Employment precariousness is a social determinant that affects the health of workers, families, and communities. Its recent popularity has been spearheaded by three main developments: the surge in “flexible employment” and its associated erosion of workers' employment and working conditions since the mid-1970s; the growing interest in social determinants of health, including employment conditions; and the availability of new data and information systems. This article identifies the historical, economic, and political factors that link precarious employment to health and health equity; reviews concepts, models, instruments, and findings on precarious employment and health inequalities; summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of this literature; and highlights substantive and methodological challenges that need to be addressed. We identify two crucial future aims: to provide a compelling research program that expands our understanding of employment precariousness and to develop and evaluate policy programs that effectively put an end to its health-related impacts.

[Erratum, Closure]

An erratum has been published for this article:
Precarious Employment: Understanding an Emerging Social Determinant of Health

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Ackerman F, Goodwin NR, Dougherty L, Gallagher K. 1.  1998. The Changing Nature of Work Washington, DC: Island Press
  2. Amable M. 2.  2006. La precariedad laboral y su impacto sobre la salud. Un estudio en trabajadores asalariados en España. PhD Thesis, Univ. Pompeu Fabra. Dep. Ciènc. Exp. de la Salut, Barcelona
  3. Amable M, Benach J, González S. 3.  2001. La precariedad laboral y su repercusión sobre la salud: conceptos y resultados preliminares de un estudio multimétodos. Arch. Prev. Riesgos Labor. 4:4169–84 [Google Scholar]
  4. Amuedo-Dorantes C. 4.  2002. Work safety in the context of temporary employment: the Spanish experience. Ind. Labor. Relat. Rev. 55:2262–85 [Google Scholar]
  5. Aronsson G. 5.  1999. Contingent workers and health and safety. Work Employ. Soc. 13:3439–59 [Google Scholar]
  6. Aronsson G, Gustafsson K. 6.  2005. Sickness presenteeism: prevalence, attendance-pressure factors, and an outline of a model for research. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 47:9958–66 [Google Scholar]
  7. Aronsson G, Gustafsson K, Dallner M. 7.  2002. Work environment and health in different types of temporary jobs. Eur. Work Organ. Psychol. 11:2151–75 [Google Scholar]
  8. Artazcoz L, Benach J, Borrell C, Cortès I. 8.  2004. Unemployment and mental health: understanding the interactions among gender, family roles, and social class. Am. J. Public Health 94:182–88 [Google Scholar]
  9. Artazcoz L, Benach J, Borrell C, Cortès I. 9.  2005. Social inequalities in the impact of flexible employment on different domains of psychosocial health. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 59:9761–67 [Google Scholar]
  10. Artazcoz L, Cortès I, Borrell C, Escribà-Agüir V, Cascant L. 10.  2007. Gender perspective in the analysis of the relationship between long workhours, health and health-related behavior. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 33:5344–50 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ashford SJ, Lee C, Bobko P. 11.  1989. Content, cause, and consequences of job insecurity: a theory-based measure and substantive test. Acad. Manag. J. 32:4803–29 [Google Scholar]
  12. Azfal J, Muntaner C, Chung H, Mahmood Q, Ng E, Schrecker T. 12.  2013. Complementarities or contradictions? Scoping the health dimensions of “flexicurity” labor market policies. Int. J. Health Serv. 43:3473–82 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bamberger SG, Vinding AL, Larsen A, Nielsen P, Fonager K. 13.  et al. 2012. Impact of organisational change on mental health: a systematic review. Occup. Environ. Med. 69:8592–98 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bardasi E, Francesconi M. 14.  2004. The impact of atypical employment on individual wellbeing: evidence from a panel of British workers. Soc. Sci. Med. 58:91671–88 [Google Scholar]
  15. Beale N, Nethercott S. 15.  1985. Job-loss and family morbidity: a study of a factory closure. J. R. Coll. Gen. Pract. 35:280510–14 [Google Scholar]
  16. Beale N, Nethercott S. 16.  1988. Certificated sickness absence in industrial employees threatened with redundancy. BMJ 296:66351508–10 [Google Scholar]
  17. Benach J. 17.  2013. Qualitat de l'ocupació, participació i salut laboral a Catalunya Barcelona: Dir. Gen. Relac. Labor http://www20.gencat.cat/docs/empresaiocupacio/03%20-%20Centre%20de%20documentacio/Documents/01%20-%20Publicacions/06%20-%20Seguretat%20i%20salut%20laboral/II%20ECCT/Arxius/II_ECTC_Qualitat_ocupacio_participacio.pdf
  18. Benach J, Amable M, Muntaner C, Benavides FG. 18.  2002. The consequences of flexible work for health: Are we looking at the right place?. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 56:6405–6 [Google Scholar]
  19. Benach J, Benavides FG, Platt S, Diez-Roux A, Muntaner C. 19.  2000. The health-damaging potential of new types of flexible employment: a challenge for public health researchers. Am. J. Public Health 90:81316–17 [Google Scholar]
  20. Benach J, Gimeno D, Benavides FG, Martínez JM, Torné M del M. 20.  2004. Types of employment and health in the European union: changes from 1995 to 2000. Eur. J. Public Health 14:3314–21 [Google Scholar]
  21. Benach J, Muntaner C. 21.  2007. Precarious employment and health: developing a research agenda. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 61:4276–77 [Google Scholar]
  22. Benach J, Muntaner C. 22.  2011. Employment and working conditions as health determinants. Improving Equity in Health by Addressing Social Determinants JH Lee, R Sadana 165–95 Geneva: WHO http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241503037_eng.pdf [Google Scholar]
  23. Benach J, Muntaner C, Chung H, Solar O, Santana V. 23.  et al. 2010. The importance of government policies in reducing employment related health inequalities. BMJ 340:c2154 [Google Scholar]
  24. Benach J, Muntaner C, Solar O, Santana V, Quinlan M. 24.  2010. Empleo, Trabajo y Desigualdades en Salud: Una Visión Global [Employment, Work and Health Inequalities: A Global Perspective] Barcelona: Icària [Google Scholar]
  25. Benach J, Muntaner C, Solar O, Santana V, Quinlan M. 25.  EMCONET Network 2007. Employment, Work, and Health Inequalities: A Global Perspective Geneva: WHO http://www.who.int/social_determinants/resources/articles/emconet_who_report.pdf
  26. Benach J, Puig-Barrachina V, Vives A, Tarafa G, Muntaner C. 26.  2012. The challenge of monitoring employment-related health inequalities. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 66:121085–87 [Google Scholar]
  27. Benach J, Solar O, Vergara M, Vanroelen C, Santana V. 27.  et al. 2010. Six employment conditions and health inequalities: a descriptive overview. Int. J. Health Serv. 40:2269–80 [Google Scholar]
  28. Benavides FG, Benach J, Diez-Roux AV, Roman C. 28.  2000. How do types of employment relate to health indicators? Findings from the Second European Survey on Working Conditions. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 54:7494–501 [Google Scholar]
  29. Benavides FG, Benach J, Muntaner C, Delclos GL, Catot N, Amable M. 29.  2006. Associations between temporary employment and occupational injury: What are the mechanisms?. Occup. Environ. Med. 63:6416–21 [Google Scholar]
  30. Bergström G, Bodin L, Hagberg J, Lindh T, Aronsson G, Josephson M. 30.  2009. Does sickness presenteeism have an impact on future general health?. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 82:101179–90 [Google Scholar]
  31. Bhagwati J. 31.  1995. Trade liberalisation and “fair trade” demands: addressing the environmental and labour standards issues. World Econ. 18:6745–59 [Google Scholar]
  32. Bielenski H. 32.  1999. New patterns of employment in Europe. See Ref. 64 11–30
  33. Booth AL, Francesconi M, Frank J. 33.  2002. Temporary jobs: stepping stones or dead ends?. Econ. J. 112:480F189–213 [Google Scholar]
  34. Boyer R. 34.  1993. The convergence hypothesis revisited: globalization but still the century of nations?. Proc. Domest. Inst., Trade and the Press. for Natl. Converg., Bellagio, Feb. 22–26. Cambridge, MA: MIT Ind. Perform. Cent http://www.cepremap.ens.fr/depot/couv_orange/co9403.pdf [Google Scholar]
  35. Boyer R, Saillard Y. 35.  2002. Un précis de la régulation. Théorie de la régulation: l'état des savoirs58–68 Paris: Éd. Découverte [Google Scholar]
  36. Bradley H, Erickson M, Stephenson C, Williams S. 36.  2000. Myths at Work Cambridge, MA: Polity Press
  37. Bresson M. 37.  2010. Sociologie de la Précarité Paris: A. Colin
  38. Brooker A-S, Eakin JM. 38.  2001. Gender, class, work-related stress and health: toward a power-centred approach. J. Community Appl. Soc. 11:297–109 [Google Scholar]
  39. Buchholz S, Hofäcker D, Mills M, Blossfeld H-P, Kurz K, Hofmeister H. 39.  2009. Life courses in the globalization process: the development of social inequalities in modern societies. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 25:153–71 [Google Scholar]
  40. Buechtemann CE. 40.  1993. Employment security and labor market behavior. Interdisciplinary approaches and international evidence. Labour 7:334 [Google Scholar]
  41. Burgard SA, Brand JE, House JS. 41.  2009. Perceived job insecurity and worker health in the United States. Soc. Sci. Med. 69:5777–85 [Google Scholar]
  42. Catalano R, Goldman-Mellor S, Saxton K, Margerison-Zilko C, Subbaraman M. 42.  et al. 2011. The health effects of economic decline. Annu. Rev. Public Health 32:431–50 [Google Scholar]
  43. Catalano R, Rook K, Dooley D. 43.  1986. Labor markets and help-seeking: a test of the employment security hypothesis. J. Health Soc. Behav. 27:3277–87 [Google Scholar]
  44. Cazes S. 44.  2009. Labour Market Policies in Times of Crisis Geneva: ILO
  45. Chung H, Muntaner C, Benach J. 45.  2010. Employment relations and global health: a typological study of world labor markets. Int. J. Health Serv. 40:2229–53 [Google Scholar]
  46. Clarke M, Lewchuk W, de Wolff A, King A. 46.  2007. ‘This just isn't sustainable’: precarious employment, stress and workers' health. Int. J. Law Psychiatry 30:4–5311–26 [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. Comm. Soc. Determinants Health (CSHD) 2008. Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Final Rep. CSDH Geneva: WHO http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563703_eng.pdf
  48. Cranford C, Vosko LF, Zukewich N. 48.  2003. Precarious employment in the Canadian labour market: a statistical portrait. Just Labour 3:6–22 [Google Scholar]
  49. De Cuyper N, De Jong J, De Witte H, Isaksson K, Rigotti T, Schalk R. 49.  2008. Literature review of theory and research on the psychological impact of temporary employment: towards a conceptual model. Int. J. Manag. Rev. 10:125–51 [Google Scholar]
  50. De Cuyper N, De Witte H. 50.  2008. Job insecurity and employability among temporary workers: a theoretical approach based on the psychological contract. The Individual in the Changing Working Life K Näswall, J Hellgren, M Sverke 88–107 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  51. De Witte H. 51.  1999. Job insecurity and psychological well-being: review of the literature and exploration of some unresolved issues. Eur. Work Organ. Psychol. 8:2155–77 [Google Scholar]
  52. De Witte H, Näswall K. 52.  2003. ‘Objective’ vs ‘subjective’ job insecurity: consequences of temporary work for job satisfaction and organizational commitment in four European countries. Econ. Ind. Democr. 24:2149–88 [Google Scholar]
  53. Domenighetti G, D'Avanzo B, Bisig B. 53.  2000. Health effects of job insecurity among employees in the Swiss general population. Int. J. Health Serv. 30:3477–90 [Google Scholar]
  54. Dragano N, Siegrist J, Wahrendorf M. 54.  2010. Welfare regimes, labour policies and unhealthy psychosocial working conditions: a comparative study with 9917 older employees from 12 European countries. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 65:9793–99 [Google Scholar]
  55. Elcioglu EF. 55.  2010. Producing precarity: the temporary staffing agency in the labor market. Qual. Sociol. 33:2117–36 [Google Scholar]
  56. Erlinghagen M. 56.  2008. Self-perceived job insecurity and social context: a multi-level analysis of 17 European countries. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 24:2183–97 [Google Scholar]
  57. Esping-Andersen G. 57.  1988. Politics Against Markets: The Social Democratic Road to Power Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  58. Esping-Andersen G. 58.  1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  59. Esping-Andersen G, Regini M. 59.  2000. Why Deregulate Labour Markets? Oxford/New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  60. Falkenberg H, Fransson EI, Westerlund H, Head JA. 60.  2013. Short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health: results from the Whitehall II study. Occup. Environ. Med. 70:10688–96 [Google Scholar]
  61. Fenwick R, Tausig M. 61.  1994. The macroeconomic context of job stress. J. Health Soc. Behav. 35:3266–82 [Google Scholar]
  62. Ferrie JE. 62.  1999. Health consequences of job insecurity. See Ref. 64 59–99
  63. Ferrie JE. 63.  2001. Is job insecurity harmful to health?. J. R. Soc. Med. 94:271–76 [Google Scholar]
  64. Ferrie JE, Marmot MG, Griffiths J, Ziglio E. 64.  1999. Labour Market Changes and Job Insecurity: A Challenge for Social Welfare and Health Promotion. Copenhagen: WHO. Reg. Publ., Eur. Ser No. 81
  65. Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Marmot MG, Stansfeld SA, Smith GD. 65.  1998. An uncertain future: the health effects of threats to employment security in white-collar men and women. Am. J. Public Health 88:71030–36 [Google Scholar]
  66. Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Newman K, Stansfeld SA, Marmot M. 66.  2005. Self-reported job insecurity and health in the Whitehall II study: potential explanations of the relationship. Soc. Sci. Med. 60:71593–602 [Google Scholar]
  67. Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Stansfeld SA, Marmot MG. 67.  2002. Effects of chronic job insecurity and change in job security on self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours in British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 56:6450–54 [Google Scholar]
  68. Ferrie JE, Westerlund H, Virtanen M, Vahtera J, Kivimäki M. 68.  2008. Flexible labor markets and employee health. Scand. J. Work Environ. Heath 2008:Suppl. 698–110 [Google Scholar]
  69. Goudswaard A, Andries F. 69.  2002. Employment Status and Working Conditions Dublin: Eur. Found. Improv. Living Work. Cond http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2002/08/en/1/ef0208en.pdf
  70. Goudswaard A, De Nanteuil M. 70.  2000. Flexibility and Working Conditions: A Qualitative and Comparative Study in Seven EU Member States Dublin: Eur. Found. Improv. Living Work. Cond http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2000/07/en/1/ef0007en.pdf
  71. Goudswaard A. 71.  Eur. Agency Saf. Health Work 2002. New Forms of Contractual Relationships and the Implications for Occupational Safety and Health. Luxembourg: Off. Off. Publ. Eur. Communities
  72. Graaf-Zijl de M, van den Berg G, Heyma A. 72.  2011. Stepping stones for the unemployed: the effect of temporary jobs on the duration until (regular) work. J. Popul. Econ. 24:1107–39 [Google Scholar]
  73. Green F. 73.  2011. Unpacking the misery multiplier: how employability modifies the impacts of unemployment and job insecurity on life satisfaction and mental health. J. Health Econ. 30:2265–76 [Google Scholar]
  74. Greenhalgh L, Rosenblatt Z. 74.  1984. Job insecurity: toward conceptual clarity. Acad. Manag. Rev. 9:3438–48 [Google Scholar]
  75. Grimshaw D, Ward KG, Rubery J, Beynon H. 75.  2001. Organisations and the transformation of the internal labour market. Work Employ. Soc. 15:125–54 [Google Scholar]
  76. Guadalupe M. 76.  2003. The hidden costs of fixed term contracts: the impact on work accidents. Labour Econ. 10:3339–57 [Google Scholar]
  77. Hadden WC, Muntaner C, Benach J, Gimeno D, Benavides FG. 77.  2007. A glossary for the social epidemiology of work organisation: Part 3, Terms from the sociology of labour markets. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 61:16–8 [Google Scholar]
  78. Hartley J. 78.  1999. Models of job insecurity and coping strategies of organizations. See Ref. 64 127–49
  79. Hellgren J, Sverke M, Isaksson K. 79.  1999. A two-dimensional approach to job insecurity: consequences for employee attitudes and well-being. Eur. Work Organ. Psychol. 8:2179–95 [Google Scholar]
  80. Heponiemi T, Elovainio M, Pentti J, Virtanen M, Westerlund H. 80.  et al. 2010. Association of contractual and subjective job insecurity with sickness presenteeism among public sector employees. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 52:8830–35 [Google Scholar]
  81. Hesselink DJK, van Vuuren T. 81.  1999. Job flexibility and job insecurity: the Dutch case. Eur. Work Organ. Psychol. 8:2273–93 [Google Scholar]
  82. Heymann J. 82.  2003. Global Inequalities at Work: Work's Impact on the Health of Individuals, Families, and Societies Oxford/New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  83. Hicks A. 83.  1999. Social Democracy and Welfare Capitalism: A Century of Income Security Politics Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
  84. Horton R. 84.  2009. The global financial crisis: an acute threat to health. Lancet 373:9661355–56 [Google Scholar]
  85. Huber E, Stephens JD. 85.  2001. Development and Crisis of the Welfare State: Parties and Policies in Global Markets Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  86. Joyce K, Pabayo R, Critchley JA, Bambra C. 86.  2010. Flexible working conditions and their effects on employee health and wellbeing. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.2CD008009 pub2
  87. Kalleberg AL. 87.  2009. Precarious work, insecure workers: employment relations in transition. Am. Sociol. Rev. 74:11–22 [Google Scholar]
  88. Karanikolos M, Mladovsky P, Cylus J, Thomson S, Basu S. 88.  et al. 2013. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe. Lancet 381:98741323–31 [Google Scholar]
  89. Karasek RA. 89.  1979. Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: implications for job redesign. Adm. Sci. Q. 24:2285–308 [Google Scholar]
  90. Karasek RA, Theorell T. 90.  1992. Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity and the Reconstruction of Working Life New York: Basic Books
  91. Kim I-H, Carrasco C, Muntaner C, McKenzie K, Noh S. 91.  2013. Ethnicity and postmigration health trajectory in new immigrants to Canada. Am. J. Public Health 103:4e96–104 [Google Scholar]
  92. Kim I-H, Khang Y-H, Muntaner C, Chun H, Cho S-I. 92.  2008. Gender, precarious work, and chronic diseases in South Korea. Am. J. Ind. Med. 51:10748–57 [Google Scholar]
  93. Kim I-H, Muntaner C, Chung H, Benach J. 93.  2010. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets. Int. J. Health Serv. 40:2255–67 [Google Scholar]
  94. Kim I-H, Muntaner C, Khang Y-H, Paek D, Cho S-I. 94.  2006. The relationship between nonstandard working and mental health in a representative sample of the South Korean population. Soc. Sci. Med. 63:3566–74 [Google Scholar]
  95. Kim I-H, Muntaner C, Vahid Shahidi F, Vives A, Vanroelen C, Benach J. 95.  2012. Welfare states, flexible employment, and health: a critical review. Health Policy 104:299–127 [Google Scholar]
  96. Kim M-H, Kim C-Y, Park J-K, Kawachi I. 96.  2008. Is precarious employment damaging to self-rated health? Results of propensity score matching methods, using longitudinal data in South Korea. Soc. Sci. Med. 67:121982–94 [Google Scholar]
  97. Kivimäki M, Vahtera J, Pentti J, Ferrie JE. 97.  2000. Factors underlying the effect of organisational downsizing on health of employees: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 320:7240971–95 [Google Scholar]
  98. Kivimäki M, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Pentti J, Ferrie JE. 98.  2003. Temporary employment and risk of overall and cause-specific mortality. Am. J. Epidemiol. 158:7663–68 [Google Scholar]
  99. Korpi W. 99.  1983. The Democratic Class Struggle London: Routledge
  100. Landsbergis PA, Grzywacz JG, Lamontagne AD. 100.  2012. Work organization, job insecurity, and occupational health disparities. Am. J. Ind. Med. doi: 10.1002/ajim.2212
  101. Laurell A. 101.  1982. La salud-enfermedad como proceso social. Cuad. Med. Soc. 4:191–11 [Google Scholar]
  102. Letourneux V. 102.  1998. Precarious Employment and Working Conditions in Europe Eur. Found. Improv. Living Work. Cond Luxembourg: Off. Off. Publ. Eur. Communities http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/1998/15/en/1/ef9815en.pdf
  103. Lewchuk W. 103.  2011. Working Without Commitments: The Health Effects of Precarious Employment Montreal: McGill-Queen's Univ. Press
  104. Lewchuk W, Clarke M, de Wolff A. 104.  2008. Working without commitments: precarious employment and health. Work Employ. Soc. 22:3387–406 [Google Scholar]
  105. Lewchuk W, de Wolff A, King A, Polanyi M. 105.  2003. From job strain to employment strain: health effects of precarious employment. Just Labour 3:Fall23–35 [Google Scholar]
  106. Liukkonen V, Virtanen P, Kivimäki M, Pentti J, Vahtera J. 106.  2004. Social capital in working life and the health of employees. Soc. Sci. Med. 59:122447–58 [Google Scholar]
  107. Louie AM, Ostry AS, Quinlan M, Keegel T, Shoveller J, LaMontagne AD. 107.  2006. Empirical study of employment arrangements and precariousness in Australia. Relat. Ind. 61:3465–89 [Google Scholar]
  108. Marmot M, Ferrie J, Newman K, Stansfeld S. 108.  2001. The Contribution of Job Insecurity to Socio-Economic Inequalities. Research Findings, Health Variations Programme II. Lancaster, UK: Econ. Soc. Res. Counc. (ESRC) http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/apsocsci/hvp/pdf/fd11.pdf
  109. Marusic A, Bhugra D. 109.  2008. Editorial: One health only. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry 54:6483–85 [Google Scholar]
  110. Mattiasson I, Lindgärde F, Nilsson JA, Theorell T. 110.  1990. Threat of unemployment and cardiovascular risk factors: longitudinal study of quality of sleep and serum cholesterol concentrations in men threatened with redundancy. BMJ 301:6750461–66 [Google Scholar]
  111. McNamara M, Bohle P, Quinlan M. 111.  2011. Precarious employment, working hours, work-life conflict and health in hotel work. Appl. Ergon. 42:2225–32 [Google Scholar]
  112. Menéndez M, Benach J, Muntaner C, Amable M, O'Campo P. 112.  2007. Is precarious employment more damaging to women's health than men's?. Soc. Sci. Med. 64:4776–81 [Google Scholar]
  113. Metcalfe C, Davey Smith G, Sterne JAC, Heslop P, Macleod J, Hart C. 113.  2003. Frequent job change and associated health. Soc. Sci. Med. 56:11–15 [Google Scholar]
  114. Michie S. 114.  2002. Causes and management of stress at work. Occup. Environ. Med. 59:167–72 [Google Scholar]
  115. Mirowsky J, Ross CE. 115.  1986. Social patterns of distress. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 12:123–45 [Google Scholar]
  116. Monastiriotis V. 116.  2006. Employment Flexibility and UK Regional Unemployment: Persistence and Macroeconomic Shocks London: Dep. Trade Ind.
  117. Muntaner C, Anthony JC, Crum RM, Eaton WW. 117.  1995. Psychosocial dimensions of work and the risk of drug dependence among adults. Am. J. Epidemiol. 142:2183–90 [Google Scholar]
  118. Muntaner C, Chung H, Benach J, Ng E. 118.  2012. Hierarchical cluster analysis of labour market regulations and population health: a taxonomy of low- and middle-income countries. BMC Public Health 12:286 [Google Scholar]
  119. Muntaner C, Chung H, Solar O, Santana V, Castedo A, Benach J. 119.  2010. A macro-level model of employment relations and health inequalities. Int. J. Health Serv. 40:2215–21 [Google Scholar]
  120. Muntaner C, Li Y, Xue X, Thompson T, Chung H, O'Campo P. 120.  2006. County and organizational predictors of depression symptoms among low-income nursing assistants in the USA. Soc. Sci. Med. 63:61454–65 [Google Scholar]
  121. Muntaner C, Lynch JW, Hillemeier M, Lee JH, David R. 121.  et al. 2002. Economic inequality, working-class power, social capital, and cause-specific mortality in wealthy countries. Int. J. Health Serv. 32:4629–56 [Google Scholar]
  122. Muntaner C, O'Campo PJ. 122.  1993. A critical appraisal of the demand/control model of the psychosocial work environment: epistemological, social, behavioral and class considerations. Soc. Sci. Med. 36:111509–17 [Google Scholar]
  123. Muntaner C, Solar O, Vanroelen C, Martínez JM, Vergara M. 123.  et al. 2010. Unemployment, informal work, precarious employment, child labor, slavery, and health inequalities: pathways and mechanisms. Int. J. Health Serv. 40:2281–95 [Google Scholar]
  124. Muntaner C, Sridharan S, Chung H, Solar O, Quinlan M. 124.  et al. 2010. The solution space: developing research and policy agendas to eliminate employment-related health inequalities. Int. J. Health Serv. 40:2309–14 [Google Scholar]
  125. Nyberg A, Alfredsson L, Theorell T, Westerlund H, Vahtera J, Kivimäki M. 125.  2009. Managerial leadership and ischaemic heart disease among employees: the Swedish WOLF study. Occup. Environ. Med. 66:151–55 [Google Scholar]
  126. O'Campo P, Dunn JR. 126.  2012. Rethinking Social Epidemiology: Towards a Science of Change Dordrecht/New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
  127. 127. OECD 1994. The OECD Jobs Study. Facts, Analysis, Strategies. Paris: OECD http://www.oecd.org/els/emp/1941679.pdf
  128. Porthé V. 128.  2009. La precariedad laboral en inmigrantes en situación irregular en España y su relación con la salud. Gac. Sanit. 23:107–14 [Google Scholar]
  129. Puig-Barrachina V. 129.  2013. Monitoring employment-related health inequalities in Europe. The case of unemployment and precarious employment. PhD Diss., Univ. Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  130. Puig-Barrachina V, Vanroelen C, Vives A, Martinez JM, Muntaner C. 130.  et al. 2013. Measuring employment precariousness in the European working conditions survey: the social distribution in Europe. Work. In press. doi: 10.3233/WOR-131645 [Google Scholar]
  131. Quesnel-Vallée A, DeHaney S, Ciampi A. 131.  2010. Temporary work and depressive symptoms: a propensity score analysis. Soc. Sci. Med. 70:121982–87 [Google Scholar]
  132. Quinlan M, Bohle P. 132.  2008. Under pressure, out of control, or home alone? Reviewing research and policy debates on the occupational health and safety effects of outsourcing and home-based work. Int. J. Health Serv. 38:3489–523 [Google Scholar]
  133. Quinlan M, Bohle P. 133.  2009. Overstretched and unreciprocated commitment: reviewing research on the occupational health and safety effects of downsizing and job insecurity. Int. J. Health Serv. 39:11–44 [Google Scholar]
  134. Quinlan M, Mayhew C, Bohle P. 134.  2001. The global expansion of precarious employment, work disorganization, and consequences for occupational health: a review of recent research. Int. J. Health Serv. 31:2335–414 [Google Scholar]
  135. Rodgers G. 135.  1989. Precarious work in Western Europe. Precarious Jobs in Labour Market Regulation: The Growth of Atypical Employment in Western Europe J Rodgers, G Rodgers 1–16 Geneva: Int. Inst. Labour Stud. [Google Scholar]
  136. Rodriguez E. 136.  2002. Marginal employment and health in Britain and Germany: Does unstable employment predict health?. Soc. Sci. Med. 55:6963–79 [Google Scholar]
  137. Rosenblatt Z, Talmud I, Ruvio A. 137.  1999. A gender-based framework of the experience of job insecurity and its effects on work attitudes. Eur. J. Work Organ. Psychol. 8:2197–217 [Google Scholar]
  138. Rubery J, Grimshaw D. 138.  2003. The Organisation of Employment: An International Perspective London: Palgrave Macmillan
  139. Saloniemi A, Virtanen P, Vahtera J. 139.  2004. The work environment in fixed-term jobs: Are poor psychosocial conditions inevitable?. Work Employ. Soc. 18:1193–208 [Google Scholar]
  140. Scott HK. 140.  2004. Reconceptualizing the nature and health consequences of work-related insecurity for the new economy: the decline of workers' power in the flexibility regime. Int. J. Health Serv. 34:1143–53 [Google Scholar]
  141. Scott-Marshall. 141.  2011. The health consequences of precarious employment experiences. Work 38:4369–82 [Google Scholar]
  142. Siegrist J, Rödel A. 142.  2006. Work stress and health risk behavior. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 32:6473–81 [Google Scholar]
  143. Siegrist J, Theorell T. 143.  2006. Socio-economic position and health. The role of work and employment. Social Inequalities in Health: New Evidence and Policy Implications J Siegrist, M Marmot 73–100 Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  144. Standing G. 144.  1999. Global Labour Flexibility: Seeking Distributive Justice London: Palgrave Macmillan
  145. Stephens JD. 145.  1986. The Transition from Capitalism to Socialism Urbana: Univ. Ill. Press
  146. Sverke M, Hellgren J. 146.  2002. The nature of job insecurity: understanding employment uncertainty on the brink of a new millennium. Appl. Psychol. 51:123–42 [Google Scholar]
  147. Sverke M, Hellgren J, Näswall K. 147.  2002. No security: a meta-analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 7:3242–64 [Google Scholar]
  148. Tompa E, Scott-Marshall H, Dolinschi R, Trevithick S, Bhattacharyya S. 148.  2007. Precarious employment experiences and their health consequences: towards a theoretical framework. Work 28:3209–24 [Google Scholar]
  149. Tompa E, Scott-Marshall H, Fang M. 149.  2008. The impact of temporary employment and job tenure on work-related sickness absence. Occup. Environ. Med. 65:12801–7 [Google Scholar]
  150. Trumka T. 150.  2011. A global new deal. Harv. Int. Rev. 33:42–47 [Google Scholar]
  151. Underhill EM, Quinlan MG. 151.  2011. How precarious employment affects health and safety at work: the case of temporary agency workers. Relat. Ind. 66:3397–421 [Google Scholar]
  152. Vahtera J, Kivimäki M, Pentti J. 152.  1997. Effect of organisational downsizing on health of employees. Lancet 350:90851124–28 [Google Scholar]
  153. Vahtera J, Kivimäki M, Pentti J, Linna A, Virtanen M. 153.  et al. 2004. Organisational downsizing, sickness absence, and mortality: 10-town prospective cohort study. BMJ 328:7439555 [Google Scholar]
  154. Vahtera J, Virtanen M. 154.  2013. The health effects of major organisational changes. Occup. Environ. Med. 70:677–78 [Google Scholar]
  155. Van Aerden K, Moors GBD, Levecque K, Vanroelen C. 155.  2013. Measuring employment arrangements in the European labour force: a typological approach. Soc. Indic. Res. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0312-0. In press
  156. Van der Doef M, Maes S. 156.  1999. The Job Demand-Control (-Support) model and psychological well-being: a review of 20 years of empirical research. Work Stress 13:287–114 [Google Scholar]
  157. Vandenbrande T, Vandekerckhove S, Vendramin P, Valenduc G, Puig-Barrachina V. 157.  et al. 2012. Quality of Work and Employment in Belgium Luxembourg: Eur. Found. Improv. Living Work. Cond http://www.vub.ac.be/SOCO/demo/papersonline/R1456a_en.pdf
  158. Virtanen M, Kivimäki M, Elovainio M, Vahtera J, Ferrie JE. 158.  2003. From insecure to secure employment: changes in work, health, health related behaviours, and sickness absence. Occup. Environ. Med. 60:12948–53 [Google Scholar]
  159. Virtanen M, Kivimäki M, Ferrie JE, Elovainio M, Honkonen T. 159.  et al. 2008. Temporary employment and antidepressant medication: a register linkage study. J. Psychiatr. Res. 42:3221–29 [Google Scholar]
  160. Virtanen M, Kivimäki M, Joensuu M, Virtanen P, Elovainio M, Vahtera J. 160.  2005. Temporary employment and health: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 34:3610–22 [Google Scholar]
  161. Virtanen M, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J, Elovainio M, Sund R. 161.  et al. 2006. Sickness absence as a risk factor for job termination, unemployment, and disability pension among temporary and permanent employees. Occup. Environ. Med. 63:3212–17 [Google Scholar]
  162. Virtanen M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, Jokela M, Heikkilä K. 162.  et al. 2013. Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 347:f4746 [Google Scholar]
  163. Virtanen P, Janlert U, Hammarström A. 163.  2011. Exposure to temporary employment and job insecurity: a longitudinal study of the health effects. Occup. Environ. Med. 68:8570–74 [Google Scholar]
  164. Virtanen P, Liukkonen V, Vahtera J, Kivimäki M, Koskenvuo M. 164.  2003. Health inequalities in the workforce: the labour market core-periphery structure. Int. J. Epidemiol. 32:61015–21 [Google Scholar]
  165. Virtanen P, Vahtera J, Nakari R, Pentti J, Kivimäki M. 165.  2004. Economy and job contract as contexts of sickness absence practices: revisiting locality and habitus. Soc. Sci. Med. 58:71219–29 [Google Scholar]
  166. Vives A. 166.  2010. A multidimensional approach to precarious employment: measurement, association with poor mental health and prevalence in the Spanish workforce PhD Thesis, Univ. Pompeu Fabra., Dep. Ciènc. Exp. de la Salut., Barcelona
  167. Vives A, Amable M, Ferrer M, Moncada S, Llorens C. 167.  et al. 2010. The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES): psychometric properties of a new tool for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers. Occup. Environ. Med. 67:8548–55 [Google Scholar]
  168. Vives A, Amable M, Ferrer M, Moncada S, Llorens C. 168.  et al. 2013. Employment precariousness and poor mental health: evidence from Spain on a new social determinant of health. J. Environ. Public Health 2013978656
  169. Vives A, Vanroelen C, Amable M, Ferrer M, Moncada S. 169.  et al. 2011. Employment precariousness in Spain: prevalence, social distribution, and population-attributable risk percent of poor mental health. Int. J. Health Serv. 41:4625–46 [Google Scholar]
  170. Vosko LF. 170.  2006. Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada Quebec: McGill-Queen's Univ. Press

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error