1932

Abstract

Racism. Sexism. Heterosexism. Gender binarism. Together, they comprise intimately harmful, distinct, and entangled societal systems of self-serving domination and privilege that structure the embodiment of health inequities. Guided by the ecosocial theory of disease distribution, I synthesize key features of the specified “isms” and provide a measurement schema, informed by research from both the Global North and the Global South. Metrics discussed include () structural, including explicit rules and laws, nonexplicit rules and laws, and area-based or institutional nonrule measures; and () individual-level (exposures and internalized) measures, including explicit self-report, implicit, and experimental. Recommendations include () expanding the use of structural measures to extend beyond the current primary emphasis on psychosocial individual-level measures; () analyzing exposure in relation to both life course and historical generation; () developing measures of anti-isms; and () developing terrestrially grounded measures that can reveal links between the structural drivers of unjust isms and their toll on environmental degradation, climate change, and health inequities.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094017
2020-04-01
2024-04-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/41/1/annurev-publhealth-040119-094017.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094017&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    Alexander M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness New York: New Press
  2. 2. 
    Almond DV, Chay KY, Greenstone M 2006. Civil rights, the War on Poverty, and black-white convergence in infant mortality in the rural South and Mississippi Work. Pap. 07–04, Dep. Econ., Mass. Inst. Technol Cambridge: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=961021
  3. 3. 
    Altman A. 2016. Discrimination. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy EN Zalta Stanford, CA: Metaphys. Res. Lab, Stanford Univ. Winter ed https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2016/entries/discrimination/
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4. 
    Anderson C. 2018. One Person, No Vote: How Voter Suppression Is Destroying Our Democracy New York: Bloomsbury
  5. 5. 
    Arístegui I, Radusky PD, Zalazar V, Romero M, Schwartz J, Sued O 2017. Impact of the gender identity law in Argentinean transgender women. Int. J. Transgend. 18:4446–56
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    Armstead CA, Lawler KA, Gorden G, Cross J, Gibbons J 1989. Relationship of racial stressors to blood pressure responses and anger expression in black college students. Health Psychol 8:541–56
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. 
    Austin KF, Noble MD, Mejia MT 2014. Gendered vulnerabilities to a neglected disease: a comparative investigation of the effect of women's legal economic rights and social status on malaria rates. Int. J. Comp. Sociol. 55:3204–28
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8. 
    Bailey ZD, Krieger N, Agénor M, Graves J, Linos N, Bassett M 2017. Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. Lancet 389:1453–63
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    Baldwin AM, Dodge B, Schick V, Sanders SA, Fortenberry JD 2017. Sexual minority women's satisfaction with health care providers and state-level structural support: investigating the impact of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender nondiscrimination legislation. Women's Health Issues 27:3271–78
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. 
    Banaji MR, Greenwald AG. 2013. Blindspot: Hidden Biases of Good People New York: Delacourt
  11. 11. 
    Barkan S. 2018. Measuring perceived mistreatment: potential problems in asking about “discrimination. .” Sociol. Inq. 88:2245–53
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12. 
    Bastos JL, Celeste RK, Faerstein E, Barros AJD 2010. Racial discrimination and health: a systematic review of scales with a focus on their psychometric properties. Soc. Sci. Med. 70:71091–99
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. 
    Beckfield J. 2018. Political Sociology and the People's Health New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  14. 14. 
    Beckfield J, Krieger N. 2009. Epi + demos + cracy: linking political systems and priorities to the magnitude of health inequities—evidence, gaps, and a research agenda. Epidemiol. Rev. 31:1152–77
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    Beckfield J, Morris KA, Bambra C 2018. How social policy contributes to the distribution of population health: the case of gender health equity. Scand. J. Public Health 46:6–17
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. 
    Bell K. 2016. Bread and roses: a gender perspective on environmental justice and public health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13:101005
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. 
    Berkman LF, Kawachi I, Glymour M 2014. Social Epidemiology New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2nd ed..
  18. 18. 
    Bethlehem J. 2010. Selection bias in web surveys. Int. Stat. Rev. 78:161–88
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    Beyrer C. 2014. Pushback: the current wave of anti-homosexuality laws and impacts on health. PLOS Med 11:6e1001658
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. 
    Bhandari A, Burroway R. 2018. Hungry for equality: a longitudinal analysis of women's legal rights and food security in developing countries. Sociol. Q. 59:3424–48
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21. 
    Birn A-E, Pillay Y, Holtz TH 2017. Textbook of Global Health New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  22. 22. 
    Blair IV, Brondolo E. 2017. Moving beyond the individual: community-level prejudice and health. Soc. Sci. Med. 183:169–72
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. 
    Blinder A, Burch ADS. 2019. Fate of Confederate monuments is stalled by competing legal battles. New York Times Jan. 20. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/20/us/confederate-monuments-legal-battles.html
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. 
    Bonifacio GT 2018. Global Currents in Gender and Feminisms: Canadian and International Perspectives Bingley, UK: Emerald
  25. 25. 
    Bosse JD, Chiodo L. 2016. It is complicated: gender and sexual orientation in LGBTQ youth. J. Clin. Nurs. 25:3665–75
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. 
    Braveman P, Gruskin S. 2003. Defining equity in health. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 57:254–58
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. 
    Brown TN. 2001. Measuring self-perceived racial and ethnic discrimination in social surveys. Sociol. Spectr. 21:3377–92
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. 
    Buchanan NT, Settles IH, Wu IHC, Hayashino DS 2018. Sexual harassment, racial harassment, and well-being among Asian American women: an intersectional approach. Women Therapy 41:3–4/S1261–80
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29. 
    Burks AC, Cramer RJ, Henderson CE, Stroud CH, Crosby JW, Graham J 2018. Frequency, nature and correlates of hate crime victimization experiences in an urban sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual community members. J. Interpers. Violence 33:3402–20
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. 
    Cadwalladr C. 2018. Our Cambridge Analytica scoop shocked the world. But the whole truth remains elusive. The Guardian Dec. 23. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/dec/23/cambridge-analytica-facebook-scoop-carole-cadwalladr-shocked-world-truth-still-elusive
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. 
    Campos-Serna J, Ronda-Pérez E, Artacoz L, Moen BE, Benavides FG 2013. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review. Int. J. Equity Health 12:57
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32. 
    Carliner H, Sarvet AL, Gordon AR, Hasin DR 2017. Gender discrimination, educational attainment, and drug use among U.S. women. Soc. Psychol. Psychiatr. Epi. 52:3279–89
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33. 
    Carney DR, Banaji MR, Krieger N 2010. Implicit measures reveal evidence of personal discrimination. Self Identity 9:2162–76
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34. 
    Carroll A, Mendos LR. 2017. State sponsored homophobia 2017: a world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalization, protection, and recognition Rep., Int. Lesbian, Gay, Bisex., Trans Intersex Assoc. (ILGA), Geneva: https://ilga.org/sites/default/files/ILGA_State_Sponsored_Homophobia_2017_WEB.pdf
  35. 35. 
    Caughey D, Warshaw C. 2016. The dynamics of state policy liberalism: 1936–2014. Am. J. Political Sci. 60:4899–913
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. 
    Chae DH, Clouston S, Martz CD, Hatzenbuehler ML, Cooper HLF et al. 2018. Area racism and birth outcomes among blacks in the United States. Soc. Sci. Med. 199:SI49–55
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37. 
    Chae DH, Lincoln KD, Adler NE, Syme SL 2010. Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes. Soc. Sci. Med. 71:61182–88
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38. 
    Chae DH, Powell WA, Nuru-Jeter AM, Smith-Bynum MA, Seaton EK et al. 2017. The role of racial identity and implicit racial bias in self-reported racial discrimination: implications for depression among African American men. J. Black Psychol. 43:789–812
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39. 
    Chambers BD, Erausquin JT, Tanner AE, Nichols TR, Brown-Jeffy S 2018. Testing the association between traditional and novel indicators of county-level structural racism and birth outcomes among black and white women. J. Racial Ethn. Disparities 5:5966–77
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40. 
    Chan DK-S, Lam CB, Chow SY, Cheung SF 2008. Examining the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of workplace sexual harassment: a meta-analytic review. Psychol. Women's Q. 32:4362–76
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    Choi KH, Bowleg L, Neilands TB 2011. The effects of sexism, psychological distress, and difficult sexual situations on U.S. women's sexual risk behaviors. AIDS Educ. Prev. 23:397–411
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42. 
    Chodzen G, Hidalgo MA, Chen D, Garofalo R 2019. Minority stress factors associated with depression and anxiety among transgender and gender-nonconforming youth. J. Adolesc. Health 64:4467–71
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43. 
    Coburn J. 2017. Concepts for studying urban environmental justice. Curr. Env. Health Rep. 4:161–67
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44. 
    Correll J, Judd CM, Park B, Wittenbrink B 2010. Measuring prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination JF Dovidio, M Hewstone, P Glick, VM Esses 45–62 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45. 
    Daoud N, Gao M, Osman A, Muntaner C 2018. Interpersonal and institutional ethnic discrimination and mental health in a random sample of Palestinian minority men smokers in Israel. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 53:101111–22
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46. 
    de Freitas DF, Fernandes-Jesus M, Ferreira PD, Coimbra S, Teixeira PM et al. 2018. Psychological correlates of perceived ethnic discrimination in Europe: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Violence 8:6/SI712–25
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. 
    Diehl A, Vieira DL, Zaneti MM, Fanganiello A, Sharan P et al. 2017. Social stigma, legal and public health barriers faced by the third gender phenomenon in Brazil, India, and Mexico: travesties, hijras and muxes. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry 63:5389–99
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. 
    Dinh H, Strazdins L, Welsh J 2017. Hour-glass ceilings: work-hour thresholds, gendered health inequities. Soc. Sci. Med. 176:42–51
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49. 
    Doyal L, Gough I. 1991. A Theory of Human Need Basingstoke, UK: MacMillan
  50. 50. 
    Du Bois SN, Yoder W, Guy AA, Manser K, Ramos S 2018. Examining associations between state-level transgender policies and transgender health. Transgend. Health 3:1220–24
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51. 
    Eliezer D, Major B, Mendes WB 2010. The costs of caring: Gender identification increases threat following exposure to sexism. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 46:1159–65
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. 
    English D, Bowleg L, del Río-González AM, Tschann JM, Agans R, Malebranche DJ 2017. Measuring black men's police-based discrimination experiences: development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) scale. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 23:2185–99
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. 
    Espey E, Dennis A, Landy U 2019. The importance of access to comprehensive reproductive health care, including abortion: a statement from women's health professional organizations. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 220:167–70
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54. 
    Fausto-Sterling A. 2012. Sex/Gender: Biology in a Social World New York: Routledge
  55. 55. 
    FHA (Fed. Housing Adm.) 1934. Underwriting Manual: Underwriting and Valuation Procedure Under Title II of the National Housing Act Washington, DC: Fed. Hous. Adm.
  56. 56. 
    Frederickson GM. 2002. Racism: A Short History Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  57. 57. 
    Friel S. 2019. Climate Change and the People's Health New York: Oxford
  58. 58. 
    Gee GC, Ford CL. 2011. Structural racism and health inequities: old issues, new directions. Du Bois Rev 8:1115–32
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. 
    Gezinski LB. 2012. The global gag rule: impacts of conservative ideology on women's health. Int. Soc. Work 55:6837–49
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60. 
    Gianattasio KZ, Wu Q, Glymour MM, Power MC 2019. Comparison of methods for algorithmic classification of dementia status in the Health and Retirement Study. Epidemiol 30:291–302
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. 
    Gilbert SF, Epel D. 2015. Ecological Developmental Biology: The Environmental Regulation of Development, Health, and Evolution Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc.
  62. 62. 
    Gold RB, Starrs AM. 2017. US reproductive health and rights: beyond the global gag rule. Lancet Public Health 2:3e122–23
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63. 
    Goodman SN, Goel S, Cullen MR 2018. Machine learning, health disparities, and causal reasoning (editorial). Ann. Int. Med. 169:883–84
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. 
    Greenwald AG, Poehlman TA, Uhlmann EL, Banaji MR 2009. Understanding and using the implicit association test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 97:17–41
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. 
    Grene M. 1975. People and other animals. The Understanding of Nature: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology M Grene 346–60 Dordrecht, Neth: D. Reidel
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. 
    Grodin MA, Tarantola D, Annas GJ, Gruskin S 2013. Health and Human Rights in a Changing World New York: Routledge, 3rd ed..
  67. 67. 
    Grusky DB, Hill J 2018. Inequality in the 21st Century Boulder, CO: Westview
  68. 68. 
    Guillaume A, Rossier C. 2018. Abortion around the world: an overview of legislation, measures, trends, and consequences, transl. P Reeve. Population 73:271–306
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69. 
    Haberle M, Kumiawan H 2018. Strategies for health justice: lessons from the field Field Rep., Poverty Race Res. Action Counc. (PPRAC) Washington, DC: https://prrac.org/strategies-for-health-justice-lessons-from-the-field/
  70. 70. 
    Hahn RA, Truman BI, Williams DR 2018. Civil rights as determinants of public health and racial and ethnic health equity: health care, education, employment, and housing in the United States. Soc. Sci. Med. Popul. Health 4:17–24
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71. 
    Harnois CE, Bastos JL. 2018. Discrimination, harassment, and gendered health inequities: Do perceptions of workplace mistreatment contribute to the gender gap in self-reported health. J. Health Soc. Behav. 59:2283–99
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72. 
    Harris RB, Stanley J, Cormack DM 2018. Racism and health in New Zealand: prevalence over time and associations between recent experience of racism and health and wellbeing measures using national survey data. PLOS ONE 13:5e0196476
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73. 
    Hatzenbuehler ML, McLaughlin KA, Keyes KM, Hasin DS 2010. The impact of institutional discrimination on psychiatric disorders in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: a prospective study. Am. J. Public Health 100:3452–59
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74. 
    Hill Collins P, Bilge S 2016. Intersectionality Cambridge, UK: Polity Press
  75. 75. 
    Hinton EK. 2016. From the War on Poverty to The War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  76. 76. 
    Hoggard LS, Hill LK, Gray DL, Sellers RM 2015. Capturing the cardiac effects of racial discrimination: Do the effects “keep going”. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 97:163–70
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77. 
    Homan P. 2019. Structural sexism and health in the United States: a new perspective on health inequality and the gender system. Am. Sociol. Rev. 84:3486–516
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78. 
    Huynh VH, Hunyh Q-L, Stein M-P 2017. Not just sticks and stones: indirect ethnic discrimination leads to greater physiological reactivity. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 23:3425–34
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79. 
    Jacoby SF, Dong B, Beard JH, Wiebe DJ, Morrison CN 2018. The enduring impact of historical and structural racism on urban violence in Philadelphia. Soc. Sci. Med. 199:87–95
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80. 
    Jäggi T, Jellestad L, Corbisiero S, Schaefer DJ, Jenewein J et al. 2018. Gender minority stress and depressive symptoms in transitioned Swiss transpersons. Biomed. Res. Int. 2018:8639263
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81. 
    Jane EA. 2017. Misogyny Online: A Short (And Brutish) History London: SAGE
  82. 82. 
    Kabel C. 2017. Health, equity and the narrative of place: commentary. NAM Perspect Nov. 27 https://nam.edu/health-equity-and-the-narrative-of-place
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83. 
    Kaplan GR, Ranjit N, Burgard SA 2008. Lifting gates, lengthening lives: Did civil rights policies improve the health of African American women in the 1960s and 1970s?. Making Americans Healthier: Social and Economic Policy as Health Policy RF Schoeni, JS House, G Kaplan, H Pollack 145–70 New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. 
    Khubchandani J, Soni A, Fahey N, Raithatha N, Prabhakaran A et al. 2018. Caste matters: perceived discrimination among women in rural India. Arch. Women's Ment. Health 21:2163–70
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85. 
    Kim M. 2015. Pay secrecy and the gender wage gap. Ind. Relat. 54:4648–67
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86. 
    Kimmel G. 2017. The Gendered Society New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 6th ed..
  87. 87. 
    Klein N. 2014. This Changes Everything: Capitalism versus the Climate New York: Simon & Schuster
  88. 88. 
    Kramar DE, Anderson A, Hilfer H, Branden K, Gutrich JJ 2018. A spatially informed analysis of environmental justice: analyzing the effects of gerrymandering and the proximity of minority populations to U.S. superfund sites. Environ. Justice 11:129–39
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89. 
    Kressin NR, Raymond KL, Manze M 2008. Perceptions of race/ethnicity-based discrimination: a review of measures and evaluation of their usefulness for the health care setting. J. Health Care Poor Underserved 19:3697–730
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90. 
    Krieger N. 1987. Shades of difference: theoretical underpinnings of the medical controversy on black/white differences in the United States, 1830–1870. Int. J. Health Serv. 17:2259–78
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91. 
    Krieger N. 1994. Epidemiology and the web of causation: Has anyone seen the spider?. Soc. Sci. Med. 39:7887–903
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92. 
    Krieger N. 1999. Embodying inequality: a review of concepts, measures, and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. Int. J. Health Services 29295–352. Repr., 2000. Discrimination and health. Social Epidemiology L Berkman, I Kawachi 36–75 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93. 
    Krieger N. 2001. Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Int. J. Epidemiol. 30:4668–77
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94. 
    Krieger N. 2003. Genders, sexes, and health: What are the connections—and why does it matter?. Int. J. Epidemiol. 32:652–57
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95. 
    Krieger N. 2005. Embodiment: a conceptual glossary for epidemiology. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 59:5350–55
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96. 
    Krieger N. 2008. Proximal, distal, and the politics of causation: What's level got to do with it?. Am. J. Public Health 98:221–30
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97. 
    Krieger N. 2011. Epidemiology and the People's Health: Theory and Context New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  98. 98. 
    Krieger N. 2012. Methods for the scientific study of discrimination and health: an ecosocial approach. Am. J. Public Health 102:936–44
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99. 
    Krieger N. 2014. Discrimination and health inequities. See Ref. 17 63–125 Repr., 2014 Int. J. Health Services 44:643–710
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100. 
    Krieger N, Carney D, Lancaster K, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Banaji M 2010. Combining explicit and implicit measures of racial discrimination in health research. Am. J. Public Health 100:81485–92
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101. 
    Krieger N, Chen JT, Coull B, Waterman PD, Beckfield J 2013. The unique impact of abolition of Jim Crow laws on reducing inequities in infant death rates and implications for choice of comparison groups in analyzing societal determinants of health. Am. J. Public Health 103:122234–44
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102. 
    Krieger N, Chen JT, Coull BA, Beckfield J, Kiang MV, Waterman PD 2014. Jim Crow and premature mortality among the US black and white population, 1960–2009: an age-period-cohort analysis. Epidemiology 25:4494–504
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103. 
    Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Hartman C, Stoddard AM et al. 2008. The inverse hazard law: blood pressure, sexual harassment, racial discrimination, workplace abuse and occupational exposures in US low-income black, white, and Latino workers. Soc. Sci. Med. 67:121970–81
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104. 
    Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Beckfield S 2013. History, haldanes, and health inequities: exploring phenotypic changes in body size by generation and income level in the US-born white and black non-Hispanic populations, 1959–1962 to 2005–2008. Int. J. Epidemiol. 42:281–95
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105. 
    Krieger N, Davey Smith G 2016. The tale wagged by the DAG: broadening the scope of causal inference and explanation for epidemiology. Int. J. Epidemiol. 45:1787–808
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106. 
    Krieger N, Jahn JL, Waterman PD 2017. Jim Crow and estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer: US-born black and white non-Hispanic women, 1992–2012. Cancer Causes Control 28:49–59
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107. 
    Krieger N, Jahn JL, Waterman PD, Chen JT 2018. Breast cancer estrogen receptor status according to biological generation: US black and white women born 1915–1979. Am. J. Epidemiol. 187:960–70
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108. 
    Krieger N, Kim R, Feldman J, Waterman PD 2018. Using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes at multiple geographic levels to monitor health inequities in an era of growing spatial social polarization: Massachusetts, USA (2010–2014). Int. J. Epidemiol. 47:3788–819
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109. 
    Krieger N, Rowley DL, Herman AA, Avery B, Phillips MT 1993. Racism, sexism, and social class: implications for studies of health, disease, and well-being. Am. J. Prev. Med. 9:Suppl.82–122
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110. 
    Krieger N, Sidney S. 1996. Racial discrimination and blood pressure: the CARDIA study of young black and white adults. Am. J. Public Health 86:101370–78
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111. 
    Krieger N, Smith K, Naishadham D, Hartman C, Barbeau EM 2005. Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Soc. Sci. Med. 61:71576–96
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112. 
    Krieger N, Waterman PD, Gryparis A, Coull BA 2015. Black carbon exposure, socioeconomic and racial/ethnic spatial polarization, and the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE). Health Place 34:215–28
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113. 
    Krieger N, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Chen JT, Carney DR et al. 2011. Exposing racial discrimination: implicit & explicit measures—the My Body, My Story study of 1005 US-born black & white community health center members. PLOS ONE 6:11e27636
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 114. 
    Krieger N, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Chen JT, Smith KS et al. 2013. Racial discrimination & cardiovascular disease risk: My Body My Story study of 1005 US-born black and white community health center participants (US). PLOS ONE 8:10e77174
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115. 
    Krieger N, Waterman PD, Spasojevic J, Li W, Maduro G, Van Wye G 2016. Public health monitoring of privilege and deprivation with the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE). Am. J. Public Health 106:2256–63
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 116. 
    Kubzansky LD, Seeman TE, Glymour MM 2014. Biological pathways linking social conditions and health: plausible mechanisms and emerging puzzles. See Ref. 17 512–61
  117. 117. 
    Latour B. 2018. Down to Earth: Politics in the New Climatic Regime Cambridge, UK/Medford, MA: Polity. Engl. Ed.
  118. 118. 
    Lauster N, Easterbrook A. 2011. No room for new families? A field experiment measuring rental discrimination against same-sex couples and single parents. Soc. Probl. 58:3389–409
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 119. 
    Lepore SJ, Revenson TA, Weinberger SL, Weston P, Frisina PG et al. 2006. Effects of social stressors on cardiovascular reactivity among black and white women. Ann. Behav. Med. 31:2120–27
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 120. 
    Levin S. 2019. Oracle systematically underpaid thousands of women, lawsuit says. The Guardian Jan. 18. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/jan/18/oracle-women-workers-lawsuit-salaries-pay
    [Google Scholar]
  121. 121. 
    Lewis TT, Cogburn CD, Williams DR 2015. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 11:407–40
    [Google Scholar]
  122. 122. 
    Liebler CA, Porter SR, Fernandez LE, Noon JM, Ennis SR 2017. America's churning races: race and ethnic response changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census. Demography 54:1259–84
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 123. 
    Liptak A. 2019. Supreme Court revives transgender ban for military service. New York Times Jan. 22. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/22/us/politics/transgender-ban-military-supreme-court.html
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 124. 
    Lipton P. 2004. Inference to the Best Explanation London: Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group, 2nd ed..
  125. 125. 
    Lukachko A, Hatzenbuhler ML, Keyes KM 2014. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States. Soc. Sci. Med. 103:SI142–50
    [Google Scholar]
  126. 126. 
    Macmillan R, Shofia N, Sigle W 2018. Gender and the politics of death: female representation, political and developmental context, and population health in a cross-national panel. Demography 55:51905–34
    [Google Scholar]
  127. 127. 
    MacPhee J 2010. Celebrate People's History: The Poster Book of Resistance and Revolution New York: Fem. Press, City Univ. N. Y.
  128. 128. 
    Major B, Dovidio JF, Link BG 2017. The Oxford Handbook of Stigma, Discrimination, and Health New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  129. 129. 
    Marshall BD, Socías ME, Kerr T, Zalazar V, Sued O, Arístegui I 2016. Prevalence and correlates of lifetime suicide attempts among transgender persons in Argentina. J. Homosex. 63:7955–67
    [Google Scholar]
  130. 130. 
    McClure E, Feinstein L, Cordoba E, Douglas C, Emch M et al. 2019. The legacy of redlining in the effect of foreclosure on Detroit residents’ self-rated health. Health Place 55:9–19
    [Google Scholar]
  131. 131. 
    Mereish EH, Katz-Wise SL, Woulfe J 2017. Bisexual-specific minority stressors, psychological distress, and suicidality in bisexual individuals: the mediating role of loneliness. Prev. Sci. 18:6/S1716–25
    [Google Scholar]
  132. 132. 
    Mereish HE, Poteat VP. 2015. A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: the negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health. J. Couns. Psychol. 62:3425–37
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 133. 
    Merry SE. 2016. The Seductions of Quantification: Measuring Human Rights, Gender Violence, and Sex Trafficking Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  134. 134. 
    Mesic A, Franklin L, Cansever A, Potter F, Sharma A et al. 2018. The relationship between structural racism and black-white disparities in fatal police shootings at the state level. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 110:2106–16
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 135. 
    Metzger MW, Webber JS 2019. Facing Segregation: Housing Policy Solutions for a Stronger Society New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  136. 136. 
    Milevska S 2016. On Productive Shame, Reconciliation, and Agency Berlin: Sternberg
    [Google Scholar]
  137. 137. 
    Miller CT, Varni SE, Solomon SE, DeSarno MJ, Bunn JY 2016. Macro-level implicit HIV prejudice and the health of community residents with HIV. Health Psychol 35:8807–15
    [Google Scholar]
  138. 138. 
    Miller G. 2008. Women's suffrage, political responsiveness, and child survival in American history. Q. J. Econ. 123:1287–327
    [Google Scholar]
  139. 139. 
    Molix L. 2014. Sex differences in cardiovascular health: Does sexism influence women's health. Am. J. Med. Sci. 348:2153–55
    [Google Scholar]
  140. 140. 
    Moore LD, Elkavich A. 2008. Who's using and who's doing time: incarceration, the war on drugs, and public health. Am. J. Public Health 98:5782–86
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 141. 
    Morrison MA, Bishop CJ, Morrison TG 2018. What is the best measure of discrimination against trans people?: A systematic review of the psychometric literature. Psychol. Sex. 9:3269–87
    [Google Scholar]
  142. 142. 
    Morrison TG, Bishop CJ, Morrison MA, Parker-Taneo K 2016. A psychometric review of measures assessing discrimination against sexual minorities. J. Homosex. 63:81086–126
    [Google Scholar]
  143. 143. 
    Mouzon DM, McLean JS. 2017. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean blacks. Ethn. Health. 22:36–48
    [Google Scholar]
  144. 144. 
    Nadler JT, Lowery MR 2018. The War on Women in the United States: Beliefs, Tactics, and the Best Defense Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger
  145. 145. 
    Natl. Res. Counc 2004. Measuring Racial Discrimination RM Blank, R Babady, CF Citro Washington, DC: National Acad. Press
  146. 146. 
    Nosek BA, Hawkins CB, Frazier RS 2011. Implicit social cognition: from measures to mechanisms. Trends Cogn. Sci. 15:152–59
    [Google Scholar]
  147. 147. 
    NPR/Harvard T. H. Chan Sch. Public Health/Robert Wood Johnson Found 2017. Discrimination in America. Race, Racism, and Health https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2017/10/discrimination-in-america–experiences-and-views.html
    [Google Scholar]
  148. 148. 
    O'Neil C. 2016. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy New York: Crown
  149. 149. 
    O'Neil A, Sojo V, Fileborn B, Scovelle AJ, Milner AJ 2018. The #MeToo movement: an opportunity in public health?. Lancet 391:101402587–859
    [Google Scholar]
  150. 150. 
    Okechukwu CA, Souza K, David KD, de Castro AB 2014. Discrimination, harassment, abuse, and bullying in the workplace: contribution of workplace injustice to occupational health disparities. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:5573–856
    [Google Scholar]
  151. 151. 
    Omi M, Winant H. 2015. Racial Formation in the United States New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 3rd ed..
  152. 152. 
    Orchard J, Price J. 2017. County-level racial prejudice and the black-white gap in infant health outcomes. Soc. Sci. Med. 181:191–98
    [Google Scholar]
  153. 153. 
    Oxford Engl. Dict 2018. Ism. Oxford English Dictionary Online https://www-oed-com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/view/Entry/100006
    [Google Scholar]
  154. 154. 
    Pager D. 2010. Measuring discrimination. Discrimination in an Unequal World MA Centeno, KS Newman 45–62 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  155. 155. 
    PAHO (Pan Am. Health Organ.) 2018. Just societies: health equity and dignified lives. Executive summary of the report of the Commission of the Pan American Health Organization on Equity and Health Inequalities in the Americas Rep., PAHO Washington, DC: http://iris.paho.org/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/49505/9789275120217_eng.pdf
  156. 156. 
    Palma-Solis M, Vives-Cases C, Alvarez-Dardet C 2008. Gender progress and government expenditure as determinants of femicide. Ann. Epidemiol. 18:322–29
    [Google Scholar]
  157. 157. 
    Paradies Y, Bastos JL, Priest N 2017. Prejudice, stigma, bias, discrimination, and health. Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of Prejudice CG Sibley, FK Barlow 559–81 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  158. 158. 
    Paradies Y, Ben J, Denson N, Elias A, Priest N et al. 2015. Racism as a determinant of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 10:9e0138511
    [Google Scholar]
  159. 159. 
    Patterson JG, Jabson JM, Bowen DJ 2017. Measuring sexual and gender minority populations in health surveillance. LGBT Health 4:282–105
    [Google Scholar]
  160. 160. 
    Pavão ALB, Ploubidis GB, Werneck G, Campos MR 2012. Racial discrimination and health in Brazil: evidence from a population-based survey. Ethn. Dis. 22:353–59
    [Google Scholar]
  161. 161. 
    Payne S, Doyal L. 2015. Women, men, and health. Oxford Textbook on Global Health R Detels, M Gulliford, QA Karim, CC Tan 1328–44 New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 6th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  162. 162. 
    People's Health Movement 2017. Global Health Watch 5: An Alternative World Health Report London: Zed Books
  163. 163. 
    Perales F, Todd A. 2018. Structural stigma and the health and wellbeing of Australian LGB populations: exploiting geographic variation in the results of the 2017 same-sex marriage plebiscite. Soc. Sci. Med. 208:190–99
    [Google Scholar]
  164. 164. 
    Petterson A, Sutton RM. 2018. Sexist ideology and endorsement of men's control over women's decisions in reproductive health. Psychol. Women Q. 42:2235–47
    [Google Scholar]
  165. 165. 
    Pincus FL. 2003. Reverse Discrimination: Dismantling the Myth Boulder, CA: Lynne Rienner
  166. 166. 
    Puckett JA, Newcomb ME, Ryan DT, Swann G, Garofalo R, Mustanski B 2017. Internalized homophobia and perceived stigma: a validation study of stigma measures in a sample of young men who have sex with men. Sex. Res. Soc. Policy 14:11–16
    [Google Scholar]
  167. 167. 
    Quillian L, Pager D, Hexel O, Midtbøen AH 2017. Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. PNAS 114:10870–75
    [Google Scholar]
  168. 168. 
    Rajkomar A, Hardt M, Howell MD, Corrado G, Chin HM 2018. Ensuring fairness in machine learning to advance health equity. Ann. Intern. Med. 169:866–72
    [Google Scholar]
  169. 169. 
    Rosenberg NA, Edge MD, Pritchard JK, Feldman MW 2018. Interpreting polygenic scores, polygenic adaptation, and human phenotypic differences. Evol. Med. Public Health 2019.26–34
    [Google Scholar]
  170. 170. 
    Rothstein R. 2017. The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America New York: Liveright
  171. 171. 
    Sawyer PJ, Major B, Casad BJ, Townsend SSM, Mendes WB 2012. Discrimination and the stress response: psychological and physiological consequences of anticipating prejudice in interethnic interactions. Am. J. Public Health 102:51020–26
    [Google Scholar]
  172. 172. 
    Sayej N. 2018. J Marion Sims: controversial statue taken down but debate still rages. The Guardian April 21. https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/apr/21/j-marion-sims-statue-removed-new-york-city-black-women
    [Google Scholar]
  173. 173. 
    Schwartz S, Meyer IH. 2010. Mental health disparities research: the impact of within and between group analyses of tests of the social stress hypotheses. Soc. Sci. Med. 70:81111–18
    [Google Scholar]
  174. 174. 
    Shen W, Dhanani L. 2015. Measuring and defining discrimination. The Oxford Handbook of Workplace Discrimination AJ Colella, EB King 297–314 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  175. 175. 
    Shires DA, Jaffee KD. 2016. Structural discrimination is associated with smoking status among a national sample of transgender individuals. Nicotine Tob. Res. 18:61502–8
    [Google Scholar]
  176. 176. 
    Solnit R. 2016. Hope in The Dark: Untold Histories, Wild Possibilities Chicago: Haymarket Press, 3rd ed..
  177. 177. 
    Song Y, Dong X-Y. 2017. Domestic violence and women's land rights in rural China: findings from a national survey in 2010. J. Dev. Stud. 53:91471–85
    [Google Scholar]
  178. 178. 
    Sörlin A, Lindholm L, Ng N, Öhman A 2011. Gender equality in couples and self-rated health—a survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health. Int. J. Equity Health 10:37
    [Google Scholar]
  179. 179. 
    Steyn R. 2012. Expanding the suite of measures of gender-based discrimination: gender differences in ablution facilities in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Econ. Manag. Sci. 15:2222–34
    [Google Scholar]
  180. 180. 
    Szymanski DM, Gupta A. 2009. Examining the relationship between multiple internalized oppressions and African American lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning persons’ self-esteem and psychological distress. J. Couns. Psychol. 56:1110–18
    [Google Scholar]
  181. 181. 
    Tarantola D, Gruskin S. 2018. The recognition and evolution of the HIV and human rights interface: 1981–2017. Research Handbook on Global Health Law GL Burci, B Toebes 303–39 Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar
    [Google Scholar]
  182. 182. 
    Taylor DE. 2014. Toxic Communities: Environmental Racism, Industrial Pollution, and Residential Mobility New York: N. Y. Univ. Press
  183. 183. 
    Thurston RC, Chang Y, Matthews KA, von Känel R, Koenen K 2019. Association of sexual harassment and sexual assault with midlife women's mental and physical health. JAMA Intern. Med. 179:148–53
    [Google Scholar]
  184. 184. 
    Towns A. 2018. Global patterns and debates in the granting of women's suffrage. The Palgrave Handbook of Women's Political Rights S Franceschet, ML Krook, N Tan 3–20 London: Palgrave MacMillan
    [Google Scholar]
  185. 185. 
    Townsend SSM, Major B, Gangi CE, Mendes WB 2011. From “in the air” to “under the skin”: cortisol responses to social identity threat. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 37:2151–64
    [Google Scholar]
  186. 186. 
    UN Gen. Assem. Resolut. 217 A (III) 1948. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Dec. 10. UN Doc. A/810. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html
  187. 187. 
    Valls A. 2018. Rethinking Racial Justice New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  188. 188. 
    Walby S, Towers J, Balderston S, Corradi C, Francis B et al. 2017. The Concept and Measurement of Violence Against Women and Men Bristol, UK: Policy Press
  189. 189. 
    Wallace M, Crear-Perry J, Richardson L, Tarver M, Theall K 2017. Separate and unequal: structural racism and infant mortality in the US. Health Place 45:140–44
    [Google Scholar]
  190. 190. 
    Weeks J. 2017. Sexuality London: Routledge, 4th ed..
  191. 191. 
    Wetts R, Willer R. 2018. Privilege on the precipice: perceived racial status threats that lead white Americans to oppose welfare programs. Soc. Forces 97:2793–822
    [Google Scholar]
  192. 192. 
    White K, Borrell LN. 2011. Racial/ethnic segregation: framing the context of health risk and health disparities. Health Place 17:2438–48
    [Google Scholar]
  193. 193. 
    White Hughto JM, Reisner SL, Pachankis JE 2015. Transgender stigma and health: a critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Soc. Sci. Med. 147:222–31
    [Google Scholar]
  194. 194. 
    Whitehead M. 1992. The concepts and principles of equity and health. Int. J. Health Serv. 22:3429–45
    [Google Scholar]
  195. 195. 
    Wildeman C, Wang EA. 2017. Mass incarceration, public health, and widening inequality in the USA. Lancet 389:100771464–74
    [Google Scholar]
  196. 196. 
    Williams DR, Lawrence JA, Davis BA 2019. Racism and health: evidence and needed research. Annu. Rev. Public Health 40:105–25
    [Google Scholar]
  197. 197. 
    Williams DR, Yu Y, Jackson JS, Anderson NB 1997. Racial differences in physical and mental health: socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. J. Health Psychol. 2:3335–51
    [Google Scholar]
  198. 198. 
    Women's Bur 2017. Equal pay and pay transparency protections. US Department of Labor https://www.dol.gov/wb/equalpay/equalpaymap.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  199. 199. 
    Wong K. 2019. Want to close the pay gap? Pay transparency will help. New York Times Jan. 20. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/20/smarter-living/pay-wage-gap-salary-secrecytransparency.html
    [Google Scholar]
  200. 200. 
    Woo B. 2018. Racial discrimination and mental health in the USA: testing the reverse racism hypothesis. J. Rac. Ethn. Health Disparities 5:766–73
    [Google Scholar]
  201. 201. 
    Yazdy MM, Werler MM. 2015. Comparison of web versus interview participants in a case-control study. Ann. Epidemiol. 25:794–96
    [Google Scholar]
  202. 202. 
    Yuan Q. 2018. Mega freight generators in my backyard: a longitudinal study of environmental justice in warehousing location. Land Use Policy 76:130–43
    [Google Scholar]
  203. 203. 
    Yudell M. 2014. Race Unmasked: Biology and Race in the Twentieth Century New York: Columbia Univ. Press
  204. 204. 
    Zippel KS. 2006. The Politics of Sexual Harassment: A Comparative Study of the United States, the European Union, and Germany Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094017
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094017
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error