1932

Abstract

Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30–40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change–related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021740
2016-03-18
2024-04-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/37/1/annurev-publhealth-032315-021740.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021740&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. ACGIH (Am. Conf. Gov. Ind. Hyg.) 2009. TLVs for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indicators. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH
  2. Bernard TE, Pourmoghani M. 2.  1999. Prediction of workplace wet bulb global temperature. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 14:126–34 [Google Scholar]
  3. Berry HL, Bowen K, Kjellstrom T. 3.  2010. Climate change and mental health: a causal pathways framework. Int. J. Public Health 55:123–32 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bridger RS. 4.  2003. Introduction to Ergonomics London: Taylor & Francis, 2nd ed..
  5. Bröde P, Balzejczyk K, Fiala D, Havenith G, Holmér I. 5.  et al. 2013. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment. Ind. Health 51:16–24 [Google Scholar]
  6. Brotherhood JR. 6.  2008. Heat stress and strain in exercise and sport. J. Sci. Med. Sport 11:6–19 [Google Scholar]
  7. Burke M, Hsiang SM, Miguel E. 7.  2015. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature 527:235–39 [Google Scholar]
  8. Casa DJ, Clarkson PM, Roberts WO. 8.  2005. American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on hydration and physical activity: consensus statements. Curr. Sports Med. Rep. 4:115–27 [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2008. Heat-related deaths among crop workers—United States, 1992–2006. MMWR Weekly 57:24649–53 [Google Scholar]
  10. Collins M, Knutti R, Arblaster J, Dufresne J-L, Fichefet T. 10.  et al. 2013. Long-term climate change: projections, commitments and irreversibility. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change TF Stocker, D Qin, G-K Plattner, M Tignor, SK Allen 1029–36 Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  11. Common MS, Stagl S. 11.  2005. Ecological Economics: An Introduction Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  12. Costello A, Abbas M, Allen A, Ball S, Bell S, Bellamy R. 12.  et al. 2009. Managing the health effects of climate change. Lancet-Univ. Coll. London Inst. Glob. Health Comm. Lancet 373:1693–733 [Google Scholar]
  13. Dapi LN, Rocklov J, Nguefack-Tsague G, Tetanye E, Kjellstrom T. 13.  2010. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change. Glob. Health Action 3: doi: 10.3402/gha.v3i0.5610
  14. 14. DARA 2012. Climate Vulnerability Monitor 2012: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet Madrid: Fund. DARA Int, 2nd. http://www.daraint.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/CVM2-Low.pdf
  15. De Blois J, Kjellstrom T, Agewall S, Ezekowitz JA, Armstrong PW, Atar D. 15.  2015. The effects of climate change on cardiac health. Cardiology 131:209–17 [Google Scholar]
  16. Dell M, Jones BF, Olken BA. 16.  2009. Temperature and income: reconciling new cross-sectional and panel estimates. Am. Econ. Rev. 99:198–204 [Google Scholar]
  17. Dorgan CB, Dorgan CE, Kanarek MS, Willman AJ. 17.  1998. Health and productivity benefits of improved indoor air quality. ASHRAE Trans. 104:658–68 [Google Scholar]
  18. Dunne JP, Stoufer RJ, John JG. 18.  2013. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming. Nat. Clim. Change 3: doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1827 [Google Scholar]
  19. Edwards MJ, Shiota K, Smith MSR, Walsh DA. 19.  1995. Hyperthermia and birth defects. Reprod. Toxicology 9:411–25 [Google Scholar]
  20. Epstein Y, Moran D. 20.  2006. Thermal comfort and the heat stress indices. Ind. Health 44:388–98 [Google Scholar]
  21. Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD. 21.  et al. 2014. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change New York: /Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  22. Gamble JL, Hess JJ. 22.  2012. Temperature and violent crime in Dallas, Texas: relationships and implications of climate change. West. J. Emerg. Med. 13:3239–46 [Google Scholar]
  23. García-Trabanino R, Dominguez J, Jansa J, Oliver A. 23.  2005. Proteinuria and chronic kidney disease on the coast of El Salvador. Nefrología 25:31–38 (in Spanish) [Google Scholar]
  24. Gasparrini A, Guo Y, Hashizume M, Lavigne E, Zanobetti A. 24.  et al. 2015. Mortality risk attributable to high and low ambient temperature: a multi-country observational study. Lancet 386:369–75 [Google Scholar]
  25. Gibson O, Pattisson P. 25.  2014. Qatar World Cup: 185 Nepalese died in 2013 - official records. Guardian. Jan. 24. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/24/qatar-2022-world-cup-185-nepalese-workers-died-2013
  26. Goldman RF. 26.  2001. Introduction to heat-related problems in military operations. Textbook of Military Medicine 13–49 Washington, DC: Dep. US Army [Google Scholar]
  27. Hales S, Kovats S, Lloyd S, Campbell-Lendrum D. 27.  2014. Quantitative Risk Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Selected Causes of Death, 2030s and 2050s. Geneva: WHO
  28. Hancock PA, Ross JM, Szalma JL. 28.  2007. A meta-analysis of performance response under thermal stressors. Hum. Factors 49:851–77 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hancock PA, Vasmatzidis I. 29.  2003. Effects of heat stress on cognitive performance: the current state of knowledge. Int. J. Hyperth. 19:355–72 [Google Scholar]
  30. Hansen AL, Bi P, Ryan P, Nitschke M, Pisaniello D, Tucker G. 30.  2008. The effect of heat waves on hospital admissions for renal disease in a temperate city of Australia. Int. J. Epidemiol. 37:1359–65 [Google Scholar]
  31. Havenith G. 31.  1999. Heat balance when wearing protective clothing. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 43:289–96 [Google Scholar]
  32. Hemon D, Jougla E. 32.  2003. Excess mortality associated with heat wave in August 2003 Surmortalité liée à la canicule d'août 2003 - Rapport d'étape Tech. Rep. to the Minist. of Health, Family and Disabled Pers. (Rapp. remis au Minist. de la Santé, de la Famille et des Pers. Handicap.), Sept. 25. INSERM, Paris. (in French)
  33. Holmer I, Nilsson H, Havenith G, Parsons K. 33.  1999. Clothing convective heat exchange—proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 43:329–37 [Google Scholar]
  34. 34. ISO (Int. Stand. Org.) 1989. Hot environments - estimation of the heat stress on working man, based on the WBGT-index (wet bulb globe temperature) ISO Stand. 7243. ISO, Geneva [Google Scholar]
  35. Jay O, Cramer MN, Ravanelli NM, Hodder SG. 35.  2015. Should electric fans be used in a heat wave?. Appl. Ergon. 46:137–43 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kim Y, Kim H, Honda Y, Guo YL, Chen BY. 36.  et al. 2015. Suicide and ambient temperature in East Asian countries: a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. Environ. Health Perspect. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1409392
  37. Kjellstrom T. 37.  2000. Climate change, heat exposure and labour productivity. Epidemiology 11:S144 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kjellstrom T. 38.  2009. Editorial: Climate change, direct heat exposure, health and well-being in low and middle-income countries. Glob. Health Action 2: doi: 10.3402/gha.v2i0.1958
  39. Kjellstrom T. 39.  2015. Impact of climate conditions on occupational health and related economic losses: a new feature of global and urban health in the context of climate change. Asia-Pac. J. Public Health. doi: 10.1177/1010539514568711
  40. Kjellstrom T, Butler A-J, Lucas R, Bonita R. 40.  2010. Public health impact of global heating due to climate change—potential effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. Int. J. Public Health 55:97–103 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kjellstrom T, Holmer I, Lemke B. 41.  2009. Workplace heat stress, health and productivity - an increasing challenge for low and middle-income countries during climate change. Glob. Health Action 2:Spec. Vol.46–51 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kjellstrom T, Kovats S, Lloyd SJ, Holt T, Tol RSJ. 42.  2009. The direct impact of climate change on regional labour productivity. Int. Arch. Environ. Occup. Health 64:217–27 [Google Scholar]
  43. Kjellstrom T, Lemke B, Otto M. 43.  2013. Mapping occupational heat exposure and effects in South-East Asia: ongoing time trends 1980–2009 and future estimates to 2050. Ind. Health 51:56–67 [Google Scholar]
  44. Kjellstrom T, Lemke B, Otto M, Hyatt O, Dear K. 44.  2014. Occupational heat stress. Tech. Rep 20144 Health Environ. Int. Trust, Mapua, New Zealand. http://www.climatechip.org/sites/default/files/publications/TP2014_4_Occupational_Heat_Stress_WHO.pdf
  45. Kjellstrom T, Lemke B, Otto PM, Hyatt OM, Briggs DJ, Freyberg CA. 45.  2015. Heat impacts on work, human performance and daily life. Climate Change and Public Health BS Levy, JA Patz 73–86 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  46. Knowlton K, Rotkin-Ellman M, King G, Margolis HG, Smith D. 46.  et al. 2008. The 2006 California heat wave: impacts of hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Environ. Health Perspect. 117:61–67 [Google Scholar]
  47. Kopp R, Hsiang S, Muir-Wood R, Jina A, Rising J, Delgado M. 47.  et al. 2014. American Climate Prospectus: Economic Risks in the United States New York: Rhodium Group https://gspp.berkeley.edu/assets/uploads/research/pdf/American_Climate_Prospectus.pdf
  48. Kovats RS, Hajat S. 48.  2007. Heat stress and public health: a critical review. Annu. Rev. Public Health 29:41–55 [Google Scholar]
  49. Leach G. 49.  1975. Energy and food production. Food Policy 1:62–73 [Google Scholar]
  50. Lemke B, Kjellstrom T. 50.  2012. Calculating workplace WBGT from meteorological data. Ind. Health 50:267–78 [Google Scholar]
  51. Liljegren J, Carhart R, Lawday P, Tschopp S, Sharp R. 51.  2008. Modeling wet bulb globe temperature using standard meteorological measurements. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 5:645–55 [Google Scholar]
  52. Lundgren K, Kjellstrom T. 52.  2013. Sustainability challenges from climate change and air conditioning use in urban areas. Sustainability 5:3116–28 [Google Scholar]
  53. Maloney SK, Forbes CF. 53.  2011. What effect will a few degrees of climate change have on human heat balance? Implications for human activity. Int. J. Biometeorol. 55:147–60 [Google Scholar]
  54. McLeman R, Smit B. 54.  2006. Migration as an adaptation to climate change. Clim. Change 76:31–53 [Google Scholar]
  55. McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum D, Kovats S, Edwards S, Wilkinson P. 55.  et al. 2004. Global climate change. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks, Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors 2 M Ezzati, A Lopes, A Roders 1543–650 Geneva: World Health Organ. [Google Scholar]
  56. Miller VS, Bates GP. 56.  2007. The Thermal Work Limit is a simple reliable heat index for the protection of workers in thermally stressful environments. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 51:553–61 [Google Scholar]
  57. Mueller V, Gray C, Kosec K. 57.  2014. Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan. Nat. Clim. Change 4:182–85 [Google Scholar]
  58. Murray C, Lopez A. 58.  1996. Global Burden of Disease Boston, MA: Harvard Sch. Public Health
  59. Nag A, Nag P. 59.  1992. Heat stress of women doing manipulative work. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 53:751–56 [Google Scholar]
  60. Nag PK, Nag A, Sekhar P, Pandit S. 60.  2009. Vulnerability to heat stress: scenario in Western India World Health Organ. (WHO) Rep. APW No. SO 08 AMS 6157206, Natl. Inst. Occup. Health, Ahmedabad, India. http://searo.who.int/india/topics/occupational_health/Occupational_Health_Vulnerability_to_heat_stress_scenario_of_western_India.pdf
  61. Oke TR. 61.  1973. City size and the urban heat island. Atmos. Environ. 7:769–79 [Google Scholar]
  62. Olsson L, Opondo M, Tschakert P, Agrawal A, Eriksen SH. 62.  et al. 2014. Livelihoods and poverty. See Ref. 21 793–832
  63. Pal JS, Eltahir EAB. 63.  2015. Future temperature in southwest Asia projected to exceed threshold for human adaptability. Nat. Clim. Change. doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2833
  64. Parsons K. 64.  2014. Human thermal environments. The Effects of Hot, Moderate and Cold Temperatures on Human Health, Comfort and Performance1–32 London: Taylor & Francis, 3rd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  65. Raleigh C, Linke A, O'Loughlin J. 65.  2014. Extreme temperatures and violence. Nat. Clim. Change 4:276–77 [Google Scholar]
  66. Ramsey JD, Bernard TE. 66.  2000. Heat stress. Patty's Industrial Hygiene RL Harris Ch. 22 New York: Wiley, 5th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  67. Ramsey JD, Burford CL, Beshir MY, Jensen RL. 67.  1983. Effects of workplace thermal conditions on safe working behavior. J. Saf. Res. 14:105–14 [Google Scholar]
  68. Rijal K, Bansal NK, Grover PD. 68.  1991. Energy in subsistence agriculture: a case study of Nepal. Int. J. Energy Res. 15:109–22 [Google Scholar]
  69. Robine JM, Cheung SL, Le Roy S, Van Oyen H, Griffiths C. 69.  et al. 2008. Death toll exceeded 70,000 in Europe during the summer of 2003. C. R. Biol. 331:2171–78 [Google Scholar]
  70. Sahu S, Sett M, Kjellstrom T. 70.  2013. Heat exposure, cardiovascular stress and work productivity in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future. Ind. Health 51:424–31 [Google Scholar]
  71. Schrier RW, Henderson HS, Tisher CC, Tannen RL. 71.  1967. Nephropathy associated with heat stress and exercise. Ann. Intern. Med. 67:356–76 [Google Scholar]
  72. Schulte PA, Chun HK. 72.  2009. Climate change and occupational safety and health: establishing a preliminary framework. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 6:542–54 [Google Scholar]
  73. Sherwood SC, Huber M. 73.  2010. An adaptability limit to climate change due to heat stress. PNAS 107:9552–55 [Google Scholar]
  74. Sims BG, Kienzle J. 74.  2006. Farm Power and Mechanization for Small Farms in Sub-Saharan Africa Agric. Food Eng. Tech. Rep. No. 3 Rome: Food and Agric. Organ. (FAO) of the U.N.
  75. Smith KR, Woodward A, Campbell-Lendrum D, Chadee DD, Honda Y. 75.  et al. 2014. Human health: impacts, adaptation, and co-benefits. See Ref. 21 709–54
  76. Tawatsupa B, Lim LL-Y, Kjellstrom T, Seubsman S, Sleigh A. 76.  Thai Cohort Study Team 2010. The association between overall health, psychological stress and occupational heat stress among a large national cohort of 40,913 Thai workers. Glob. Health Action 3:5034 [Google Scholar]
  77. Tawatsupa B, Lim LL-Y, Kjellstrom T, Seubsman S, Sleigh A. 77.  Thai Cohort Study Team 2012. Association between occupational heat stress and kidney disease among 37,816 workers in the Thai Cohort Study (TCS). J. Epidemiol. 22:251–60 [Google Scholar]
  78. Tawatsupa B, Yiengprugsawan V, Kjellstrom T, Berecki-Gisolf J, Seubsman SA, Sleigh A. 78.  2013. Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers: findings of the Thai Cohort Study. Ind. Health 51:34–46 [Google Scholar]
  79. Titus DJ, Furones C, Atkins CM, Dietrich WD. 79.  2015. Emergence of cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury due to hyperthermia. Exp. Neurol. 263:254–62 [Google Scholar]
  80. Vanakoski J, Seppälä T. 80.  1998. Heat exposure and drugs: a review of the effects of hyperthermia on pharmacokinetics. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 34:311–22 [Google Scholar]
  81. Warszawski L, Frieler K, Huber V, Piontek F, Serdeczny O, Scewe J. 81.  2014. The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP): project framework. PNAS 111:3228–32 [Google Scholar]
  82. Wasterlund DS. 82.  1998. A review of heat stress research with application to forestry. Appl. Ergon. 29:179–83 [Google Scholar]
  83. Watts N, Adger WN, Agnolucci P, Blackstock J, Byass P. 83.  et al. 2015. Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health. Lancet 386:1861–914 [Google Scholar]
  84. Wesseling C, Crowe J, Hogstedt C, Jakobsson K, Lucas R, Wegman D. 84.  2013. Mesoamerican Nephropathy Report from the First International Research Workshop on MeN Heredia, Costa Rica: IRET, Univ. Nac.
  85. 85. WMO (World Meteorol. Organ.) 2008. Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observations WMO No 8 Geneva: WMO, 7th ed..
  86. 86. World Bank 2014. Turn Down the Heat: Confronting the New Climate Normal Washington, DC: World Bank
  87. Wyndham CH. 87.  1965. A survey of the causal factors in heat stroke and of their prevention in the gold mining industry. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. 65:125–55 [Google Scholar]
  88. Wyndham CH. 88.  1969. Adaptation to heat and cold. Environ. Res. 2:442–69 [Google Scholar]
  89. Yaglou CP, Minard D. 89.  1957. Control of heat casualties at military centers. AMA Arch. Ind. Health 16:302–16 [Google Scholar]
  90. Zander KK, Botzen WJW, Oppermann E, Kjellstrom T, Garnett ST. 90.  2015. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia. Nat. Clim. Change 5:647–51 [Google Scholar]
  91. Zhao J, Zhu N, Lu S. 91.  2009. Productivity model in hot and humid environment based on heat tolerance time analysis. Build. Environ. 44:112202–7 [Google Scholar]
  92. Zhou J. 92.  2011. Climate change, health and migration in urban China. Front. Econ. China 6:592–615 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021740
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021740
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error