1932

Abstract

This article summarizes and critiques available evidence from studies published between 1999 and August 2014 on the effects of policies designed to keep firearms from high-risk individuals in the United States. Some prohibitions for high-risk individuals (e.g., those under domestic violence restraining orders, violent misdemeanants) and procedures for checking for more types of prohibiting conditions are associated with lower rates of violence. Certain laws intended to prevent prohibited persons from accessing firearms—rigorous permit-to-purchase, comprehensive background checks, strong regulation and oversight of gun dealers, and requiring gun owners to promptly report lost or stolen firearms—are negatively associated with the diversion of guns to criminals. Future research is needed to examine whether these laws curtail nonlethal gun violence and whether the effects of expanding prohibiting conditions for firearm possession are modified by the presence of policies to prevent diversion.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122516
2015-03-18
2024-06-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/36/1/annurev-publhealth-031914-122516.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122516&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abhay A, Donohue JJ III, Zhang A. 1.  2011. The impact of right-to-carry laws and the NRC report: lessons for the empirical evaluation of law and policy. Am. Law Econ. Rev. 13:565–632 [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. Am. for Gun Saf. Found 2004. Selling Crime: A Handful of Gun Stores Fuel Criminals. Washington, DC: Am. For Gun Saf. Found. [Google Scholar]
  3. Andres AR, Hempstead K. 3.  2011. Gun control and suicide: the impact of state firearm regulations in the United States, 1995–2004. Health Policy 101:95–103 [Google Scholar]
  4. Barry CL, McGinty EE, Vernick JS, Webster DW. 4.  2013. After Newtown—public opinion on gun policy and mental illness. N. Engl. J. Med. 368:1077–81 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blumstein A, Wallman J. 5.  2006. The Crime Drop in America Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Revis. ed. [Google Scholar]
  6. Braga AA, Gagliardi PL. 6.  2013. Enforcing federal laws against firearms traffickers: raising operational effectiveness by lowering enforcement obstacles. See Ref. 44 143–56
  7. Braga AA, Wintemute GJ, Pierce GL, Cook PJ, Ridgeway G. 7.  2012. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics. J. Urban Health 89:779–93 [Google Scholar]
  8. Campbell JC, Webster DW, Koziol-McLain J, Block C, Campbell D. 8.  et al. 2003. Risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study. Am. J. Public Health 93:1089–97 [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. City of N.Y 2011. Point, Click, Fire: An Investigation of Illegal Online Gun Sales New York: City of N.Y http://on.nyc.gov/tYPRrF [Google Scholar]
  10. Cook PJ, Ludwig J. 10.  2013. The limited impact of the Brady Act: evaluation and implications. See Ref. 44 21–32
  11. Cook PJ, Ludwig J, Braga AA. 11.  2005. Criminal records of homicide offenders. JAMA 294:598–601 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cook PJ, Ludwig J, Venkatesh S, Braga AA. 12.  2007. Underground gun markets. Econ. J. 117:F588–618 [Google Scholar]
  13. Cork D. 13.  1999. Examining time-space interaction in city-level homicide data: crack markets and the diffusion of guns to youth. J. Quant. Criminol. 15:379–406 [Google Scholar]
  14. Dezee MR. 14.  1983. Gun control legislation: impact and ideology. Law Policy Q. 5:367–79 [Google Scholar]
  15. Fleegler EW, Lee LK, Monuteaux MC, Hemenway D, Mannix R. 15.  2013. Firearm legislation and firearm-related fatalities in the United States. JAMA Intern. Med. 173732–40 [Google Scholar]
  16. Frandsen RJ, Naglich D, Lauver GA, Lee AD. 16.  2013. Background checks for firearm transfers, 2010—statistical tables NCJ 238226, Feb. Bur. Justice Stat., Off. Justice Progr., U.S. Dep. Justice, Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  17. Hahn RA, Bilukha O, Crosby A, Fullilove MT, Liberman A. 17.  et al. Task Force on Community Prev. Serv 2005. Firearms laws and the reduction of violence: a systematic review. Am. J. Prev. Med. 28:2S140–64 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hemenway D. 18.  2006. Private Guns, Public Health Ann Arbor: Univ: Mich. Press [Google Scholar]
  19. Irvin N, Rhodes K, Cheney R, Wiebe D. 19.  2014. Evaluating the effects of state regulation of federally licensed firearms dealers on firearm homicide. Am. J. Public Health 104:1384–86 [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. Johns Hopkins Cent. Gun Policy Res 2013. Permit-to-purchase licensing for handguns. Fact Sheet, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch. Public Health, Baltimore, Md. http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/johns-hopkins-center-for-gun-policy-and-research/publications/FactSheet_PermittoPurchaseLicensing.pdf [Google Scholar]
  21. Kahane LH. 21.  2013. Understanding the interstate export of crime guns: a gravity model approach. Contemp. Econ. Policy 31:618–34 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kleck G, Wang SYK. 22.  2009. The myth of big-time gun trafficking and the overinterpretation of gun tracing data. UCLA Law Rev. 56:1233–94 [Google Scholar]
  23. Knight B. 23.  2013. State gun policy and cross-state externalities: evidence from crime gun tracing. Am. Econ. J. Econ. Policy 5:200–29 [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence 2013. Categories of prohibited people policy summary Posted Sept. 29. Law Cent. Prevent Gun Violence, San Francisco. http://smartgunlaws.org/prohibited-people-gun-purchaser-policy-summary/ [Google Scholar]
  25. Magaddino JP, Medoff MH. 25.  1984. An empirical analysis of federal and state firearm control laws. Firearms and Violence: Issues of Public Policy DB Kates Jr. 225–58 Cambridge, MA: Ballinger [Google Scholar]
  26. Marvel TB. 26.  2001. The impact of banning juvenile gun possession. J. Law Econ. 44:691–713 [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. Mayors Against Illegal Guns 2013. Felon Seeks Firearm: No Strings Attached. How Dangerous People Evade Background Checks and Buy Illegal Firearms Online. Washington, DC: Mayors Against Illegal Guns [Google Scholar]
  28. McBride J. 28.  1999. Local store leads U.S. in ‘crime guns.’. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel May 9. http://www.jsonline.com/news/may99/0509gun.asp [Google Scholar]
  29. Moorhouse JC, Wanner B. 29.  2006. Does gun control reduce crime or does crime increase gun control?. CATO J. 26:103–24 [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.  Natl. Econ. Res. Assoc. Natl. Assoc. Adv. Colored People v. Acusport et al. 99 CV 399 (JBW) and 99 CV 7037 (JBW), US Dist. Court for the East. Dist. of N.Y. (testimony of Lucy Allen)
  31. Pierce G, Braga A, Wintemute G, Dolliver M. 31.  2013. New approaches to understanding and regulating primary and secondary illegal firearms Report prepared for the Natl. Inst. Justice, 2007-IJ-CX-0030, Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  32. Richardson EG, Hemenway D. 32.  2011. Homicide, suicide, an unintentional firearm fatality: comparing the United States with other high-income countries. J. Trauma Inj. Infect. Crit. Care 70:238–43 [Google Scholar]
  33. Rosengart M, Cummings P, Nathens A, Heagerty P, Maier R, Rivara F. 33.  2005. An evaluation of state firearm regulations and homicide and suicide death rates. Inj. Prev. 11:77–83 [Google Scholar]
  34. Sen B, Panjamapirom A. 34.  2012. State background checks for gun purchase and firearm deaths: an exploratory study. Prev. Med. 55:346–50 [Google Scholar]
  35. 35. U.S. Bur. Alcohol, Tob. Firearms 1999. Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative. Crime Gun Trace Analysis Reports: The Illegal Youth Firearms Market in Seattle. Washington, DC: U.S. Dep. Treas. [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. U.S. Bur. Alcohol, Tob. Firearms 2000. Commerce in Firearms in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Dep. Treas. [Google Scholar]
  37. 37. U.S. Bur. Alcohol, Tob. Firearms 2000. Following the Gun: Enforcing Federal Laws Against Firearms Trafficking. Washington, DC: U.S. Dep. Treas. [Google Scholar]
  38. Vernick JS, Rutkow L, Salmon DA. 38.  2007. Availability of litigation as a public health tool for firearm injury prevention: comparison of guns, vaccines, and motor vehicles. Am. J. Public Health 97:1991–97 [Google Scholar]
  39. Vernick JS, Webster DW, Bulzacchelli MT, Mair JS. 39.  2006. Regulation of firearm dealers in the United States: an analysis of state law and opportunities for improvement. J. Law Med. Ethics765–75 [Google Scholar]
  40. Vigdor ER, Mercy JA. 40.  2003. Disarming batterers: the impact of laws restricting access to firearms by domestic violence offenders. Evaluating Gun Policy: Effects on Crime and Violence J Ludwig, PJ Cook 157–204 Washington, DC: Brookings Inst. [Google Scholar]
  41. Vigdor ER, Mercy JA. 41.  2006. Do laws restricting access to firearms by domestic violence offenders prevent intimate partner homicides?. Eval. Rev. 30:313–46 [Google Scholar]
  42. Vittes KA, Vernick JS, Webster DW. 42.  2013. Legal status and source of offenders' firearms in states with the least stringent criteria for gun ownership. Inj. Prev. 19:26–31 [Google Scholar]
  43. Webster DW, Crifasi CK, Vernick JS. 43.  2014. Effects of the repeal of Missouri's handgun purchaser licensing law on homicides. J. Urban Health 91293–302 Erratum: J. Urban Health 91598–601 [Google Scholar]
  44. Webster DW, Vernick JS. 44.  2013. Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  45. Webster DW, Vernick JS. 45.  2013. Spurring responsible firearms sales practices through litigation: the impact of New York City's lawsuits against gun dealers on interstate gun trafficking. See Ref. 44 123–32
  46. Webster DW, Vernick JS, Bulzacchelli MT. 46.  2006. Effects of a gun dealer's change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals. J. Urban Health 83:778–87 [Google Scholar]
  47. Webster DW, Vernick JS, Bulzacchelli MT. 47.  2009. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearms trafficking. J. Urban Health 86:525–37 [Google Scholar]
  48. Webster DW, Vernick JS, Bulzacchelli MT, Vittes KA. 48.  2012. Recent federal gun laws, gun dealer accountability and the diversion of guns to criminals in Milwaukee. J. Urban Health 89:87–97 [Google Scholar]
  49. Webster DW, Vernick JS, Hepburn LM. 49.  2001. The relationship between licensing, registration and other state gun sales laws and the source state of crime guns. Inj. Prev. 7:184–89 [Google Scholar]
  50. Webster DW, Vernick JS, McGinty EE, Alcorn T. 50.  2013. Preventing the diversion of guns to criminals through effective firearm sales laws. See Ref. 44 109–22
  51. Webster DW, Zeoli AM, Bulzacchelli MT, Vernick JS. 51.  2006. Effects of police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals. Inj. Prev. 12:225–30 [Google Scholar]
  52. Wintemute GJ. 52.  2007. Gun shows across a multistate American gun market: observational evidence of the effects of regulatory policies. Inj. Prev. 13:150–56 [Google Scholar]
  53. Wintemute GJ. 53.  2009. Inside Gun Shows: What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Sacramento, CA: Violence Prev. Res. Progr. [Google Scholar]
  54. Wintemute GJ. 54.  2013. Frequency of and responses to illegal activity related to commerce in firearms: findings from the Firearms Licensee Survey. Inj. Prev. 19:412–20 [Google Scholar]
  55. Wintemute GJ. 55.  2013. Responding to the crisis of firearm violence in the United States: comment on “Firearm Legislation and Firearm-Related Fatalities in the United States.”. JAMA Intern. Med. 173:740–42 [Google Scholar]
  56. Wintemute GJ, Cook PJ, Wright MA. 56.  2005. Risk factors among handgun retailers for frequent and disproportionate sales of guns used in violent and firearm-related crimes. Inj. Prev. 11:357–63 [Google Scholar]
  57. Wintemute GJ, Wright MA, Drake C, Beaumont JJ. 57.  2001. Subsequent criminal activity among violent misdemeanants who seek to purchase handguns. JAMA 285:1019–26 [Google Scholar]
  58. Wright MA, Wintemute GJ. 58.  2010. Felonious or violent criminal activity that prohibits gun ownership among prior purchasers of handguns. J. Trauma 87:352–64 [Google Scholar]
  59. Wright MA, Wintemute GJ, Rivara FP. 59.  1999. Effectiveness of denial of handgun purchase to persons believed to be at high risk for firearm violence. Am. J. Public Health 89:88–90 [Google Scholar]
  60. Zeoli AM, Webster DW. 60.  2010. Effects of domestic violence policies, alcohol taxes and police staffing levels on intimate partner homicide in large U.S. cities. Inj. Prev. 16:90–95 [Google Scholar]
  61. Zimring FE. 61.  1968. Is gun control likely to reduce violent killings?. Univ. Chicago Law Rev. 35:721–37 [Google Scholar]
  62. Zimring FE. 62.  1975. Firearms and federal law: the Gun Control Act of 1938. J. Legal Stud. 4:133–98 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122516
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error