1932

Abstract

Culture and climate are critical dimensions of a mental health service organization's social context that affect the quality and outcomes of the services it provides and the implementation of innovations such as evidence-based treatments (EBTs). We describe a measure of culture and climate labeled Organizational Social Context (OSC), which has been associated with innovation, service quality, and outcomes in national samples and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mental health and social service organizations. The article also describes an empirically supported organizational intervention model labeled Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity (ARC), which has improved organizational social context, innovation, and effectiveness in five RCTs. Finally, the article outlines a research agenda for developing more efficient and scalable organizational strategies to improve mental health services by identifying the mechanisms that link organizational interventions and social context to individual-level service provider intentions and behaviors associated with innovation and effectiveness.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122435
2015-03-18
2024-06-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/36/1/annurev-publhealth-031914-122435.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122435&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aarons GA, Glisson C, Green PD, Hoagwood K, Kelleher KJ. 1.  et al. 2012. The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study. Implement. Sci. 7:56 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aarons GA, Hurlburt M, Horwitz SM. 2.  2011. Advancing a conceptual model of evidence-based practice implementation in public sectors. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 38:4–23 [Google Scholar]
  3. Aarons GA, Sawitzky AC. 3.  2006. Organizational climate partially mediates the effect of culture on work attitudes and staff turnover in mental health services. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 33:289–301 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aarons GA, Sommerfeld DH, Walrath-Greene CM. 4.  2009. Evidence-based practice implementation: the impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice. Implement. Sci. 4:83 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ajzen I. 5.  1991. The theory of planned behavior. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 50:179–211 [Google Scholar]
  6. Ajzen I, Fishbein M. 6.  1980. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall [Google Scholar]
  7. Armitage CJ, Conner M. 7.  2001. Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: a meta-analytic review. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 40:471–99 [Google Scholar]
  8. Ashkanasy NM, Wilderom CPM, Peterson MF. 8.  2011. The Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  9. Baer JS, Wells EA, Rosengren DB, Hartzler B, Beadnell B. 9.  et al. 2009. Agency context and tailored training in technology transfer: a pilot evaluation of motivational interviewing training for community counselors. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 37:191–202 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bandura A. 10.  1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Int. [Google Scholar]
  11. Beidas RS, Aarons G, Barg F, Evans A, Hadley T. 11.  et al. 2013. Policy to implementation: evidence-based practice in community mental health—study protocol. Implement. Sci. 8:381–9 [Google Scholar]
  12. Beidas RS, Kendall PC. 12.  2010. Training therapists in evidence-based practice: a critical review of studies from a systems-contextual perspective. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 17:1–30 [Google Scholar]
  13. Burns T, Stalker GM. 13.  1961. The Management of Innovation New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Carlfjord S, Andersson A, Nilsen P, Bendtsen P, Lindberg M. 14.  2010. The importance of organizational climate and implementation strategy at the introduction of a new working tool in primary health care. J. Eval. Clin. Pract. 16:1326–32 [Google Scholar]
  15. Carr JZ, Schmidt AM, Ford JK, DeShon RP. 15.  2003. Climate perceptions matter: a meta-analytic path analysis relating molar climate, cognitive and affective states, and individual level work outcomes. J. Appl. Psychol. 88:605–19 [Google Scholar]
  16. Casper ES. 16.  2007. The theory of planned behavior applied to continuing education for mental health professionals. Psychiatr. Serv. 58:1324–29 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cooke RA, Rousseau DM. 17.  1988. Behavioral norms and expectations: a quantitative approach to the assessment of organizational culture. Group Organ. Manag. 13:245–73 [Google Scholar]
  18. Cummings GG, Estabrooks CA, Midodzi WK, Wallin L, Hayduk L. 18.  2007. Influence of organizational characteristics and context on research utilization. Nurs. Res. 56:S24–39 [Google Scholar]
  19. Damschroder LJ, Aron DC, Keith RE, Kirsh SR, Alexander JA, Lowery JC. 19.  2009. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science. Implement. Sci. 4:50 [Google Scholar]
  20. DiMaggio P. 20.  1997. Culture and cognition. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 23:263–87 [Google Scholar]
  21. Doran D, Haynes BR, Estabrooks CA, Kushniruk A, Dubrowski A. 21.  et al. 2012. The role of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics in explaining variation in use of information technologies in evidence based practice. Implement. Sci. 7:122 [Google Scholar]
  22. Doss BD. 22.  2006. Changing the way we study change in psychotherapy. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 11:368–86 [Google Scholar]
  23. Eccles MP, Hrisos S, Francis J, Kaner EF, Dickinson HO. 23.  et al. 2006. Do self-reported intentions predict clinicians' behavior: a systematic review. Implement. Sci. 1:28 [Google Scholar]
  24. Edmondson AC, Bohmer R, Pisano GP. 24.  2001. Team learning and new technology implementation in hospitals. Adm. Sci. Q. 46:685–716 [Google Scholar]
  25. Emmons KM, Weiner B, Fernandez ME, Tu S. 25.  2012. System antecedents for dissemination and implementation: a review and analysis of measures. Health Educ. Behav. 39:87–105 [Google Scholar]
  26. Filstad C. 26.  2004. How newcomers use role models in organizational socialization. J. Workplace Learn. 16:396–409 [Google Scholar]
  27. Fishbein M, Triandis HC, Kanfer FH, Becker M, Middlestadt SE. 27.  et al. 2001. Factors influencing behavior and behavior change. Handbook of Health Psychology A Baum, T Revenson, J Singer 3–17 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  28. Fiske ST, Taylor SE. 28.  1991. Social Cognition New York: McGraw-Hill, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  29. Friedmann PD, Taxman FS, Henderson CE. 29.  2007. Evidence-based treatment practices for drug-involved adults in the criminal justice system. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 32:267–77 [Google Scholar]
  30. Garland AF, Bickman L, Chorpita BF. 30.  2010. Change what? Identifying quality improvement targets by investigating usual mental health care. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 37:15–26 [Google Scholar]
  31. Gershon RRM, Stone PW, Bakken S, Larson E. 31.  2004. Measurement of organizational culture and climate in healthcare. J. Nurs. Adm. 34:33–40 [Google Scholar]
  32. Glisson C. 32.  2002. The organizational context of children's mental health services. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 5:233–53 [Google Scholar]
  33. Glisson C, Dukes D, Green P. 33.  2006. The effects of the ARC organizational intervention on caseworker turnover climate and culture in children's service systems. Child Abuse Negl. 30:855–80 [Google Scholar]
  34. Glisson C, Green P. 34.  2006. The effects of organizational culture and climate on the access to mental health care in child welfare and juvenile justice systems. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 33:433–48 [Google Scholar]
  35. Glisson C, Green P. 35.  2011. Organizational climate services and outcomes in child welfare systems. Child Abuse Negl. 35:582–91 [Google Scholar]
  36. Glisson C, Green P, Williams NJ. 36.  2012. Assessing the organizational social context (OSC) of child welfare systems: implications for research and practice. Child Abuse Negl. 36:621–32 [Google Scholar]
  37. Glisson C, Hemmelgarn A. 37.  1998. The effects of organizational climate and interorganizational coordination on the quality and outcomes of children's service systems. Child Abuse Negl. 22:401–21 [Google Scholar]
  38. Glisson C, Hemmelgarn A, Green P, Dukes D, Atkinson S. 38.  et al. 2012. Randomized trial of the availability, responsiveness, and continuity (ARC) organizational intervention with community-based mental health programs and clinicians serving youth. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 51:780–87 [Google Scholar]
  39. Glisson C, Hemmelgarn A, Green P, Williams NJ. 39.  2013. Randomized trial of the availability responsiveness and continuity (ARC) organizational intervention for improving youth outcomes in community mental health programs. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 52:493–500 [Google Scholar]
  40. Glisson C, James LR. 40.  2002. The cross-level effects of culture and climate in human service teams. J. Organ. Behav. 23:767–94 [Google Scholar]
  41. Glisson C, Landsverk J, Schoenwald S, Kelleher K, Hoagwood KE. 41.  et al. 2008. Assessing the organizational social context (OSC) of mental health services: implications for research and practice. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 35:98–113 [Google Scholar]
  42. Glisson C, Schoenwald SK. 42.  2005. The ARC organizational and community intervention strategy for implementing evidence-based children's mental health treatments. Ment. Health Serv. Res. 7:243–59 [Google Scholar]
  43. Glisson C, Schoenwald SK, Hemmelgarn A, Green P, Dukes D. 43.  et al. 2010. Randomized trial of MST and ARC in a two-level evidence-based treatment implementation strategy. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 78:537–50 [Google Scholar]
  44. Glisson C, Schoenwald SK, Kelleher K, Landsverk J, Hoagwood KE. 44.  et al. 2008. Therapist turnover and new program sustainability in mental health clinics as a function of organizational culture climate and service structure. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 35:124–33 [Google Scholar]
  45. Godin G, Belanger-Gravel A, Eccles M, Grimshaw J. 45.  2008. Healthcare professionals' intentions and behaviors: a systematic review of studies based on social cognitive theories. Implement. Sci. 3:361–12 [Google Scholar]
  46. Grant AM. 46.  2007. Relational job design and the motivation to make a prosocial difference. Acad. Manag. Rev. 32:393–417 [Google Scholar]
  47. Greener JM, Joe GW, Simpson DD, Rowan-Szal GA, Lehman WEK. 47.  2007. Influence of organizational functioning on client engagement in treatment. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 33:139–47 [Google Scholar]
  48. Greenhalgh T, Robert G, MacFarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O. 48.  2004. Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: a systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Q. 82:581–629 [Google Scholar]
  49. Grol RP, Bosch MC, Hulscher ME, Eccles MP, Wensing M. 49.  2007. Planning and studying improvement in patient care: the use of theoretical perspectives. Milbank Q. 85:93–138 [Google Scholar]
  50. Handy CG. 50.  1976. Understanding Organizations New York: Penguin [Google Scholar]
  51. Hartnell CA, Ou AY, Kinicki A. 51.  2011. Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: a meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework's theoretical suppositions. J. Appl. Psychol. 96:677–94 [Google Scholar]
  52. Harvey G, Loftus-Hills A, Rycroft-Malone J, Titchen A, Kitson A. 52.  et al. 2002. Getting evidence into practice: the role and function of facilitation. J. Adv. Nurs. 37:577–88 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hatch MJ. 53.  2004. Dynamics in organizational culture. Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation MS Poole, AH Van de Ven 190–211 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  54. Hemmelgarn AL, Glisson C, James LR. 54.  2006. Organizational culture and climate: implications for services and interventions research. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 13:73–89 [Google Scholar]
  55. Henderson CE, Young DW, Jainchill N, Hawke J, Farkas S. 55.  et al. 2007. Program use of effective drug abuse treatment practices for juvenile offenders. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 32:279–90 [Google Scholar]
  56. Henggeler SW, Chapman JE, Rowland MD, Halliday-Boykins CA, Randall J. 56.  et al. 2008. Statewide adoption and initial implementation of contingency management for substance-abusing adolescents. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 76:556–67 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hofstede G. 57.  1998. Attitudes, values and organizational culture: disentangling the concepts. Organ. Stud. 19:477–92 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hofstede G, Neuijen B, Ohayv DD, Sanders G. 58.  1990. Measuring organizational cultures: a qualitative and quantitative study across twenty states. Adm. Sci. Q. 35:286–316 [Google Scholar]
  59. Hysong SJ, Best RG, Pugh JA, Moore FI. 59.  2005. Not of one mind: mental models of clinical practice guidelines in the Veterans Health Administration. Health Serv. Res. 40:829–47 [Google Scholar]
  60. James LR, Choi CC, Ko CE, McNeil PK, Minton MK. 60.  et al. 2008. Organizational and psychological climate: a review of theory and research. Eur. J. Work Organ. Psychol. 17:5–32 [Google Scholar]
  61. James LR, Jones AP. 61.  1974. Organizational climate: a review of theory and research. Psychol. Bull. 81:1096–112 [Google Scholar]
  62. Johns G. 62.  2006. The essential impact of context on organizational behavior. Acad. Manag. Rev. 31:386–408 [Google Scholar]
  63. Jones AP, James LR. 63.  1979. Psychological climate: dimensions and relationships of individual and aggregated work environment perceptions. Organ. Behav. Hum. Perform. 23:201–50 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jones RA, Jimmieson NL, Griffiths A. 64.  2005. The impact of organizational culture and reshaping capabilities on change implementation success: the mediating role of readiness for change. J. Manag. Stud. 42:361–86 [Google Scholar]
  65. Katz E. 65.  1961. The social itinerary of technical change: two studies on the diffusion of innovation. Hum. Organ. 20:70–82 [Google Scholar]
  66. Kazdin AE. 66.  2007. Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy research. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 3:1–27 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kazdin AE. 67.  2009. Understanding how and why psychotherapy leads to change. Psychother. Res. 19:418–28 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. 68.  2005. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62:593–602 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. 69.  2005. Prevalence severity and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62:617–27 [Google Scholar]
  70. Klein KJ, Conn AB, Sorra JS. 70.  2001. Implementing computerized technology: an organizational analysis. J. Appl. Psychol. 86:811–24 [Google Scholar]
  71. Klein KJ, Knight AP. 71.  2005. Innovation implementation: overcoming the challenge. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 14:243–46 [Google Scholar]
  72. Klein KJ, Sorra JS. 72.  1996. The challenge of innovation implementation. Acad. Manag. Rev. 21:1055–80 [Google Scholar]
  73. Yu K. 73.  Lee SKJ, 2004. Corporate culture and organizational performance. J. Manag. Psychol. 19:340–59 [Google Scholar]
  74. Lewin K. 74.  1939. Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created “social climates.”. J. Soc. Psychol. 10:271–99 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lundgren L, Chassler D, Amodeo M, D'Ippolito M, Sullivan L. 75.  2012. Barriers to implementation of evidence-based addiction treatment: a national study. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 42:231–38 [Google Scholar]
  76. Manteuffel B, Stephens RL, Sondheimer DL, Fisher SK. 76.  2008. Characteristics, service experiences, and outcomes of transition-aged youth in systems of care: programmatic and policy implications. J. Behav. Health Serv. Res. 35:469–87 [Google Scholar]
  77. March JG, Simon HA. 77.  1958. Organizations New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  78. Mathieu JE, Heffner TS, Goodwin GF, Salas E, Cannon-Bowers JA. 78.  2000. The influence of shared mental models on team process and performance. J. Appl. Psychol. 85:273–83 [Google Scholar]
  79. McHugh RK, Barlow DH. 79.  2010. The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: a review of current efforts. Am. Psychol. 65:73–84 [Google Scholar]
  80. Merikangas KR, He JP, Burstein M, Swanson SA, Avenevoli S. 80.  et al. 2010. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication—Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 49:980–89 [Google Scholar]
  81. Mohammed S, Ferzandi L, Hamilton K. 81.  2010. Metaphor no more: a 15-year review of the team mental model construct. J. Manag. 36:876–910 [Google Scholar]
  82. Morris A, Bloom JR, Kang S. 82.  2007. Organizational and individual factors affecting consumer outcomes of care in mental health services. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 34:243–53 [Google Scholar]
  83. Neuman GA, Edwards JE, Raju NS. 83.  1989. Organizational development interventions: a meta-analysis of their effects on satisfaction and other attitudes. Pers. Psychol. 42:461–89 [Google Scholar]
  84. Ogbonna E, Harris LC. 84.  2000. Leadership style, organizational culture and performance: empirical evidence from UK companies. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 11:766–88 [Google Scholar]
  85. Olin SS, Williams N, Pollock M, Armusewicz K, Kutash K. 85.  et al. 2014. Quality indicators for family support services and their relationship to organizational social context. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 41:43–54 [Google Scholar]
  86. Parker CP, Baltes BB, Young SA, Huff JW, Altmann RA. 86.  et al. 2003. Relationships between psychological climate perceptions and work outcomes: a meta-analytic review. J. Organ. Behav. 24:389–416 [Google Scholar]
  87. Parmelli E, Flodgren G, Beyer F, Baillie N, Schaafsma ME. 87.  et al. 2011. The effectiveness of strategies to change organizational culture to improve healthcare performance: a systematic review. Implement. Sci. 6:33 [Google Scholar]
  88. Patterson MG, West MA, Shackleton VJ, Dawson JF, Lawthom R. 88.  et al. 2005. Validating the organizational climate measure: links to managerial practices, productivity and innovation. J. Organ. Behav. 26:379–408 [Google Scholar]
  89. Perkins MB, Jensen PS, Jaccard J, Gollwitzer P, Oettingen G. 89.  et al. 2007. Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: What do we know?. Psychiatr. Serv. 58:342–48 [Google Scholar]
  90. Pettigrew A. 90.  1979. On studying organizational cultures. Adm. Sci. Q. 6:395–420 [Google Scholar]
  91. Robert G, Greenhalgh T, MacFarlane F, Peacock R. 91.  2009. Organizational Factors Influencing Technology Adoption and Assimilation in the NHS: A Systematic Literature Review. Rep. NIHR Serv. Deliv. Organ. Progr London: HMSO [Google Scholar]
  92. Robertson PJ, Roberts DR, Porras JI. 92.  1993. Dynamics of planned organizational change: assessing empirical support for a theoretical model. Acad. Manag. Rev. 36:619–34 [Google Scholar]
  93. Rogers EM. 93.  2003. Diffusion of Innovations New York: Free Press, 5th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  94. Sackmann SA. 94.  2011. Culture and performance. See Ref. 8 188–224
  95. Schneider B, Brief AP, Guzzo RA. 95.  1996. Creating a climate and culture for sustainable organizational change. Organ. Dyn. 24:7–19 [Google Scholar]
  96. Schneider B, Ehrhart MG, Macey WH. 96.  2011. Organizational climate research: achievements and the road ahead. See Ref. 8 29–49
  97. Schoenwald SK, Carter RE, Chapman JE, Sheidow AJ. 97.  2008. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy. Adm. Policy Ment. Health 35:379–94 [Google Scholar]
  98. Schoenwald SK, Chapman JE, Sheidow AJ, Carter RE. 98.  2009. Long-term youth criminal outcomes in MST transport: the impact of therapist adherence and organizational climate and structure. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 38:91–105 [Google Scholar]
  99. Schorr LB. 99.  1997. Common Purpose New York: Doubleday [Google Scholar]
  100. Scott T, Mannion R, Marshall M, Davies H. 100.  2003. Does organizational culture influence health care performance? A review of the evidence. J. Health Serv. Res. Policy 8:105–17 [Google Scholar]
  101. Scott WR. 101.  2008. Institutions and Organizations Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 3rd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  102. Strang D, Soule SA. 102.  1998. Diffusion in organizations and social movements: from hybrid corn to poison pills. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 24:265–90 [Google Scholar]
  103. Taylor FW. 103.  1911. The Principles of Scientific Management New York: Harper Brothers [Google Scholar]
  104. Trist EL. 104.  1981. The evolution of sociotechnical systems as a conceptual framework and as an action research program. Perspectives on Organization Design and Behavior A Van de Ven, WF Joyce 19–75 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  105. Trist EL, Higgin GW, Murray H, Pollock AB. 105.  1963. Organization Choice: Capabilities of Groups at the Coal Face Under Changing Technologies: The Loss, Re-Discovery and Transformation of a Work Tradition London: Tavistock [Google Scholar]
  106. Van de Ven AH, Poole MS. 106.  1995. Explaining development and change in organizations. Acad. Manag. Rev. 20:510–40 [Google Scholar]
  107. Verbeke W, Volgering M, Hessels M. 107.  1998. Exploring the conceptual expansion within the field of organizational behavior: organizational climate and organizational culture. J. Manag. Stud. 35:302–29 [Google Scholar]
  108. Warren JS, Nelson PL, Mondragon SA, Baldwin SA, Burlingame GM. 108.  2010. Youth psychotherapy change trajectories and outcomes in usual care: community mental health versus managed care settings. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 78:144–55 [Google Scholar]
  109. Wilderom CPM, Glunk U, Maslowski R. 109.  2000. Organizational culture as a predictor of organizational performance. Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate NM Ashkanasy, CPM Wilderom, MF Peterson 193–209 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  110. Williams NJ, Glisson C. 110.  2013. Reducing turnover is not enough: the need for proficient organizational cultures to support positive youth outcomes in child welfare. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 35:1871–77 [Google Scholar]
  111. Williams NJ, Glisson C. 111.  2014. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study. Child Abuse Neglect 38:757–67 [Google Scholar]
  112. Williams NJ, Glisson C. 112.  2014. The role of organizational culture and climate in the dissemination and implementation of empirically supported treatments for youth. Dissemination and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in Child and Adolescent Mental Health RS Beidas, PC Kendall 61–81 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122435
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122435
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error