesthetic and affective response to natural environment. Human Behaviour and Environment: Advances in Theory and Research. Volume 6 Behaviour and the Natural Environment, ed. I Altman, JF Wohlwill 85–125 New York: Plenum [Google Scholar]
  127. Ulrich RS, Simons RF, Losito BD, Fiorito E, Miles MA, Zelson M. 127.  1991. Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. J. Environ. Psychol. 11:201–30 [Google Scholar]
  128. Van Cauwenberg J, De Bourdeaudhuij I, De Meester F, Van Dyck D, Salmon J. 128.  et al. 2011. Relationship between the physical environment and physical activity in older adults: a systematic review. Health Place 17:458–69 [Google Scholar]
  129. Van den Berg AE, Custers MHG. 129.  2011. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress. J. Health Psychol. 16:3–11 [Google Scholar]
  130. Van den Berg AE, Maas J, Verheij RA, Groenewegen PP. 130.  2010. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health. Soc. Sci. Med. 70:1203–10 [Google Scholar]
  131. Van den Berg AE, van Winsum-Westra M, de Vries S, van Dillen SME. 131.  2010. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment. Environ. Health 9:74 [Google Scholar]
  132. Van Herzele A, Bell S, Hartig T, Podesta MTC, van Zon R. 132.  2011. Health benefits of nature experience: the challenge of linking practice and research. See Ref. 98 169–82
  133. Ward Thompson C, Aspinall P, Montarzino A. 133.  2008. The childhood factor: adult visits to green places and the significance of childhood experience. Environ. Behav. 40:111–43 [Google Scholar]
  134. Ward Thompson C, Roe J, Aspinall P, Mitchell R, Clow A, Miller D. 134.  2012. More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities: evidence from salivary cortisol patterns. Landsc. Urban Plann. 105:221–29 [Google Scholar]
  135. Wells NM, Evans GW. 135.  2003. Nearby nature—a buffer of life stress among rural children. Environ. Behav. 35:311–30 [Google Scholar]
  136. Wells NM, Lekies KS. 136.  2006. Nature and the life course: pathways from childhood nature experiences to adult environmentalism. Child. Youth Environ. 16:1–24 [Google Scholar]
  137. Whitelaw S. 137.  2012. The emergence of a ‘dose-response’ analogy in the health improvement domain of public health: a critical review. Crit. Public Health 22:427–40 [Google Scholar]
  138. 138. WHO (World Health Organ.) 1946. Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference. New York, June 19–July 22, 1946; signed on July 22, 1946, by the representatives of 61 States (Off. Rec. World Health Organ., no. 2, p. 100) Geneva: WHO [Google Scholar]
  139. Wilson SJ, Lipsey MW. 139.  2000. Wilderness challenge programs for delinquent youth: a meta-analysis of outcome evaluations. Eval. Program Plann. 23:1–12 [Google Scholar]
  140. Yoo MH, Kwon YJ, Son KC, Kays SJ. 140.  2006. Efficacy of indoor plants for the removal of single and mixed volatile organic pollutants and physiological effects of the volatiles on the plants. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 131:452–58 [Google Scholar]
  141. Zick CD, Smith KR, Kowaleski-Jones L, Uno C, Merrill BJ. 141.  2013. Harvesting more than vegetables: the potential weight control benefits of community gardening. Am. J. Public Health 103:e1–6 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Terry Hartig, Richard Mitchell, Sjerp de Vries, and Howard Frumkin discuss the current state of research on the impact that contact with nature has on individual and population health.

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error