1932

Abstract

Diet is established among the most important influences on health in modern societies. Injudicious diet figures among the leading causes of premature death and chronic disease. Optimal eating is associated with increased life expectancy, dramatic reduction in lifetime risk of all chronic disease, and amelioration of gene expression. In this context, claims abound for the competitive merits of various diets relative to one another. Whereas such claims, particularly when attached to commercial interests, emphasize distinctions, the fundamentals of virtually all eating patterns associated with meaningful evidence of health benefit overlap substantially. There have been no rigorous, long-term studies comparing contenders for best diet laurels using methodology that precludes bias and confounding, and for many reasons such studies are unlikely. In the absence of such direct comparisons, claims for the established superiority of any one specific diet over others are exaggerated. The weight of evidence strongly supports a theme of healthful eating while allowing for variations on that theme. A diet of minimally processed foods close to nature, predominantly plants, is decisively associated with health promotion and disease prevention and is consistent with the salient components of seemingly distinct dietary approaches. Efforts to improve public health through diet are forestalled not for want of knowledge about the optimal feeding of but for distractions associated with exaggerated claims, and our failure to convert what we reliably know into what we routinely do. Knowledge in this case is not, as of yet, power; would that it were so.

Keyword(s): dietdiseasehealthlifestylenutrition
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351
2014-03-18
2024-06-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/35/1/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abdulla M, Andersson I, Asp NG, Berthelsen K, Birkhed D. 1.  et al. 1981. Nutrient intake and health status of vegans. Chemical analyses of diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34:2464–77 [Google Scholar]
  2. Accurso A, Bernstein RK, Dahlqvist A, Draznin B, Feinman RD. 2.  et al. 2008. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutr. Metab. 5:9 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ackermann RT, Finch EA, Brizendine E, Zhou H, Marrero DG. 3.  2008. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program into the community: the DEPLOY pilot study. Am. J. Prev. Med. 35:357–63 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aldana SG, Greenlaw RL, Diehl HA, Salberg A, Merrill RM. 4.  et al. 2006. The behavioral and clinical effects of therapeutic lifestyle change on middle-aged adults. Prev. Chronic Dis. 3:A05 [Google Scholar]
  5. Alrabadi NI. 5.  2012. The effect of lifestyle food on chronic diseases: a comparison between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in Jordan. Glob. J. Health Sci. 5:65–69 [Google Scholar]
  6. Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF. 6.  et al. 2005. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA 294:2455–64 [Google Scholar]
  7. Astrup A. 7.  2005. The role of dietary fat in obesity. Semin. Vasc. Med. 5:40–47 [Google Scholar]
  8. Atkins R. 8.  2013. Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield [Google Scholar]
  9. Bardone-Cone AM, Fitzsimmons-Craft EE, Harney MB, Maldonado CR, Lawson MA. 9.  et al. 2012. The inter-relationships between vegetarianism and eating disorders among females. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 112:1247–52 [Google Scholar]
  10. Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L. 10.  et al. 2006. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 29:1777–83 [Google Scholar]
  11. Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L. 11.  et al. 2009. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:1588S–96S [Google Scholar]
  12. Barnard ND, Gloede L, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G. 12.  et al. 2009. A low-fat vegan diet elicits greater macronutrient changes, but is comparable in adherence and acceptability, compared with a more conventional diabetes diet among individuals with type 2 diabetes. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 109:263–72 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bastian B, Loughnan S, Haslam N, Radke HR. 13.  2012. Don't mind meat? The denial of mind to animals used for human consumption. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 38:247–56 [Google Scholar]
  14. Belza A, Ritz C, Sorensen MQ, Holst JJ, Rehfeld JF, Astrup A. 14.  2013. Contribution of gastroenteropancreatic appetite hormones to protein-induced satiety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 97:980–89 [Google Scholar]
  15. Best D, Grainger P. 15.  2007. Low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet for cardiovascular health. Can. J. Cardiovasc. Nurs. 17:19–26 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bjerregaard P, Young TK, Hegele RA. 16.  2003. Low incidence of cardiovascular disease among the Inuit—What is the evidence?. Atherosclerosis 166:351–57 [Google Scholar]
  17. Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Hinderliter A, Watkins LL, Craighead L. 17.  et al. 2010. Effects of the DASH diet alone and in combination with exercise and weight loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men and women with high blood pressure: the ENCORE study. Arch. Intern. Med. 170:126–35 [Google Scholar]
  18. Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Stein TP. 18.  2005. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann. Intern. Med. 142:403–11 [Google Scholar]
  19. Boling CL, Westman EC, Yancy WS Jr. 19.  2009. Carbohydrate-restricted diets for obesity and related diseases: an update. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 11:462–69 [Google Scholar]
  20. Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D'Alessio DA. 20.  2003. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88:1617–23 [Google Scholar]
  21. Brinsden H, Lobstein T. 21.  2013. Comparison of nutrient profiling schemes for restricting the marketing of food and drink to children. Pediatr. Obes. 8:325–37 [Google Scholar]
  22. Cairns G, Angus K, Hastings G, Caraher M. 22.  2013. Systematic reviews of the evidence on the nature, extent and effects of food marketing to children: a retrospective summary. Appetite 62:209–15 [Google Scholar]
  23. Carey VJ, Bishop L, Charleston J, Conlin P, Erlinger T. 23.  et al. 2005. Rationale and design of the Optimal Macro-Nutrient Intake Heart Trial to Prevent Heart Disease (OMNI-Heart). Clin. Trials 2:529–37 [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. Cent. Disease Control. (CDC) 2013. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Updated Nov. 25. Atlanta, Ga. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm [Google Scholar]
  25. Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ. 25.  2000. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med. 342:1392–98 [Google Scholar]
  26. Chandon P, Wansink B. 26.  2012. Does food marketing need to make us fat? A review and solutions. Nutr. Rev. 70:571–93 [Google Scholar]
  27. Chiuve SE, Sampson L, Willett WC. 27.  2011. The association between a nutritional quality index and risk of chronic disease. Am. J. Prev. Med. 40:505–13 [Google Scholar]
  28. Cordain L, Eaton SB, Miller JB, Mann N, Hill K. 28.  2002. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 56:Suppl. 1S42–52 [Google Scholar]
  29. Cordain L, Miller JB, Eaton SB, Mann N. 29.  2000. Macronutrient estimations in hunter-gatherer diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72:61589–92 [Google Scholar]
  30. Craig WJ. 30.  2009. Health effects of vegan diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:1627S–33S [Google Scholar]
  31. Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S. 31.  2010. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr. J. 9:10 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. 32.  2005. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA 293:43–53 [Google Scholar]
  33. Davis B, Melina V. 33.  2000. Becoming Vegan Summertown, TN: Book [Google Scholar]
  34. Davis W. 34.  2011. Wheat Belly Emmaus, PA: Rodale [Google Scholar]
  35. de Lorgeril M, Salen P. 35.  2005. Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease: the Lyon Diet Heart Study and after. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 95:103–14 [Google Scholar]
  36. de Lorgeril M, Salen P. 36.  2006. The Mediterranean diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Clin. Investig. Med. 29:154–58 [Google Scholar]
  37. de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, Mamelle N. 37.  1999. Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation 99:779–85 [Google Scholar]
  38. Delichatsios HK, Welty FK. 38.  2005. Influence of the DASH diet and other low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on blood pressure. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 7:446–54 [Google Scholar]
  39. Denke M. 39.  2001. Metabolic effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets. Am. J. Cardiol. 88:59–61 [Google Scholar]
  40. Dewell A, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Chi CS, Ornish D. 40.  2008. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 108:347–56 [Google Scholar]
  41. Due A, Larsen TM, Mu H, Hermansen K, Stender S, Astrup A. 41.  2008. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: a 6-mo randomized, controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 88:1232–41 [Google Scholar]
  42. Eaton S, Eaton SB III, Konner MJ. 42.  1997. Paleolithic nutrition revisited: a twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 51:207–16 [Google Scholar]
  43. Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvado J, Covas MI, Corella D. 43.  et al. 2013. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N. Engl. J. Med. 368:1279–90 [Google Scholar]
  44. Feinman RD. 44.  2011. Fad diets in the treatment of diabetes. Curr. Diabet. Rep. 11:128–35 [Google Scholar]
  45. 45. Food Nutr. Board, Inst. Med 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. [Google Scholar]
  46. Ford ES, Bergmann MM, Kröger J, Schienkiewitz A, Weikert C, Boeing H. 46.  2009. Healthy living is the best revenge: findings from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study. Arch. Intern. Med. 169:1355–62 [Google Scholar]
  47. Forsythe CE, Phinney SD, Fernandez ML, Quann EE, Wood RJ. 47.  et al. 2008. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation. Lipids 43:65–77 [Google Scholar]
  48. Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, Makris AP, Rosenbaum DL. 48.  et al. 2010. Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years on a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 153:147–57 [Google Scholar]
  49. Frassetto LA, Schloetter M, Mietus-Synder M, Morris RC Jr, Sebastian A. 49.  2009. Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 63:947–55 [Google Scholar]
  50. Galimanis A, Mono ML, Arnold M, Nedeltchev K, Mattle HP. 50.  2009. Lifestyle and stroke risk: a review. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 22:60–68 [Google Scholar]
  51. Gallop R. 51.  2010. The G.I. Diet. New York: Workman [Google Scholar]
  52. Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, Kim S, Stafford RS. 52.  et al. 2007. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA 297:969–77 [Google Scholar]
  53. Giacosa A, Barale R, Bavaresco L, Gatenby P, Gerbi V. 53.  et al. 2013. Cancer prevention in Europe: the Mediterranean diet as a protective choice. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 22:90–95 [Google Scholar]
  54. Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Esposito K. 54.  2006. The effects of diet on inflammation: emphasis on the metabolic syndrome. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 48:677–85 [Google Scholar]
  55. Gopinath B, Rochtchina E, Flood VM, Mitchell P. 55.  2010. Healthy living and risk of major chronic diseases in an older population. Arch. Intern. Med. 170:208–9 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gregg EW, Chen H, Wagenknecht LE, Clark JM, Delahanty LM. 56.  et al. 2012. Association of an intensive lifestyle intervention with remission of type 2 diabetes. JAMA 308:2489–96 [Google Scholar]
  57. Harris JL, Pomeranz JL, Lobstein T, Brownell KD. 57.  2009. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done. Annu. Rev. Public Health 30:211–25 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hietaniemi M, Jokela M, Rantala M, Ukkola O, Vuoristo JT. 58.  et al. 2009. The effect of a short-term hypocaloric diet on liver gene expression and metabolic risk factors in obese women. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 19:177–83 [Google Scholar]
  59. Horton J. 59.  2010. The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380:9859 http://www.elsevierdigital.com/The-Lancet/GBD/ [Google Scholar]
  60. Hu FB. 60.  2003. Plant-based foods and prevention of cardiovascular disease: an overview. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 78:544S–51S [Google Scholar]
  61. Hu FB. 61.  2009. Diet and lifestyle influences on risk of coronary heart disease. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 11:257–63 [Google Scholar]
  62. Hu FB, Willett WC. 62.  2002. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA 288:2569–78 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hu T, Mills KT, Yao L, Demanelis K, Eloustaz M. 63.  et al. 2012. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets versus low-fat diets on metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Am. J. Epidemiol. 176:Suppl. 7S44–54 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hur IY, Reicks M. 64.  2012. Relationship between whole-grain intake, chronic disease risk indicators, and weight status among adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 112:46–55 [Google Scholar]
  65. Ibarrola-Jurado N, Bulló M, Guasch-Ferré M, Ros E, Martinez-González MA. 65.  et al. 2013. Cross-sectional assessment of nut consumption and obesity, metabolic syndrome and other cardiometabolic risk factors: the PREDIMED study. PLoS One 8:e57367 [Google Scholar]
  66. Ingenbleek Y, McCully KS. 66.  2012. Vegetarianism produces subclinical malnutrition, hyperhomocysteinemia and atherogenesis. Nutrition 28:148–53 [Google Scholar]
  67. 67. Inst. Med 2013. U.S. Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health. Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. [Google Scholar]
  68. Jacobson MF. 68.  2006. Six Arguments for a Greener Diet Washington, DC: Cent. Sci. Public Interest [Google Scholar]
  69. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM. 69.  et al. 2003. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods versus lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA 290:502–10 [Google Scholar]
  70. Jenkins DJ, Wong JM, Kendall CW, Esfahani A, Ng VW. 70.  et al. 2009. The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate (“Eco-Atkins”) diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects. Arch. Intern. Med. 169:1046–54 [Google Scholar]
  71. Jeppesen C, Bjerregaard P, Jørgensen ME. 71.  2013. Dietary patterns in Greenland and their relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance. Public Health Nutr. Feb 11:1–9 [Google Scholar]
  72. Jequier E, Bray GA. 72.  2002. Low-fat diets are preferred. Am. J. Med. 113:41S–46S [Google Scholar]
  73. Johnstone AM, Lobley GE, Horgan GW, Bremner DM, Fyfe CL. 73.  et al. 2011. Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile. Br. J. Nutr. 106:282–91 [Google Scholar]
  74. Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahrén B, Branell UC, Pålsson G. 74.  et al. 2009. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovasc. Diabetol. 8:35 [Google Scholar]
  75. Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Ahrén B, Lindeberg S. 75.  2010. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Nutr. Metab. 7:85 [Google Scholar]
  76. Katz DL. 76.  2005. Competing dietary claims for weight loss: finding the forest through truculent trees. Annu. Rev. Public Health 26:61–88 [Google Scholar]
  77. Katz DL. 77.  2008. Clinically relevant carbohydrate metabolism. See Ref. 83 3–11
  78. Katz DL. 78.  2008. Culture, evolutionary biology, and the determinants of dietary preference. See Ref. 83 423–33
  79. Katz DL. 79.  2008. Diet, diabetes, and insulin resistance. See Ref. 83 102–22
  80. Katz DL. 80.  2008. Diet, weight regulation, and obesity. See Ref. 83 43–101
  81. Katz DL. 81.  2008. Dietary recommendations for health promotion and disease prevention. See Ref. 83 434–47
  82. Katz DL. 82.  2008. Medicine and media: state of the union?. Am. J. Prev. Med. 34:83–84 [Google Scholar]
  83. Katz DL. 83.  2008. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins [Google Scholar]
  84. Katz DL. 84.  2008. Vegetarianism, veganism, and macrobiotic diets. See Ref. 83 414–20
  85. Katz DL. 85.  2011. The Paleo diet: Can we really eat like our ancestors did?. Huffington Post Jul. 6. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-katz-md/paleo-diet_b_889349.html [Google Scholar]
  86. Katz DL. 86.  2012. Living (and dying) on a diet of unintended consequences. Huffington Post Sep. 11. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-katz-md/nutrition-advice_b_1874255.html [Google Scholar]
  87. Katz DL. 87.  2013. Bamboozled: the follies of dietary history. US News World Rep. Feb. 25. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/blogs/eat-run/2013/02/25/nutrition-myths-and-common-sense [Google Scholar]
  88. Katz DL. 88.  2013. Better diet? Bigger picture!. Huffington Post Feb. 26. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-katz-md/nutrition_b_2766942.html [Google Scholar]
  89. Katz DL. 89.  2013. Fruits, nuts, and friends like these. Huffington Post Mar. 7. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-katz-md/diet-nutrition_b_2825049.html [Google Scholar]
  90. Katz DL. 90.  2013. Lifestyle is medicine. Virtual Mentor 15:286–92 [Google Scholar]
  91. Katz DL. 91.  2013. Opinion stew. Huffington Post Apr. 12. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-katz-md/nutrition-advice_b_3061646.html [Google Scholar]
  92. Katz DL. 92.  2013. Our comfortable affliction. Huffington Post Mar. 25. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-katz-md/media-health-coverage_b_2937624.html [Google Scholar]
  93. Katz DL, Njike VY, Faridi Z, Rhee LQ, Reeves RS. 93.  et al. 2009. The stratification of foods on the basis of overall nutritional quality: the Overall Nutritional Quality Index (ONQI). Am. J. Health Promot. 24:133–43 [Google Scholar]
  94. Katz DL, Njike VY, Rhee LQ, Reingold A, Ayoob KT. 94.  2010. Performance characteristics of NuVal and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index (ONQI). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91:1102S–8S [Google Scholar]
  95. Klein S. 95.  2004. Clinical trial experience with fat-restricted vs. carbohydrate-restricted weight-loss diets. Obes. Res. 12:Suppl. 2141S–44S [Google Scholar]
  96. Knoops KT, deGroot LC, Kromhout D, Perrin AE, Moreiras-Varela O. 96.  et al. 2004. Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE project. JAMA 292:1433–39 [Google Scholar]
  97. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM. 97.  et al. 2002. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N. Engl. J. Med. 346:393–403 [Google Scholar]
  98. Kones R. 98.  2010. Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate diets, weight loss, vascular health, and prevention of coronary artery disease: the evidence, the reality, the challenge, and the hope. Nutr. Clin. Pract. 25:528–41 [Google Scholar]
  99. Kuipers RS, Joordens JCA, Muskiet FAJ. 99.  2012. A multidisciplinary reconstruction of Palaeolithic nutrition that holds promise for the prevention and treatment of diseases of civilisation. Nutr. Res. Rev. 25:96–129 [Google Scholar]
  100. Kvaavik E, Batty GD, Ursin G, Huxley R, Gale CR. 100.  2010. Influence of individual and combined health behaviors on total and cause-specific mortality in men and women: the United Kingdom Health and Lifestyle Survey. Arch. Intern. Med. 170:711–18 [Google Scholar]
  101. Lam TK, Cross AJ, Freedman N, Park Y, Hollenbeck AR. 101.  et al. 2011. Dietary fiber and grain consumption in relation to head and neck cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cancer Causes Control 22:1405–14 [Google Scholar]
  102. Lampe JW. 102.  2011. Dairy products and cancer. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 30:464S–70S [Google Scholar]
  103. Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT. 103.  2012. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet 380:219–29 [Google Scholar]
  104. Liljeberg H, Akerberg A, Bjorck I. 104.  1999. Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69:647–55 [Google Scholar]
  105. Lin DW, Neuhouser ML, Schenk JM, Coleman IM, Hawley S. 105.  et al. 2007. Low-fat, low-glycemic load diet and gene expression in human prostate epithelium: a feasibility study of using cDNA microarrays to assess the response to dietary intervention in target tissues. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 16:2150–54 [Google Scholar]
  106. Lindeberg S, Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Borgstrand E, Soffman J. 106.  et al. 2007. A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Diabetologia 50:1795–807 [Google Scholar]
  107. Lopes HF, Martin KL, Nashar K, Morrow JD, Goodfriend TL, Egan BM. 107.  2003. DASH diet lowers blood pressure and lipid-induced oxidative stress in obesity. Hypertension 41:422–30 [Google Scholar]
  108. Lundin KE, Alaedini A. 108.  2012. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 22:723–34 [Google Scholar]
  109. Ma XY, Liu JP, Song ZY. 109.  2012. Glycemic load, glycemic index and risk of cardiovascular diseases: meta-analyses of prospective studies. Atherosclerosis 223:491–96 [Google Scholar]
  110. Mann N. 110.  2000. Dietary lean red meat and human evolution. Eur. J. Nutr. 39:71–79 [Google Scholar]
  111. Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Clavero P, Toledo E, Estruch R, Salas-Salvadó J. 111.  et al. 2013. Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 84:121318–25 [Google Scholar]
  112. McCarty MF. 112.  1999. Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity. Med. Hypotheses 53:459–85 [Google Scholar]
  113. McCullough ML, Patel AV, Kushi LH, Patel R, Willett WC. 113.  et al. 2011. Following cancer prevention guidelines reduces risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 20:1089–97 [Google Scholar]
  114. McGinnis JM, Foege WH. 114.  1993. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA 270:182207–12 [Google Scholar]
  115. McEvoy CT, Temple N, Woodside JV. 115.  2012. Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health: a review. Public Health Nutr. 15:2287–94 [Google Scholar]
  116. McMillan-Price J, Petocz P, Atkinson F, O'Neill K, Samman S. 116.  et al. 2006. Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch. Intern. Med. 166:1466–75 [Google Scholar]
  117. Meckling KA, Sherfey R. 117.  2007. A randomized trial of a hypocaloric high-protein diet, with and without exercise, on weight loss, fitness, and markers of the metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese women. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 32:743–52 [Google Scholar]
  118. Mirza NM, Palmer MG, Sinclair KB, McCarter R, He J. 118.  et al. 2013. Effects of a low glycemic load or a low-fat dietary intervention on body weight in obese Hispanic American children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 97:276–85 [Google Scholar]
  119. Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. 119.  2004. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 291:1238–45 [Google Scholar]
  120. Montgomery KC, Chester J. 120.  2009. Interactive food and beverage marketing: targeting adolescents in the digital age. J. Adolesc. Health 45:S18–29 [Google Scholar]
  121. 121. Natl. Diabetes Inf. Clearinghouse 2012. Diabetes Prevention Program. Updated Sept. 9, 2013. NIDDK, Bethesda, Md. http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/preventionprogram/ [Google Scholar]
  122. 122. Natl. Heart Lung Blood Inst 2012. What is the DASH eating plan? Updated July 2. NHLBI, Bethesda, Md. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/dash/ [Google Scholar]
  123. Nilsson LM, Winkvist A, Johansson I, Lindahl B, Hallmans G. 123.  et al. 2013. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer: a prospective cohort study. Nutr. J. 12:58 [Google Scholar]
  124. Nordmann AJ, Suter-Zimmermann K, Bucher HC, Shai I, Tuttle KR. 124.  et al. 2011. Meta-analysis comparing Mediterranean to low-fat diets for modification of cardiovascular risk factors. Am. J. Med. 124:841–51.e2 [Google Scholar]
  125. 125. NuVal 2013. NuVal® Community. Quincy, MA: NuVal http://www.nuval.com/community [Google Scholar]
  126. O'Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Zanovec M, Cho S. 126.  2010. Whole-grain consumption is associated with diet quality and nutrient intake in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 110:1461–68 [Google Scholar]
  127. Orchard TJ, Temprosa M, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Goldberg RB. 127.  et al. 2013. Long-term effects of the Diabetes Prevention Program interventions on cardiovascular risk factors: a report from the DPP Outcomes Study. Diabet. Med. 30:46–55 [Google Scholar]
  128. Ornish D, Brown S, Scherwitz L. 128.  1990. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The lifestyle heart trial. Lancet 336:129–33 [Google Scholar]
  129. Ornish D, Magbanua MJ, Weidner G, Weinberg V, Kemp C. 129.  et al. 2008. Changes in prostate gene expression in men undergoing an intensive nutrition and lifestyle intervention. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:8369–74 [Google Scholar]
  130. Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Brown SE, Gould KL. 130.  et al. 1998. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA 280:2001–7 [Google Scholar]
  131. Osterdahl M, Kocturk T, Koochek A, Wandell PE. 131.  2008. Effects of a short-term intervention with a paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 62:682–85 [Google Scholar]
  132. Perreault L, Pan Q, Mather KJ, Watson KE, Hamman RF, Kahn SE. 132.  2013. Effect of regression from prediabetes to normal glucose regulation on long-term reduction in diabetes risk: results from the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet 379:2243–51 [Google Scholar]
  133. Pettersen BJ, Anousheh R, Fan J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fraser GE. 133.  2012. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutr. 15:1909–16 [Google Scholar]
  134. Phillips SA, Jurva JW, Syed AQ, Syed AQ, Kulinski JP. 134.  et al. 2008. Benefit of low-fat over low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial health in obesity. Hypertension 51:376–82 [Google Scholar]
  135. Pollan M. 135.  2007. Unhappy meals. New York Times Mag Jan. 28. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/magazine/28nutritionism.t.html?pagewanted=all [Google Scholar]
  136. Pollan M. 136.  2013. Some of my best friends are germs. New York Times Mag May 15. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/magazine/say-hello-to-the-100-trillion-bacteria-that-make-up-your-microbiome.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&nl=todaysheadlines&emc=edit_th_20130519 [Google Scholar]
  137. 137. PRNewswire 2013. Weight loss/obesity management market worth $361 billion by 2017. News Release, May 20. http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/news-releases/weight-lossobesity-management-market-worth-361-billion-by-2017-208129511.html
  138. Ryan MC, Itsiopoulos C, Thodis T, Ward G, Trost N. 138.  et al. 2013. The Mediterranean diet improves hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J. Hepatol. 59:138–43 [Google Scholar]
  139. Sacks FM, Katan M. 139.  2002. Randomized clinical trials on the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Med. 113:Suppl. 9B13S–24S [Google Scholar]
  140. Schatzkin A, Mouw T, Park Y, Subar AF, Kipnis V. 140.  et al. 2007. Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85:1353–60 [Google Scholar]
  141. Serra-Majem L, Roman B, Estruch R. 141.  2006. Scientific evidence of interventions using the Mediterranean diet: a systematic review. Nutr. Rev. 64:S27–47 [Google Scholar]
  142. Sexton P, Black P, Metcalf P, Wall CR, Ley S. 142.  et al. 2013. Influence of Mediterranean diet on asthma symptoms, lung function, and systemic inflammation: a randomized controlled trial. J. Asthma 50:75–81 [Google Scholar]
  143. Song Y, Chavarro JE, Cao Y, Qiu W, Mucci L. 143.  et al. 2013. Whole milk intake is associated with prostate cancer–specific mortality among U.S. male physicians. J. Nutr. 143:189–96 [Google Scholar]
  144. Stern L, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, Chicano KL, Daily DA. 144.  et al. 2004. The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 140:778–85 [Google Scholar]
  145. Swain JF, McCarron PB, Hamilton EF, Sacks FM, Appel LJ. 145.  2008. Characteristics of the diet patterns tested in the optimal macronutrient intake trial to prevent heart disease (OmniHeart): options for a heart-healthy diet. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 108:257–65 [Google Scholar]
  146. Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G. 146.  2013. Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 22:286–94 [Google Scholar]
  147. Tinker LF, Sarto GE, Howard BV, Huang Y, Neuhouser ML. 147.  et al. 2011. Biomarker-calibrated dietary energy and protein intake associations with diabetes risk among postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 94:1600–6 [Google Scholar]
  148. Tonstad S, Stewart K, Oda K, Batech M, Herring RP, Fraser GE. 148.  2013. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 23:292–99 [Google Scholar]
  149. Trichopoulou A, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D. 149.  2009. Anatomy of health effects of Mediterranean diet: Greek EPIC prospective cohort study. BMJ 338:b2337 [Google Scholar]
  150. Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Gloede L, Green AA. 150.  2008. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 108:1636–45 [Google Scholar]
  151. Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Scialli AR. 151.  2007. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet. Obesity 15:2276–81 [Google Scholar]
  152. 152. US Dep. Agric. (USDA) 2010. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Press Release, June 15. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-Dgacreport.htm
  153. 153. US Dep. Agric. (USDA), US Dep. Health Hum. Serv 2011. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Washington, DC: US Gov. Print. Off http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm [Google Scholar]
  154. 154. US Dep. Agric. (USDA) 2013. Dietary Reference Intakes Beltsville, MD: US Dep. Agric http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/dietary-guidance/dietary-reference-intakes [Google Scholar]
  155. 155. US News World Rep 2013. Best Diets Overall. Washington, DC: US News World Rep http://health.usnews.com/best-diet/best-overall-diets [Google Scholar]
  156. van de Laar RJ, Stehouwer CD, van Bussel BC, te Velde SJ, Prins MH. 156.  et al. 2012. Lower lifetime dietary fiber intake is associated with carotid artery stiffness: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 96:14–23 [Google Scholar]
  157. Varady KA, Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Phillips SA. 157.  2011. Improvements in vascular health by a low-fat diet, but not a high-fat diet, are mediated by changes in adipocyte biology. Nutr. J. 10:8 [Google Scholar]
  158. Venneria E, Fanasca S, Monastra G, Finotti E, Ambra R. 158.  et al. 2008. Assessment of the nutritional values of genetically modified wheat, corn, and tomato crops. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:9206–14 [Google Scholar]
  159. Volek JS, Fernandez ML, Feinman RD, Phinney SD. 159.  2008. Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic dyslipidemia, fatty acid partitioning, and metabolic syndrome. Prog. Lipid Res. 47:307–18 [Google Scholar]
  160. 160. Weight Watchers 2013. Weight Watchers PointsPlus. New York: Weight Watch. Int http://www.weightwatchers.com/plan/eat/plan.aspx [Google Scholar]
  161. Weisburger JH. 161.  2002. Lifestyle, health and disease prevention: the underlying mechanisms. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 11:Suppl. 2S1–7 [Google Scholar]
  162. 162. Wellmark 2013. Blue Zones Project. Minneapolis, MN: Blue Zones http://www.bluezones.com/ [Google Scholar]
  163. Westman EC, Yancy WS Jr, Mavropoulos JC, Marquart M, McDuffie JR. 163.  2008. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr. Metab. 5:36 [Google Scholar]
  164. 164. World Health Organ. (WHO) 2011. Nutrient Profiling Report of a WHO/IASO Technical Meeting London, UK, 4–6 October 2010. Geneva, Switz.: WHO/IASO [Google Scholar]
  165. Yancy WS Jr, Almirall D, Maciejewski ML, Kolotkin RL, McDuffie JR, Westman EC. 165.  2009. Effects of two weight-loss diets on health-related quality of life. Qual. Life Res. 18:281–89 [Google Scholar]
  166. Ye X, Scott T, Gao X, Maras JE, Bakun PJ, Tucker KL. 166.  2013. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 113:276–81.e3 [Google Scholar]
  167. Zamora-Ros R, Serafini M, Estruch R, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Martínez-González MA. 167.  et al. 2013. Mediterranean diet and non enzymatic antioxidant capacity in the PREDIMED study: evidence for a mechanism of antioxidant tuning. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 231167–74 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error