1932

Abstract

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) have the potential to shape urban life and significantly modify travel behaviors. “Autonomous technology” means technology that can drive a vehicle without active physical control or monitoring by a human operator. The first AV fleets are already in service in US cities. AVs offer a variety of automation, vehicle ownership, and vehicle use options. AVs could increase some health risks (such as air pollution, noise, and sedentarism); however, if proper regulated, AVs will likely reduce morbidity and mortality from motor vehicle crashes and may help reshape cities to promote healthy urban environments. Healthy models of AV use include fully electric vehicles in a system of ridesharing and ridesplitting. Public health will benefit if proper policies and regulatory frameworks are implemented before the complete introduction of AVs into the market.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094035
2020-04-01
2024-04-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/41/1/annurev-publhealth-040119-094035.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094035&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    Adams I, Hobson A. 2016. Self-driving cars will make organ shortages even worse. Slate Dec. 30. https://slate.com/technology/2016/12/self-driving-cars-will-exacerbate-organ-shortages.html
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. 
    Ainsalu J, Arffman V, Bellone M, Ellner M, Haapamäki T et al. 2018. State of the art of automated buses. Sustainability 10:93118
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. 
    Amato F, Cassee FR, Denier van der Gon HAC, Gehrig R, Gustafsson M et al. 2014. Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions. J. Hazard. Mater. 275:31–36
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4. 
    Anenberg S, Miller J, Henze D, Minjares R 2019. A global snapshot of the air pollution-related health impacts of transportation sector emissions in 2010 and 2015. Rep., Int. Counc. Clean Transp. (ICCT) Washington, DC: https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Global_health_impacts_transport_emissions_2010-2015_20190226.pdf
  5. 5. 
    Antoun M, Edwards KM, Sweeting J, Ding D 2017. The acute physiological stress response to driving: a systematic review. PLOS ONE 12:10e0185517
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    Basner M, McGuire S. 2018. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: a systematic review on environmental noise and effects on sleep. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15:3E519
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. 
    Bel G, Holst M. 2018. Evaluation of the impact of bus rapid transit on air pollution. Transport Policy 63:209–20
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8. 
    Besser LM, Marcus M, Frumkin H 2008. Commute time and social capital in the U.S. Am. J. Prev. Med. 34:3207–11
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    Brown AL. 2015. Effects of road traffic noise on health: from burden of disease to effectiveness of interventions. Procedia Environ. Sci. 30:3–9
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. 
    Brown AL, Van Kamp I 2017. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: a systematic review of transport noise interventions and their impacts on health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14:E873
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11. 
    BTS (Bur. Transp. Stat.) 2017. National household travel survey daily travel quick facts. Bureau of Transportation Statistics https://www.bts.gov/statistical-products/surveys/national-household-travel-survey-daily-travel-quick-facts
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12. 
    Chang D. 2008. Comparison of crash fatalities by sex and age group Res. Note DOT HS 810 853, Natl. Cent. Stat. Anal Washington, DC: https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/810853
  13. 13. 
    Christian TJ. 2012. Automobile commuting duration and the quantity of time spent with spouse, children, and friends. Prev. Med. 55:3215–18
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. 
    Clark C, Paunovic K. 2018. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: a systematic review on environmental noise and quality of life, wellbeing and mental health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15:11E2400
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    Clendinning EA. 2018. Driving future sounds: imagination, identity and safety in electric vehicle noise design. Sound Stud 4:161–76
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. 
    Cohen S, Shirazi S, Curtis T 2017. Can we advance social equity with shared, autonomous and electric vehicles? Policy Brief, Inst. Transp. Stud., Univ. Calif., Davis http://www.transformca.org/sites/default/files/3R.Equity.Indesign.Final_.pdf
  17. 17. 
    Cohn J, Ezike R, Martin J, Donkor K, Ridgway M, Balding M 2019. Examining the equity impacts of autonomous vehicles: a travel demand model approach. Transp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board 2673:23–35
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. 
    Cottrell ND, Barton BK. 2013. The role of automation in reducing stress and negative affect while driving. Theor. Issues Ergon. Sci. 14:153–68
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    Creger H, Espino J, Sanchez AS 2019. Autonomous vehicle heaven or hell? Creating a transportation revolution that benefits all Rep., Greenlining Inst Oakland: http://greenlining.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/R4_AutonomousVehiclesReportSingle_2019_2.pdf
  20. 20. 
    CSPC (Cent. Study Pres. Congr.) 2017. The autonomous vehicle revolution: fostering innovation with smart regulation Rep., CSPC Washington, DC:
  21. 21. 
    Dalrymple G. 2013. Minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles Draft Environ. Assess. Docket NHTSA-2011-0100, US Dep. Transp. Natl. Highw. Traffic Saf. Adm Washington, DC: https://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/rulemaking/pdf/Quiet_Cars_Draft_EA.pdf
  22. 22. 
    de Nazelle A, Bode O, Orjuela JP 2017. Comparison of air pollution exposures in active versus passive travel modes in European cities: a quantitative review. Environ. Int. 99:151–60
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. 
    de Nazelle A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Antó JM, Brauer M, Briggs D et al. 2011. Improving health through policies that promote active travel: a review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment. Environ. Int. 37:4766–77
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. 
    Dons E, Götschi T, Nieuwenhuijsen M, de Nazelle A, Anaya E et al. 2015. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): protocol for a multi-centre, longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 15:11126
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25. 
    Etherington D. 2019. Over 1,400 self-driving vehicles are now in testing by 80+ companies across the US. Techcrunch June 11. https://techcrunch.com/2019/06/11/over-1400-self-driving-vehicles-are-now-in-testing-by-80-companies-across-the-u-s/
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. 
    Exec. Off. Pres, Pres. Counc. Advis. Sci. Technol. 2016. Technology and the future of cities Rep. Pres., Exec. Off. Pres Washington, DC: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/images/Blog/PCAST%20Cities%20Report%20_%20FINAL.pdf
  27. 27. 
    Fagnant DJ, Kockelman KM. 2014. The travel and environmental implications of shared autonomous vehicles, using agent-based model scenarios. Transp. Res. Part C Emerg. Technol. 40:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. 
    Favarò FM, Nader N, Eurich SO, Tripp M, Varadaraju N 2017. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California. PLOS ONE 12:e0184952
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29. 
    Frumkin H, Haines A. 2019. Global environmental change and noncommunicable disease risks. Annu. Rev. Public Health 40:261–82
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. 
    Gen. Motors 2018. 2018 self-driving safety report Rep., Gen. Motors Detroit, MI: https://www.gm.com/content/dam/company/docs/us/en/gmcom/gmsafetyreport.pdf
  31. 31. 
    Groshen EL, Helper S, Macduffie JP, Carson C 2018. Preparing U.S. workers and employers for an autonomous vehicle future Rep., Secur. Am. Futur. Energy Washington, DC: https://avworkforce.secureenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Groshen-et-al-Report-June-2018-1.pdf
  32. 32. 
    Guski R, Schreckenberg D, Schuemer R 2017. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: a systematic review on environmental noise and annoyance. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14:12E1539
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33. 
    Gwilliam K, Kojima M, Johnson T 2004. Reducing air pollution from urban transport Rep., World Bank Washington, DC: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/989711468328204490/pdf/304250PAPER0Reducing0air0pollution.pdf
  34. 34. 
    Health Effects Inst 2018. State of Global Air/2018. A special report on global exposure to air pollution and its disease burden Rep., Health Effects Inst Boston: https://www.stateofglobalair.org/sites/default/files/soga-2018-report.pdf
  35. 35. 
    Henaghan J 2018. Preparing communities for autonomous vehicles Rep., Am. Plan. Assoc Chicago: https://planning-org-uploaded-media.s3.amazonaws.com/document/Autonomous-Vehicles-Symposium-Report.pdf
  36. 36. 
    Inst. Med. Natl. Acad 2006. Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  37. 37. 
    Int. Transp. Forum 2016. Shared mobility innovation for liveable cities Rep., Int. Transp. Forum Paris: https://www.itf-oecd.org/sites/default/files/docs/shared-mobility-liveable-cities.pdf
  38. 38. 
    KPMG Int 2019. 2019 autonomous vehicles readiness index: assessing countries’ preparedness for autonomous vehicles Rep. 136024-G, KPMG Int. Amstelveen, Neth https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/xx/pdf/2019/02/2019-autonomous-vehicles-readiness-index.pdf
  39. 39. 
    Lang NS, Rüßmann M, Chua J, Doubara X 2017. Making autonomous vehicles a reality: lessons from Boston and beyond Rep., Boston Consult. Group (BCG) Boston: http://image-src.bcg.com/Images/BCG-Making-Autonomous-Vehicles-a-Reality-Oct-2017_tcm9-173687.pdf
  40. 40. 
    Levin P. 2018. Why self-driving cars will cause sprawl (according to an Italian Physicist). Medium March 14. https://medium.com/99-mph/introducing-the-marchetti-a-unit-of-measure-for-transit-379aa51170a4
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    Litman T. 2016. The hidden traffic safety solution: public transportation Rep., Am. Public Transp. Assoc Washington, DC: https://www.apta.com/wp-content/uploads/Resources/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/APTA-Hidden-Traffic-Safety-Solution-Public-Transportation.pdf
  42. 42. 
    Litman T. 2019. Autonomous vehicle implementation predictions: implications for transport planning Rep., Vic. Transp. Policy Inst., Vic., BC https://www.vtpi.org/avip.pdf
  43. 43. 
    Lutin JM. 2018. Not if, but when: autonomous driving and the future of transit. J. Public Transp. 21:192–103
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44. 
    Luttrell K, Weaver M, Harris M 2015. The effect of autonomous vehicles on trauma and health care. J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 79:4678–82
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45. 
    Mariotti A. 2015. The effects of chronic stress on health: new insights into the molecular mechanisms of brain-body communication. Futur. Sci. OA 1:3FS023
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46. 
    Mattisson K, Håkansson C, Jakobsson K 2015. Relationships between commuting and social capital among men and women in southern Sweden. Environ. Behav. 47:7734–53
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. 
    Maxmen A. 2018. Self-driving car dilemmas reveal that moral choices are not universal. Nature 562:469–70
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. 
    Metz D. 2018. Developing policy for urban autonomous vehicles: impact on congestion. Urban Sci 2:233
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49. 
    Mokdad AH, Ballestros K, Echko M, Glenn S, Olsen HE et al. 2018. The state of US health, 1990–2016: burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors among US states. JAMA 319:141444–72
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50. 
    Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Basagaña X, Cirach M, Cole-Hunter T et al. 2017. Urban and transport planning related exposures and mortality: a health impact assessment for cities. Environ. Health Perspect. 125:189–96
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51. 
    Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Cole-Hunter T, de Nazelle A, Dons E et al. 2015. Health impact assessment of active transportation: a systematic review. Prev. Med. 76:103–14
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. 
    Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Khreis H, Cirach M, Milà C et al. 2018. Socioeconomic inequalities in urban and transport planning related exposures and mortality: a health impact assessment study for Bradford, UK. Environ. Int. 121:931–41
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. 
    Natl. Cancer Inst 2019. Electromagnetic fields and cancer Fact Sheet, Natl. Cancer Inst Bethesda, MD: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/radiation/electromagnetic-fields-fact-sheet
  54. 54. 
    Natl. Cent. Stat. Anal 2018. 2017 fatal motor vehicle crashes: overview Res. Note DOT HS 812 603, Natl. Highw. Traffic Saf. Adm. (NHTSA) Washington, DC: https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812603
  55. 55. 
    Natl. Saf. Counc 2017. Cannabis (marijuana) and driving Res. Document., Natl. Saf. Counc Itasca, IL: https://www.nsc.org/Portals/0/Documents/NSCDocuments_Advocacy/Divisions/ADID/Position-on-Cannabis-and-Driving.pdf
  56. 56. 
    Natl. Toxicol. Progr 2018. The toxicology and carcinogenesis studies in Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats exposed to whole-body radio frequency radiation at a frequency (900 mhz) and modulations (GSM and CDMA) used by cell phones NTP Tech. Rep. 595, Natl. Toxicol. Progr. (NTP) Research Triangle Park, NC: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/lt_rpts/tr595_508.pdf?utm_source=direct&utm_medium=prod&utm_campaign=ntpgolinks&utm_term=tr595
  57. 57. 
    Natl. Transp. Comm 2018. Changing driving laws to support automated vehicles Policy Pap., Natl. Transp. Comm Melbourne: https://www.ntc.gov.au/sites/default/files/assets/files/NTC%20Policy%20Paper%20-%20Changing%20driving%20laws%20to%20support%20automated%20vehicles.pdf
  58. 58. 
    NHTSA (Natl. Highw. Traffic Saf. Adm.) 2019. Drug-impaired driving. NHTSA https://www.nhtsa.gov/risky-driving/drug-impaired-driving
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. 
    NHTSA (Natl. Highw. Traffic Saf. Adm.) 2019. Highly automated or “self-driving” vehicles Rep., NHTSA Washington, DC: https://www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.dot.gov/files/documents/14269-overview_of_automated_vehicle_technology_042319_v1b.pdf
  60. 60. 
    Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2016. Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities. Environ. Health. 15:Suppl. 138
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. 
    Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Gascon M, Martinez D, Ponjoan A, Blanch J et al. 2018. Air pollution, noise, blue space, and green space and premature mortality in Barcelona: a mega cohort. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15:11E2405
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62. 
    Off. Surg. Gen 2016. Facing addiction in America: the Surgeon General's report on alcohol, drugs, and health Rep., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv Washington, DC: https://addiction.surgeongeneral.gov/sites/default/files/surgeon-generals-report.pdf
  63. 63. 
    Rissel C, Curac N, Greenaway M, Bauman A 2012. Physical activity associated with public transport use—a review and modelling of potential benefits. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9:72454–78
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. 
    Rojas-Rueda D. 2017. Autonomous vehicles and mental health. J. Urban Des. Ment. Health 3:21
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. 
    Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Tainio M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ et al. 2011. The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study. BMJ 343:d4521
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. 
    Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Teixidó O, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ 2013. Health impact assessment of increasing public transport and cycling use in Barcelona: a morbidity and burden of disease approach. Appendix. Prev. Med. 57:5573–79
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67. 
    Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Teixidó O, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ 2012. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study. Environ. Int. 49:100–9
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68. 
    Rojas-Rueda D, Turner MC. 2016. Commentary: diesel, cars, and public health. Epidemiology 27:2159–62
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69. 
    SAE Int. 2018. Taxonomy and definitions for terms related to driving automation systems for on-road motor vehicles Tech. Pap. J3016_201806, SAE Int Warrendale, PA: https://www.sae.org/standards/content/j3016_201806/
  70. 70. 
    Saelens BE, Moudon AV, Kang B, Hurvitz PM, Zhou C 2014. Relation between higher physical activity and public transit use. Am. J. Public Health 104:5854–59
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71. 
    Shankardass K, Muntaner C, Kokkinen L, Shahidi FV, Freiler A et al. 2018. The implementation of Health in All Policies initiatives: a systems framework for government action. Health Res. Policy Syst. 16:126
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72. 
    Song J-T, Lee G, Kwon J, Park J-W, Choi H, Lim S 2014. The association between long working hours and self-rated health. Ann. Occup. Environ. Med. 26:12
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73. 
    Soteropoulos A, Berger M, Ciari F 2019. Impacts of automated vehicles on travel behaviour and land use: an international review of modelling studies. Transp. Rev. 39:29–49
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74. 
    State Calif 2019. Key autonomous vehicle definitions. State of California Department of Motor Vehicles https://www.dmv.ca.gov/portal/dmv/detail/vr/autonomous/definitions
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75. 
    Thakur P, Kinghorn R, Grace R 2016. Urban form and function in the autonomous era. Australasian Transport Research Forum 2016 Proceedings, Melbourne, Australia, November 16–18, 2016 https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1331/7a7e63709dffcf3bc921d224ccf7053e8778.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76. 
    Timmers VRJH, Achten PAJ. 2016. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles. Atmos. Environ. 134:10–17
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77. 
    UN Dep. Econ. Soc. Aff 2018. World urbanization prospects: the 2018 revision Rep. ST/ESA/SER.A/420, UN New York: https://population.un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-Report.pdf
  78. 78. 
    US Dep. Transp 2018. Automated vehicles 3.0. Preparing for the future of transportation Rep., US Dep. Transp Washington, DC: https://www.transportation.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/docs/policy-initiatives/automated-vehicles/320711/preparing-future-transportation-automated-vehicle-30.pdf
  79. 79. 
    US Energy Inf. Adm 2018. Autonomous vehicles: uncertainties and energy implications Rep., US Dep. Energy Washington, DC: https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/pdf/AV.pdf
  80. 80. 
    US EPA (Environ. Prot. Agency) 2019. Global greenhouse gas emissions data. Greenhouse Gas Emissions https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81. 
    US Organ Procure. Transplant. Netw 2019. Deceased donors recovered in the U.S. by circumstance of death. National Data https://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov/data/view-data-reports/national-data/
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82. 
    Verheijen E, Jabben J. 2010. Effect of electric cars on traffic noise and safety RIVM Lett. Rep. 680300009/2010, Natl. Inst. Public Health Environ. (RIVM) Bilthoven, Neth:
  83. 83. 
    Vert C, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Gascon M, Grellier J, Fleming LE et al. 2019. Health benefits of physical activity related to an urban riverside regeneration. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16:3462
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. 
    Wang H, Horton R. 2015. Tackling climate change: the greatest opportunity for global health. Lancet 386:1798–99
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85. 
    Waymo 2018. On the road to fully self-driving Saf. Rep., WAYMO Mountain View, CA: https://waymo.com/safety/
  86. 86. 
    WHO (World Health Organ.) 2018. Global status report on road safety 2018 Rep., WHO, Geneva: https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_safety_status/2018/en/
  87. 87. 
    WHO (World Health Organ.) 2018. Health and climate change COP24 Spec. Rep., WHO Geneva: https://www.who.int/globalchange/publications/COP24-report-health-climate-change/en/
  88. 88. 
    WHO (World Health Organ.) Eur. Cent. Environ. Health 2011. Burden of disease from environmental noise: quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe Rep., WHO Reg. Off. Eur Bonn, Ger: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/136466/e94888.pdf
  89. 89. 
    WHO (World Health Organ.) Reg. Off. Eur 2012. Addressing the social determinants of health: the urban dimension and the role of local government Rep., WHO Reg. Off. Eur Copenhagen: http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/addressing-the-social-determinants-of-health-the-urban-dimension-and-the-role-of-local-government
  90. 90. 
    Xiao C, Goryakin Y, Cecchini M 2019. Physical activity levels and new public transit: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am. J. Prev. Med. 56:3464–73
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91. 
    Zhang W. 2017. The interaction between land use and transportation in the era of shared autonomous vehicles: a simulation model PhD Diss., Sch. City Reg. Plann., Ga. Inst. Technol Atlanta: https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/58665
  92. 92. 
    Zmud J, Goodin G, Moran M, Kalra N, Thorn E 2017. Strategies to Advance Automated and Connected Vehicles Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094035
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094035
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error