Palliative care has been one of the most rapidly growing fields of health care in the United States in the past decade. The benefits of palliative care have now been shown in multiple clinical trials, with increased patient and provider satisfaction, equal or better symptom control, more discernment of and honoring choices about place of death, fewer and less intensive hospital admissions in the last month of life, less anxiety and depression, less caregiver distress, and cost savings. The cost savings come from cost avoidance, or movement of a patient from a high cost setting to a lower cost setting. Barriers to expanded use include physician resistance, unrealistic expectations of patients and families, and lack of workforce. The future of palliative care includes more penetration into other fields such as nephrology, neurology, and surgery; further discernment of the most effective and cost-effective models; and establishment of more outpatient services.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Ahluwalia SC, Fried TR. 1.  2009. Physician factors associated with outpatient palliative care referral. Palliat. Med. 23:608–15 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alesi ER, Fletcher DS, Muir C, Beveridge R, Smith TJ. 2.  2011. Palliative care and oncology partnerships in real practice. Oncology 25:1287–90, 1292–93 [Google Scholar]
  3. Alexander SC, Keitz SA, Sloane R, Tulsky JA. 3.  2006. A controlled trial of a short course to improve residents' communication with patients at the end of life. Acad. Med. 81:1008–12 [Google Scholar]
  4. 4. Alzheimer's Assoc 2013. 2013 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's Dementia 9:208–45 [Google Scholar]
  5. Aubin M, Vazina L, Verreault R, Fillion L, Hudon L. 5.  et al. 2012. Patient, primary care physician and specialist expectations of primary care physician involvement in cancer care. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 27:8–15 [Google Scholar]
  6. Back AL, Arnold RM, Baile WF, Fryer-Edwards KA, Alexander SC. 6.  et al. 2007. Efficacy of communication skills training for giving bad news and discussing transitions to palliative care. Arch. Intern. Med. 167:453–60 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bakitas M, Lyons KD, Hegel MT, Ahles T. 7.  2012. Oncologists' perspectives on concurrent palliative care in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. Palliat. Support Care 11:415–23 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bakitas M, Lyons KD, Hegel MT, Balan S, Brokaw FC. 8.  et al. 2009. Effects of a palliative care intervention on clinical outcomes in patients with advanced cancer: the Project ENABLE II randomized controlled trial. JAMA 302:741–49 [Google Scholar]
  9. Barton DL, Liu H, Dakhil SR, Linquist B, Sloan JA. 9.  et al. 2013. Wisconsin Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to improve cancer-related fatigue: a randomized, double-blind trial, N07C2. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 105:1230–38 [Google Scholar]
  10. Blayney DW, McNiff K, Hanauer D, Miela G, Markstrom D, Neuss M. 10.  2009. Implementation of the quality oncology practice initiative at a university comprehensive cancer center. J. Clin. Oncol. 27:3802–7 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bookman A, Harrington M. 11.  2007. Family caregivers: a shadow workforce in the geriatric health care system?. J. Health Polit. Policy Law 32:1005–41 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bookman A, Kimbrel D. 12.  2011. Families and elder care in the twenty-first century. Future Child. 21:117–40 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brumley R, Enguidanos S, Jamison P, Seitz R, Morgenstern N. 13.  et al. 2007. Increased satisfaction with care and lower costs: results of a randomized trial of in-home palliative care. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 55:993–1000 [Google Scholar]
  14. Brumley RD, Enguidanos S, Cherin DA. 14.  2003. Effectiveness of a home-based palliative care program for end-of-life. J. Palliat. Med. 6:715–24 [Google Scholar]
  15. Byock I, Twohig JS, Merriman M, Collins K. 15.  2006. Promoting excellence in end-of-life care: a report on innovative models of palliative care. J. Palliat. Med. 9:137–51 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cassel JB, Hager MA, Clark RR, Retchin SM, Dimartino J. 16.  et al. 2010. Concentrating hospital-wide deaths in a palliative care unit: the effect on place of death and system-wide mortality. J. Palliat. Med. 13:371–74 [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2012. Chronic diseases and health promotion. Updated August 13. http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/overview/index.htm
  18. 18. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2012. Prevalence and trends data—health status 2012. How is your general health? Behav. Risk Factor Surveill. Syst., Atlanta, Ga. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/list.asp?cat=HS&yr=2012&qkey=8011&state=All
  19. 19. Cent. Adv. Palliat. Care 2005. CAPC Impact Calculator. New York: Cent. Adv. Palliat. Care http://www.capc.org/impact_calculator_basic/
  20. 20. Cent. Adv. Palliat. Care 2011. America's Care of Serious Illness: A State-by-State Report Card on Access to Palliative Care in our Nation's Hospitals. New York: Cent. Adv. Palliat. Care http://reportcard.capc.org/pdf/state-by-state-report-card.pdf.
  21. 21. Cent. Adv. Palliat. Care 2012. Growth of Palliative Care in U.S. Hospitals: 2012 Snapshot. New York: Cent. Adv. Palliat. Care http://reportcard.capc.org/pdf/capc-growth-analysis-snapshot-2011.pdf
  22. 22. Cent. Adv. Palliat. Care 2013. Billing and Finance. http://www.capc.org/forums/billing-and-finance/forum_listing
  23. Ciemins EL, Stuart B, Gerber R, Newman J, Bauman M. 23.  2006. An evaluation of the Advanced Illness Management (AIM) Program: increasing hospice utilization in the San Francisco Bay Area. J. Palliat. Med. 9:1401–11 [Google Scholar]
  24. Dallas RH, Wilkins ML, Wang J, Garcia A, Lyon ME. 24.  2012. Longitudinal pediatric palliative care: quality of life and spiritual struggle (FACE): design and methods. Contemp. Clin. Trials 33:1033–43 [Google Scholar]
  25. de Raaf PJ, de Klerk C, Timman R, Busschbach JJ, Oldenmenger WH, van der Rijt CC. 25.  2013. Systematic monitoring and treatment of physical symptoms to alleviate fatigue in patients with advanced cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Oncol 31:716–23 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dunwoodie DA, Auret K. 26.  2007. Psychological morbidity and burnout in palliative care doctors in Western Australia. Intern. Med. J. 37:693–98 [Google Scholar]
  27. Dussel V, Bona K, Heath JA, Hilden JM, Weeks JC, Wolfe J. 27.  2011. Unmeasured costs of a child's death: perceived financial burden, work disruptions, and economic coping strategies used by American and Australian families who lost children to cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 29:1007–13 [Google Scholar]
  28. Epstein AS, Goldberg GR, Meier DE. 28.  2012. Palliative care and hematologic oncology: the promise of collaboration. Blood Rev. 26:233–39 [Google Scholar]
  29. Equidanos S, Vesper E, Lorenz K. 29.  2012. 30-day readmissions among seriously ill older adults. J. Palliat. Med. 15:1356–61 [Google Scholar]
  30. Farber NJ, Urban SY, Collier VU, Metzger M, Weiner J, Boyer EG. 30.  2004. Frequency and perceived competence in providing palliative care to terminally ill patients: a survey of primary care physicians. J. Pain Symptom Manag. 28:364–72 [Google Scholar]
  31. Fellowes D, Wilkinson S, Moore P. 31.  2004. Communication skills training for health care professionals working with cancer patients, their families and/or carers. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.2CD003751
  32. Fingerman KL, Pillemer KA, Silverstein M, Suitor JJ. 32.  2012. The baby boomers' intergenerational relationships. Gerontologist 52:199–209 [Google Scholar]
  33. Freund K, Weckmann MT, Casarett DJ, Swanson K, Brooks MK, Broderick A. 33.  2012. Hospice eligibility in patients who died in a tertiary care center. J. Hosp. Med. 7:218–23 [Google Scholar]
  34. Gade G, Venohr I, Conner D, McGrady K, Beane J. 34.  et al. 2008. Impact of an inpatient palliative care team: a randomized control trial. J. Palliat. Med. 11:180–90 [Google Scholar]
  35. Gaertner J, Drabik A, Marschall U, Schlesiger G, Voltz R, Stock S. 35.  2013. Inpatient palliative care: a nationwide analysis. Health Policy 109:311–18 [Google Scholar]
  36. Ganong L, Coleman M. 36.  1999. Changing Families, Changing Responsibilities: Family Obligations Following Divorce and Remarriage Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
  37. Ganz PA, Cohen HJ, Eberlein TJ, Feeley TW, Ferrell B. 37.  et al. 2013. Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis. Washington, DC: Inst. Med. Natl. Acad http://www.iom.edu/∼/media/Files/Report%20Files/2013/Quality-Cancer-Care/qualitycancercare_rb.pdf
  38. Gelfman LP, Du Q, Morrison RS. 38.  2013. An update: NIH research funding for palliative medicine 2006–2010. J. Palliat. Med. 16:125–29 [Google Scholar]
  39. Goldstein NE, May CW, Meier DE. 39.  2011. Comprehensive care for mechanical circulatory support: a new frontier for synergy with palliative care. Circ. Heart Fail 4:519–27 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gonsalves WI, Tashi T, Krishnamurthy J, Davies T, Ortman S. 40.  et al. 2011. Effect of palliative care services on the aggressiveness of end-of-life care in the Veteran's Affairs cancer population. J. Palliat. Med. 14:1231–35 [Google Scholar]
  41. Grinnan DC, Swetz KM, Pinson J, Fairman P, Lyckholm LJ, Smith TJ. 41.  2012. The end-of-life experience for a cohort of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. J. Palliat. Med. 15:1065–70 [Google Scholar]
  42. Hammes BJ, Rooney BL, Gundrum JD. 42.  2010. A comparative, retrospective, observational study of the prevalence, availability, and specificity of advance care plans in a county that implemented an advance care planning microsystem. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 58:1249–55 [Google Scholar]
  43. Hammes BJ, Rooney BL, Gundrum JD, Hickman SE, Hager N. 43.  2012. The POLST program: a retrospective review of the demographics of use and outcomes in one community where advance directives are prevalent. J. Palliat. Med. 15:177–85 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hanks GW, Robbins M, Sharp D, Forbes K, Done K. 44.  et al. 2002. The imPaCT study: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate a hospital palliative care team. Br. J. Cancer 87:733–39 [Google Scholar]
  45. Higginson IJ, Costantini M, Silber E, Burman R, Edmonds P. 45.  2011. Evaluation of a new model of short-term palliative care for people severely affected with multiple sclerosis: a randomised fast-track trial to test timing of referral and how long the effect is maintained. Postgrad. Med. J. 87:769–75 [Google Scholar]
  46. Hoverman JR, Cartwright TH, Patt DA, Espirito JL, Clayton MP. 46.  et al. 2011. Pathways, outcomes, and costs in colon cancer: retrospective evaluations in two distinct databases. J. Oncol. Pract. 7:52s–59 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hui D, Elsayem A, De la Cruz M, Berger A, Zhukovsky DS. 47.  et al. 2010. Availability and integration of palliative care at US cancer centers. JAMA 303:1054–61 [Google Scholar]
  48. Induruwa I, Constantinescu CS, Gran B. 48.  2012. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a brief review. J. Neurol. Sci. 323:9–15 [Google Scholar]
  49. Jean-Pierre P, Morrow GR, Roscoe JA, Heckler C, Mohile S. 49.  et al. 2010. A phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial of the effect of modafinil on cancer-related fatigue among 631 patients receiving chemotherapy. Cancer 116:3513–20 [Google Scholar]
  50. Johnston DL, Nagel K, Friedman DL, Meza JL, Hurwitz CA, Friebert S. 50.  2008. Availability and use of palliative care and end-of-life services for pediatric oncology patients. J. Clin. Oncol. 26:4646–50 [Google Scholar]
  51. Jones SH. 51.  2005. A self-care plan for hospice workers. Am. J. Hosp. Palliat. Care 22:125–28 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kelley AS, McGarry K, Fahle S, Marshall SM, Du Q, Skinner JS. 52.  2013. Out-of-pocket spending in the last five years of life. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 28:304–9 [Google Scholar]
  53. Kirkwood MK, Kosty MP, Bajorin DF, Bruinooge SS, Goldstein MA. 53.  2013. Tracking the workforce: the American Society of Clinical Oncology Workforce information system. J. Oncol. Pract. 9:3–8 [Google Scholar]
  54. Krakauer R. 54.  2011. Invictus: increasing patient choice in advanced illness and end-of-life care. Front. Health Serv. Manag. 27:43–48 [Google Scholar]
  55. Krakauer R, Spettell CM, Reisman L, Wade MJ. 55.  2009. Opportunities to improve the quality of care for advanced illness. Health Aff. 28:1357–59 [Google Scholar]
  56. Kung HC, Hoyert DL, Xu J, Murphy SL. 56.  2008. Deaths: final data for 2005. Natl. Vital Stat. Rep. 56:101–120 [Google Scholar]
  57. Labson MC, Sacco MM, Weissman DE, Gornet B, Stuart B. 57.  2013. Innovative models of home-based palliative care. Clevel. Clin. J. Med. 80:e-Suppl. 1eS30–35 [Google Scholar]
  58. Lilly MB, Laporte A, Coyte PC. 58.  2007. Labor market work and home care's unpaid caregivers: a systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work. Milbank Q. 85:641–90 [Google Scholar]
  59. Lupu D. 59.  2010. Estimate of current hospice and palliative medicine physician workforce shortage. J. Pain Symptom Manag. 40:899–911 [Google Scholar]
  60. Lyon ME, Jacobs S, Briggs L, Cheng YI, Wang J. 60.  2013. Family-centered advance care planning for teens with cancer. JAMA Pediatr. 167:460–67 [Google Scholar]
  61. Pereira SM, Fonseca AM, Carvalho AS. 61.  2011. Burnout in palliative care: A systematic review. Nurs. Ethics 18:317–26 [Google Scholar]
  62. Meier DE. 62.  2011. Increased access to palliative care and hospice services: opportunities to improve value in health care. Milbank Q. 89:343–80 [Google Scholar]
  63. Meyer H. 63.  2011. Changing the conversation in California about care near the end of life. Health Aff. 30:390–93 [Google Scholar]
  64. Mitchell GK. 64.  2002. How well do general practitioners deliver palliative care? A systematic review. Palliat. Med. 16:457–64 [Google Scholar]
  65. Mitchell GK, Del Mar CB, O'Rourke PK, Clavarino AM. 65.  2008. Do case conferences between general practitioners and specialist palliative care services improve quality of life? A randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 52269003). Palliat. Med. 22904–12
  66. Moraska AR, Sood A, Dakhil SR, Sloan JA, Barton D. 66.  et al. 2010. Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of long-acting methylphenidate for cancer-related fatigue: North Central Cancer Treatment Group NCCTG-N05C7 trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 28:3673–79 [Google Scholar]
  67. Morrison RS. 67.  2013. Models of palliative care delivery in the United States. Curr. Opin. Support. Palliat. Care 7:201–6 [Google Scholar]
  68. Morrison RS, Augustin R, Souvanna P, Meier DE. 68.  2011. America's care of serious illness: a state-by-state report card on access to palliative care in our nation's hospitals. J. Palliat. Med. 14:1094–96 [Google Scholar]
  69. Morrison RS, Dietrich J, Ladwig S, Quill T, Sacco J. 69.  et al. 2011. Palliative care consultation teams cut hospital costs For Medicaid beneficiaries. Health Aff. 30:454–63 [Google Scholar]
  70. Morrison RS, Meier DE. 70.  2004. Clinical practice. Palliative care. N. Engl. J. Med. 350:2582–90 [Google Scholar]
  71. Morrison RS, Meier DE. 71.  2011. The National Palliative Care Research Center and the Center to Advance Palliative Care: a partnership to improve care for persons with serious illness and their families. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 33:Suppl. 2S126–31 [Google Scholar]
  72. Morrison RS, Penrod JD, Cassel JB, Caust-Ellenbogen M, Litke A. 72.  et al. 2008. Cost savings associated with US hospital palliative care consultation programs. Arch. Intern. Med. 168:1783–90 [Google Scholar]
  73. Muir JC, Daly F, Davis MS, Weinberg R, Heintz JS. 73.  et al. 2010. Integrating palliative care into the outpatient, private practice oncology setting. J. Pain Symptom Manag. 40:126–35 [Google Scholar]
  74. Naik G. 74.  2004. Unlikely way to cut hospital costs: comfort the dying. Wall Street J. March 10 1
  75. 75. Natl. Consens. Proj. Qual. Palliat. Care 2009. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care. Pittsburgh, PA:Natl. Consens. Proj, 2nd. http://www.nationalconsensusproject.org/guideline.pdf
  76. 76. Natl. Hosp. Palliat. Care Organ 2012. NCHPO Facts and Figures: Hospice Care in America. Alexandria, VA: Natl. Hosp. Palliat. Care Organ http://www.nhpco.org/sites/default/files/public/Statistics_Research/2012_Facts_Figures.pdf
  77. Nelson C, Chand P, Soratais J, Oloimooja J, Rembert G. 77.  2011. Inpatient palliative care consults and the probability of hospital readmission. Perm. J. 15:48–51 [Google Scholar]
  78. Neubauer M, Hoverman JR, Kolodziej M, Reisman L, Gruschkus SK. 78.  et al. 2010. Cost effectiveness of evidence-based treatment guidelines for the treatment of non–small-cell lung cancer in the community setting. J. Oncol. Pract. 6:12–18 [Google Scholar]
  79. Neuss MN, Malin JL, Chan S, Kadlube PJ, Adams JL. 79.  et al. 2013. Measuring the improving quality of outpatient care in medical oncology practices in the United States. J. Clin. Oncol. 31:1471–77 [Google Scholar]
  80. Okon TR, Evans JM, Gomez CF, Blackhall LJ. 80.  2004. Palliative educational outcome with implementation of PEACE tool integrated clinical pathway. J. Palliat. Med. 7:279–95 [Google Scholar]
  81. Pantilat SZ, O'Riordan DL, Dibble SL, Landefeld CS. 81.  2010. Hospital-based palliative medicine consultation: a randomized controlled trial. Arch. Intern. Med. 170:2038–40 [Google Scholar]
  82. Peikes D, Zutshi A, Genevro J, Parchman M, Meyers D. 82.  2012. Early evaluations of the medical home: building on a promising start. Am. J. Manag. Care 18:105–16 [Google Scholar]
  83. Pitorak EF, Armour M, Sivec HD. 83.  2002. Project Safe Conduct integrates palliative goals into comprehensive cancer care. J. Palliat. Med 6:645–55 [Google Scholar]
  84. Quill TE, Abernethy AP. 84.  2013. Generalist plus specialist palliative care—creating a more sustainable model. N. Engl. J. Med. 368:1173–75 [Google Scholar]
  85. Rabow MW, Dibble SL, Pantilat SZ, McPhee SJ. 85.  2004. The comprehensive care team: a controlled trial of outpatient palliative medicine consultation. Arch. Intern. Med. 164:83–91 [Google Scholar]
  86. Saito AM, Landrum MB, Neville BA, Ayanian JZ, Weeks JC, Earle CC. 86.  2011. Hospice care and survival among elderly patients with lung cancer. J. Palliat. Med. 14:929–39 [Google Scholar]
  87. Santiago A. 87.  2013. Doctor salaries: How much do doctors earn? About.com. Health Careers. http://healthcareers.about.com/od/compensationinformation/tp/Doctor-Salaries.htm
  88. Schnipper LE, Smith TJ, Raghavan D, Blayney DW, Ganz PA. 88.  et al. 2012. American Society of Clinical Oncology identifies five key opportunities to improve care and reduce costs: the top five list for oncology. J. Clin. Oncol. 30:1715–24 [Google Scholar]
  89. Schroder C, Heyland D, Xuran J, Rocker G, Dodek P. 89.  2009. Educating medical residents in end-of-life care: insights from a multicenter survey. J. Palliat. Med. 12:459–70 [Google Scholar]
  90. Smith AK, Thai JN, Bakitas MA, Meier DE, Spragens LH. 90.  et al. 2013. The diverse landscape of palliative care clinics. J. Palliat. Med. 16:661–68 [Google Scholar]
  91. Smith TJ, Cassel JB. 91.  2009. Cost and non-clinical outcomes of palliative care. J. Pain Symptom Manag. 38:32–44 [Google Scholar]
  92. Smith TJ, Cassel JB, Coyne PJ, Hager MA. 92.  2003. A high-volume specialist palliative care unit and team may reduce in-hospital end-of-life care costs. J. Palliat. Med. 6:699–705 [Google Scholar]
  93. Smith TJ, Temin S, Alesi ER, Abernethy AP, Balboni TA. 93.  et al. 2012. American Society of Clinical Oncology provisional clinical opinion: the integration of palliative care into standard oncology care. J. Clin. Oncol. 30:880–87 [Google Scholar]
  94. Spettell CM, Rawlins WS, Krakauer R, Fernandes J, Breton MES. 94.  et al. 2009. A comprehensive case management program to improve palliative care. J. Palliat. Med. 12:827–32 [Google Scholar]
  95. Swetz KM, Freeman MR, AbouEzzeddine OF, Carter KA, Boilson BA. 95.  et al. 2011. Palliative medicine consultation for preparedness planning in patients receiving left ventricular assist devices as destination therapy. Mayo Clin. Proc. 86:493–500 [Google Scholar]
  96. Swetz KM, Shanafelt TD, Drozdowicz LB, Sloan J, Novotny PJ. 96.  et al. 2012. Symptom burden, quality of life, and attitudes toward palliative care in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: results from a cross-sectional patient survey. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 31:1102–8 [Google Scholar]
  97. Temel JS, Greer JA, Muzikansky A, Gallagher ER, Admane S. 97.  et al. 2010. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 363:733–42 [Google Scholar]
  98. Teno JM, Gozalo PL, Bynum JPW, Leland NE, Miller SC. 98.  et al. 2013. Change in end-of-life care for Medicare beneficiaries: Site of death, place of care, and health care transitions in 2000, 2005, and 2009. JAMA 309:470–77 [Google Scholar]
  99. Thompson LA, Knapp C, Madden V, Shenkman E. 99.  2009. Pediatricians' perceptions of and preferred timing for pediatric palliative care. Pediatrics 123:e777–82 [Google Scholar]
  100. 100. US Census Bur 2011. 2010 census data US Dep. Commer. http://www.census.gov/2010census/data/
  101. Wallen G, Baker K, Stolar M, Miller-Davis C, Ames N. 101.  et al. 2012. Palliative care outcomes in surgical oncology patients with advanced malignancies: a mixed methods approach. Qual. Life Res. 21:405–15 [Google Scholar]
  102. Weckmann MT, Freund K, Bay C, Broderick A. 102.  2013. Medical manuscripts impact of hospice enrollment on cost and length of stay of a terminal admission. Am. J. Hosp. Palliat. Care 30:6576–78 [Google Scholar]
  103. Weismann DE. 103.  2011. Identifying patients in need of a palliative care assessment in a hospital setting: a consensus report from the Center to Advance Palliative Care. J. Palliat. Med. 14:17–23 [Google Scholar]
  104. Werner CA. 104.  2011. The Older Population: 2010. 2010 Census Briefs. C2010BR-09 Washington, DC: US Dep. Commer., Econ. Stat. Adm http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-09.pdf
  105. White WL. 105.  2013. Managing Personal and Organizational Stress in the Care of the Dying. Hospice Education Program for Nurses. Washington, DC: US Dep. Health Hum. Serv.
  106. 106. WHO (World Health Organ.) 2012. WHO definition of palliative care WHO, Geneva. http://www.who.int/cancer/palliative/definition/en/
  107. Williams AW, Dwyer AC, Eddy AA, Fink JC, Jaber BL. 107.  et al. 2012. Critical and honest conversations: the evidence behind the “Choosing Wisely” campaign recommendations by the American Society of Nephrology. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 7:1664–72 [Google Scholar]
  108. Yabroff KR, Lamont EB, Mariotto A, Warren JL, Topor M. 108.  et al. 2008. Cost of care for elderly cancer patients in the United States. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 100:630–41 [Google Scholar]
  109. Yennurajalingam S, Palmer JL, Chacko R, Bruera E. 109.  2011. Factors associated with response to methylphenidate in advanced cancer patients. Oncologist 16:246–53 [Google Scholar]
  110. Zimmermann C, Swami N, Rodin G, Tannock I, Krzyzanowska MK. 110.  et al. 2012. Cluster-randomized trial of early palliative care for patients with metastatic cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 30:Suppl.Abstr. 9003 [Google Scholar]
  111. Zimmermann C, Yuen D, Mischitelle A, Minden MD, Brandwein JM. 111.  et al. 2013. Symptom burden and supportive care in patients with acute leukemia. Leuk. Res. 37:731–36 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error