1932

Abstract

This article reviews evidence for the public health impacts of coal across the extraction, processing, use, and waste disposal continuum. Surface coal mining and processing impose public health risks on residential communities through air and water pollution. Burning coal in power plants emits more nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and heavy metals per unit of energy than any other fuel source and impairs global public health. Coal ash disposal exposes communities to heavy metals and particulate matter waste. Use of coal in domestic households causes public health harm concentrated in developing nations. Across the coal continuum, adverse impacts are disproportionately felt by persons of poor socioeconomic status, contributing to health inequities. Despite efforts to develop renewable energy sources, coal use has not declined on a global scale. Concentrated efforts to eliminate coal as an energy source are imperative to improve public health and avert serious climate change consequences.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094104
2020-04-01
2024-04-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/41/1/annurev-publhealth-040119-094104.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094104&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    Ahern M, Hendryx M. 2012. Cancer mortality rates in Appalachian mountaintop coal mining areas. J. Occup. Environ. Sci. 1:63–70
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. 
    Ahern M, Hendryx M, Conley J, Fedorko E, Ducatman A, Zullig KJ 2011. The association between mountaintop mining and birth defects among live births in central Appalachia, 1996–2003. Environ. Res. 111:838–46
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. 
    Aneja VP, Isherwood A, Morgan P 2012. Characterization of particulate matter (PM10) related to surface coal mining operations in Appalachia. Atmos. Environ. 54:496–501
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4. 
    Appalach. Voices 2017. End mountaintop removal coal mining. Appalachian Voices http://appvoices.org/end-mountaintop-removal/
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5. 
    Apt J. 2017. The other reason to shift away from coal: air pollution that kills thousands every year. Scientific American June 7. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-other-reason-to-shift-away-from-coal-air-pollution-that-kills-thousands-every-year/
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    Baker PJ, Hoel DG. 2007. Meta-analysis of standardized incidence and mortality rates of childhood leukaemia in proximity to nuclear facilities. Eur. J. Cancer Care 16:355–63
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. 
    Balti EV, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Yako YY, Kengne AP 2014. Air pollution and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 106:161–72
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8. 
    Barone-Adesi F, Chapman RS, Silverman DT, He X, Hu W et al. 2012. Risk of lung cancer associated with domestic use of coal in Xuanwei, China: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 345:e5414
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    Bernhardt ES, Lutz BD, King RS, Fay JP, Carter CE et al. 2012. How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of Central Appalachian rivers by surface coal mining. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46:8115–22
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. 
    Bernhardt ES, Palmer MA. 2011. The environmental costs of mountaintop mining valley fill operations for aquatic ecosystems of the Central Appalachians. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1223:39–57
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11. 
    Bharti S, Banerjee TK. 2011. Bioaccumulation of metals in the edible catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) exposed to coal mine effluent generated at Northern Coalfield Limited, Singrauli, India. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 87:393–98
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12. 
    Biswas T. 2013. Study estimates health impact of coal based power plants in India. BMJ 346:f2187
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. 
    Bixel E. 2019. Overview: national coal phase-out announcements in Europe. Europe Beyond Coal https://beyond-coal.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Overview-of-national-coal-phase-out-announcements-October-2019.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. 
    Boffetta P, Cardis E, Vainio H, Coleman MP, Kogevinas M et al. 1991. Cancer risks related to electricity production. Eur. J. Cancer 27:1504–19
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    Brabin B, Smith M, Milligan P, Benjamin C, Dunne E, Pearson M 1994. Respiratory morbidity in Meyerside schoolchildren exposed to coal dust and air pollution. Arch. Dis. Child. 70:305–12
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. 
    Caiazzo F, Ashok A, Waitz I, Yim SHL, Barrett SRH 2013. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005. Atmos. Environ. 79:198–208
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. 
    Canu WH, Jameson JP, Steele EH, Denslow M 2017. Mountaintop removal coal mining and emergent cases of psychological disorder in Kentucky. Community Ment. Health J. 53:802–10
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. 
    Carpenter DO. 2016. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas: impact on health and environment. Rev. Environ. Health 31:47–51
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    Casey JA, Karasek D, Ogburn EL, Goin DE, Dang K et al. 2018. Retirements of coal and oil power plants in California: association with reduced preterm birth among populations nearby. Am. J. Epidemiol. 187:1586–94
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. 
    Chen J, Liu G, Kang Y, Wu B, Sun R et al. 2014. Coal utilization in China: environmental impacts and human health. Environ. Geochem. Health 36:735–53
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21. 
    Chen Y, Ebenstein A, Greenstone M, Li H 2013. Evidence on the impact of sustained exposure to air pollution on life expectancy from China's Huai River policy. PNAS 110:12936–41
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22. 
    Christian WJ, Huang B, Rinehart J, Hopenhayn C 2011. Exploring geographic variation in lung cancer incidence in Kentucky using a spatial scan statistic: elevated risk in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Public Health Rep 126:789–96
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. 
    Copeland C. 2015. Mountaintop mining: background on current controversies Rep., Congr. Res. Serv Washington, DC: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS21421.pdf
  24. 24. 
    Cordial P, Riding-Malon R, Lips H 2012. The effects of mountaintop removal coal mining on mental health, well-being, and community health in central Appalachia. Ecopsychology 4:201–8
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25. 
    Cortes-Ramirez J, Naish S, Sly PD, Jagals P 2018. Mortality and morbidity in populations in the vicinity of coal mining: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 18:721
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. 
    DeMarini DM, Landi S, Tian D, Hanley NM, Li X et al. 2001. Lung tumor KRAS and TP53 mutations in nonsmokers reflect exposure to PAH-rich coal combustion emissions. Cancer Res 61:6679–81
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. 
    EDF (Environ. Defense Fund) 2018. The Clean Power Plan. Environmental Defense Fund https://www.edf.org/clean-power-plan-resources
  28. 28. 
    EIA (Energy Inf. Adm.) 2019. What is U.S. electricity generation by energy source?. Energy Information Administration Frequently Asked Questions https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=427&t=3
    [Google Scholar]
  29. [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. 
    Enerdata 2019. Global energy statistical yearbook 2019. Enerdata Yearbook https://yearbook.enerdata.net/coal-lignite/coal-world-consumption-data.html
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. 
    Epstein P, Buonocore JJ, Eckerle K, Hendryx M, Stout BM III et al. 2011. Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1219:73–98
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32. 
    Esch L, Hendryx M. 2011. Chronic cardiovascular disease mortality in mountaintop mining areas of central Appalachian states. J. Rural Health 27:350–57
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33. 
    Evans S, Pearce R. 2019. Mapped: the world's coal power plants. Carbon Brief March 25. https://www.carbonbrief.org/mapped-worlds-coal-power-plants
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34. 
    Fagundes LS, Fleck Ada S, Zanchi AC, Saldiva PH, Rhoden CR 2015. Direct contact with particulate matter increases oxidative stress in different brain structures. Inhal. Toxicol. 27:462–67
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35. 
    Fairlie I. 2014. A hypothesis to explain childhood cancers near nuclear power plants. J. Environ. Radioact. 133:10–17
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. 
    Fernández-Navarro P, Garcia-Pérez J, Ramis R, Boldo E, López-Abente G 2012. Proximity to mining industry and cancer mortality. Sci. Total Environ. 435–436:66–73
    [Google Scholar]
  37. [Google Scholar]
  38. 38. 
    Gabriel T. 2014. Thousands without water after spill in West Virginia. New York Times Jan 10. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/11/us/west-virginia-chemical-spill.html
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39. 
    Gaffney JS, Marley NA. 2009. The impacts of combustion emissions on air quality and climate—from coal to biofuels and beyond. Atmos. Environ. 43:23–36
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40. 
    Garcia-Gonzales DA, Shonkoff SBC, Hays J, Jerrett M 2019. Hazardous air pollutants associated with upstream oil and natural gas development: a critical synthesis of current peer-reviewed literature. Annu. Rev. Public Health 40:283–304
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    Ghose MK. 2007. Generation and quantification of hazardous dusts from coal mining in the Indian context. Environ. Monit. Assess. 130:35–45
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42. 
    Ghose MK, Majee SR. 2007. Characteristics of hazardous airborne dust around an Indian surface coal mining area. Environ. Monit. Assess. 130:17–25
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43. 
    Guerrero-Castilla A, Olivero-Verbel J, Marrugo-Negrete J 2014. Heavy metals in wild house mice from coal-mining areas of Colombia and expression of genes related to oxidative stress, DNA damage and exposure to metals. Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen. 762:24–29
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44. 
    Guggenheim BL. 2018. Spain raises the bar in tackling carbon emissions with closure of coal mines. South EU Summit Nov. 19. https://www.southeusummit.com/europe/spain/spain-raises-the-bar-in-tackling-carbon-emissions-with-closure-of-coal-mines/
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45. 
    Gupta A, Spears D. 2017. Health externalities of India's expansion of coal plants: evidence from a national panel of 40,000 households. J. Environ. Econ. Manag. 86:262–76
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46. 
    Hao F, Baxter T. 2019. China's coal consumption on the rise. China Dialogue March 1. https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/11107-China-s-coal-consumption-on-the-rise
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. 
    Harmon ME, Lewis J, Miller C, Hoover J, Ali AS et al. 2017. Residential proximity to abandoned uranium mines and serum inflammatory potential in chronically exposed Navajo communities. J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 27:365–71
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. 
    Harvey F. 2018. ‘We can more forward now’: UN climate talks take significant step. The Guardian Dec. 16. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/dec/16/katowice-we-can-move-forward-now-un-climate-talks-take-significant-step
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49. 
    Hendryx M. 2009. Mortality from heart, respiratory, and kidney disease in coal mining areas of Appalachia. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 82:243–49
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50. 
    Hendryx M. 2013. Personal and family health in rural areas of Kentucky with and without mountaintop coal mining. J. Rural Health 29:S79–88
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51. 
    Hendryx M, Ahern M. 2008. Relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining in West Virginia. Am. J. Public Health 98:669–71
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. 
    Hendryx M, Ahern MA. 2009. Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost. Public Health Rep 124:541–50
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. 
    Hendryx M, Ducatman AM, Zullig K, Ahern M, Crout R 2012. Adult tooth loss for residents of US coal mining and Appalachian counties. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 40:488–97
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54. 
    Hendryx M, Entwhistle J. 2015. Association between residence near surface coal mining and blood inflammation. Extr. Ind. Soc. 2:246–51
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55. 
    Hendryx M, Fedorko E, Anesetti-Rothermel A 2010. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America. Geospat. Health 4:243–56
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56. 
    Hendryx M, Fulk F, McGinley M 2012. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA. Water Qual. Expo. Health 4:169–75
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57. 
    Hendryx M, Higginbotham H, Ewald B, Connor LH 2019. Air quality in association with rural coal mining and combustion in New South Wales Australia. J. Rural Health 35:518–27
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58. 
    Hendryx M, Holland B. 2016. Unintended consequences of the Clean Air Act: mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining communities. Environ. Sci. Policy 63:1–6
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. 
    Hendryx M, Luo J. 2015. An examination of the effects of mountaintop removal coal mining on respiratory symptoms and COPD using propensity scores. Int. J. Environ. Health Res. 25:265–76
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60. 
    Hendryx M, O'Donnell K, Horn K 2008. Lung cancer mortality is elevated in coal-mining areas of Appalachia. Lung Cancer 62:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. 
    Hoegh-Guldberg OD, Jacob D, Taylor M, Bindi M, Brown S et al. 2018. Impacts of 1.5oC global warming on natural and human systems. An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5°C Above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty V Masson-Delmotte, P Zhai, H-O Pörtner, D Roberts, J Skea et al. Geneva: Intergov. Panel Climate Change (IPCC)–World Meteorol. Organ.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62. 
    Hood M. 2018. China's unbridled export of coal power imperils climate goals. Phys.org Dec. 5. https://phys.org/news/2018-12-china-unbridled-export-coal-power.html
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63. 
    Hoover J, Gonzales M, Shuey C, Barney Y, Lewis J 2017. Elevated arsenic and uranium concentrations in unregulated water sources on the Navajo Nation, USA. Expo. Health 9:113–24
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. 
    Hosgood HD 3rd, Chapman R, Shen M, Blair A, Chen E et al. 2008. Portable stove use is associated with lower lung cancer mortality risk in lifetime smoky coal users. Br. J. Cancer 99:1934–39
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. 
    Hosgood HD 3rd, Wei H, Sapkota A, Choudhury I, Bruce N et al. 2011. Household coal use and lung cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies, with an emphasis on geographic variation. Int. J. Epidemiol. 40:719–28
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. 
    Howarth RW. 2014. A bridge to nowhere: methane emissions and the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. Energy Sci. Eng. 2:47–60
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67. 
    Howel D, Pless-Mulloli T, Darnell R 2001. Consultations of children living near open-cast coal mines. Environ. Health Perspect. 109:567–71
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68. 
    Huang HF, Xing XL, Zhang ZZ, Qi SH, Yang D et al. 2016. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia environment of Heshan coal district, Guangxi: distribution, source diagnosis and health risk assessment. Environ. Geochem. Health 38:1169–81
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69. 
    Huang X, Gordon T, Rom W, Finkelman R 2006. Interaction of iron and calcium minerals in coals and their roles in dust-induced health and environmental problems. Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 64:153–78
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70. 
    Huertas JI, Huertas ME, Izquierdo S, Gonzalez ED 2012. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia. J. Environ. Manag. 93:121–29
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71. 
    IARC (Int. Agency Res. Cancer) 2010. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Vol. 95. Household use of solid fuels and high temperature frying Rep., World Health Organ., IARC Lyon, France: https://monographs.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/mono95.pdf
  72. 72. 
    IEA (Int. Energy Agency) 2017. Chapter 1: Introduction and scope. World energy outlook 2017 Rep., IEA Paris: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/energy/world-energy-outlook-2017/introduction-and-scope_weo-2017-3-en
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73. 
    IEA (Int. Energy Agency) 2017. Key world energy statistics 2017 Rep., IEA Paris: https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/KeyWorld2017.pdf
  74. 74. 
    IEA (Int. Energy Agency) 2018. Key world energy statistics 2018 Rep., IEA Paris: https://doi.org/10.1787/key_energ_stat-2018-en
    [Crossref]
  75. 75. 
    IEA (Int. Energy Agency) 2019. Electricity statistics. International Energy Agency https://www.iea.org/subscribe-to-data-services/electricity-statistics
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76. 
    IEA (Int. Energy Agency) 2019. Global energy and CO2 status report Rep., IEA Paris: https://www.iea.org/reports/global-energy-and-co2-status-report-2019
  77. 77. 
    Ito K, Christensen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E et al. 2006. PM source apportionment and health effects: 2. An investigation of intermethod variability in associations between source-apportioned fine particle mass and daily mortality in Washington, DC. J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 16:300–10
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78. 
    Jaramillo P, Griffin WM, Matthews HS 2007. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41:6290–96
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79. 
    Jing L. 2014. 670,000 smog-related deaths a year: the cost of China's reliance on coal. South China Morning Post Nov. 5. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1632163/670000-deaths-year-cost-chinas-reliance-coal
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80. 
    Jones T, Brown P, BéruBé KA, Wlodarczyk A, Shao L 2010. The physicochemistry and toxicology of CFA particles. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 73:341–54
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81. 
    Keohavong P, Lan Q, Gao W 2018. p53 and K-ras mutations in lung tissues and sputum samples of individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in Xuan Wei County, China. Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen. 829–830:70–74
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82. 
    Keohavong P, Lan Q, Gao WM, Zheng KC, Mady HH et al. 2005. Detection of p53 and K-ras mutations in sputum of individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in Xuan Wei County, China. Carcinogenesis 26:303–8
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83. 
    Knopper LD, Ollson CA. 2011. Health effects and wind turbines: a review of the literature. Environ. Health 10:78
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. 
    Knuckles T, Stapleton P, Minarchick V, Esch L, McCawley MA et al. 2013. Air pollution particulate matter collected from an Appalachian mountaintop mining site induces microvascular dysfunction. Microcirculation 20:158–69
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85. 
    Kravchenko J, Lyerly HK. 2018. The impact of coal-powered electrical plants and coal ash impoundments on the health of residential communities. N. C. Med. J. 79:289–300
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86. 
    Kurth LM, Kolker A, Engle M, Geboy N, Hendryx M et al. 2015. Atmospheric particulate matter in proximity to mountaintop coal mines: sources and potential environmental and human health impacts. Environ. Geochem. Health 37:529–44
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87. 
    Kurth LM, McCawley MA, Hendryx M, Lusk S 2014. Atmospheric particulate matter size distribution and concentration in West Virginia coal mining and non-mining areas. J. Exp. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 24:405–11
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88. 
    Kuvlesky WP Jr., Brennan LA, Morrison ML, Boydston KK, Ballard BM, Bryant FC. 2007. Wind energy development and wildlife conservation: challenges and opportunities. J. Wildl. Manag. 71:2487–98
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89. 
    Laden F, Neas LM, Dockery DW, Schwartz J 2000. Association of fine particulate matter from different sources with daily mortality in six U.S. cities. Environ. Health Perspect. 108:941–47
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90. 
    Lan Q, Chapman RS, Schreinemachers DM, Tian L, He X 2002. Household stove improvement and risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 94:826–35
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91. 
    Lan Q, He X, Shen M, Tian L, Liu LZ et al. 2008. Variation in lung cancer risk by smoky coal subtype in Xuanwei, China. Int. J. Cancer 123:2164–69
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92. 
    Lancet Respir. Med 2015. Obama's Clean Power Plan: a breath of fresh air. Lancet Respir. Med. 3:661
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93. 
    Laumbach RJ, Kipen HM. 2012. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 129:3–11; quiz 12–13
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94. 
    Lewis J, Hoover J, MacKenzie D 2017. Mining and environmental health disparities in Native American communities. Curr. Environ. Health Rep. 4:130–41
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95. 
    Liao Y, Wang J, Wu J, Driskell L, Wang W et al. 2010. Spatial analysis of neural tube defects in a rural coal mining area. Int. J. Environ. Health Res. 20:439–50
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96. 
    Lindberg TT, Bernhardt ES, Bier R, Helton AM, Merola RB et al. 2011. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed. PNAS 108:20929–34
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97. 
    Liu Q, Lei Q, Xu H, Yuan J 2018. China's energy revolution into 2030. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 128:78–89
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98. 
    Luanpitpong S, Chen M, Knuckles T, Wen S, Luo J et al. 2014. Appalachian mountaintop mining particulate matter induces neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells and promotes tumor formation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:12912–19
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99. 
    Markandya A, Wilkinson P. 2007. Electricity generation and health. Lancet 370:979–90
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100. 
    Massetti E, Brown MA, Lapsa M, Sharma I, Bradbury J et al. 2017. Environmental quality and the US power sector: air quality, water quality, land use and environmental justice Rep. ORNL/SPR-2016/772, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., US Dep. Energy, Oak Ridge, TN
  101. 101. 
    McKenzie LM, Allshouse WB, Byers TE, Bedrick EJ, Serdar B, Adgate JL 2017. Childhood hematologic cancer and residential proximity to oil and gas development. PLOS ONE 12:e0170423
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102. 
    Mishra SK. 2015. Putting the value to human health in coal mining region of India. J. Health Manag. 17:339–55
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103. 
    Mishra UC. 2004. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India. J. Environ. Radioact. 72:35–40
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104. 
    Morgan S. 2018. Spain to nix nuclear and coal power by 2030. Euractiv Nov. 15. https://www.euractiv.com/section/energy/news/spain-to-nix-nuclear-and-coal-power-by-2030/
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105. 
    Mumford JL, He XZ, Chapman RS, Cao SR, Harris DB et al. 1987. Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in Xuan Wei, China. Science 235:217–20
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106. 
    Munawer ME. 2018. Human health and environmental impacts of coal combustion and post-combustion wasters. J. Sustain. Min. 17:87–96
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107. 
    NaturalGas.org 2013. Background. NaturalGas.org Sept. 20. http://naturalgas.org/overview/background/
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108. 
    Nichols CE, Shepherd DL, Knuckles TL, Thapa D, Stricker JC et al. 2015. Cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction following acute pulmonary exposure to mountaintop removal mining particulate matter. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 309:H2017–30
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109. 
    OHSA (Occup. Saf. Health Adm.), US Dep. Labor 2019. Silica, crystalline. Health Effects https://www.osha.gov/dsg/topics/silicacrystalline/health_effects_silica.html
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110. 
    Orem W, Tatu C, Crosby L, Varonka MS, Bates A et al. 2012. Water chemistry in areas with surface mining of coal Presented at Geological Society of America Annual Meeting and Exposition. Charlotte, NC:
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111. 
    Ostro B, Tobias A, Querol X, Alastuey A, Amato F et al. 2011. The effects of particulate matter sources on daily mortality: a case-crossover study of Barcelona, Spain. Environ. Health Perspect. 119:1781–87
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112. 
    Palmer MA, Bernhardt ES, Schlesinger WH, Eshleman KN, Foufoula-Georgiou E et al. 2010. Mountaintop mining consequences. Science 327:148–49
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113. 
    Pericak AA, Thomas CJ, Kroodsma DA, Wasson MF, Ross MRV et al. 2018. Mapping the yearly extent of surface coal mining in Central Appalachia using Landsat and Google Earth Engine. PLOS ONE 13:e0197758
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 114. 
    Pless-Mulloli T, Howel D, King A, Stone I, Merefield J et al. 2000. Living near opencast coal mining sites and children's respiratory health. Occupat. Environ. Med. 57:145–51
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115. 
    PSR (Phys. Soc. Responsib.) 2019. Coal ash: hazardous to human health Brief, Phys. Soc. Responsib Washington, DC: https://www.psr.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/coal-ash-hazardous-to-human-health.pdf
  116. 116. 
    Qi Y, Lu J. 2018. Has China hit peak coal. Brink: The Edge of Risk March 18. https://www.brinknews.com/has-china-hit-peak-coal/
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 117. 
    Qi Y, Stern N, Wu T, Lu J, Green F 2016. China's post-coal growth. Nat. Geosci. 9:564–66
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 118. 
    Rasmussen SG, Ogburn EL, McCormack M, Casey JA, Bandeen-Roche K et al. 2016. Association between unconventional natural gas development in the Marcellus Shale and asthma exacerbations. JAMA Intern. Med. 176:1334–43
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 119. 
    Rice KM, Walker EM Jr., Wu M, Gillette C, Blough ER 2014. Environmental mercury and its toxic effects. J. Prev. Med. Public Health 47:74–83
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 120. 
    Ruhl L, Vengosh A, Dwyer GS, Hsu-Kim H, Deonarine A et al. 2009. Survey of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43:6326–33
    [Google Scholar]
  121. 121. 
    Santos MD, Flores Soares MC, Martins Baisch PR, Muccillo Baisch AL, Rodrigues da Silva Junior FM 2018. Biomonitoring of trace elements in urine samples of children from a coal-mining region. Chemosphere 197:622–26
    [Google Scholar]
  122. 122. 
    Schweinfurth SP. 2013. Coal—a complex natural resource Circ. 1143, US Dep. Inter. US Geol. Survey Reston, VA: https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1143/c1143.pdf
  123. 123. 
    Sears CG, Zierold KM. 2017. Health of children living near coal ash. Glob. Pediatr. Health 4:2333794X17720330
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 124. 
    Sellers S, Ebi KL, Hess J 2019. Climate change, human health, and social stability: addressing interlinkages. Environ. Health Perspect. 127:45002
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 125. 
    Seow WJ, Hu W, Vermeulen R, Hosgood HD III, Downward GS et al. 2014. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China: a review of studies in Xuanwei. Chin. J. Cancer 33:471–75
    [Google Scholar]
  126. 126. 
    Shearer C, Fofrich R, Davis SJ 2017. Future CO2 emissions and electricity generation from proposed coal-fired power plants in India. Earth's Futur 5:408–16
    [Google Scholar]
  127. 127. 
    Shen M, Chapman RS, Vermeulen R, Tian L, Zheng T et al. 2009. Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study. Environ. Health Perspect. 117:261–66
    [Google Scholar]
  128. 128. 
    Sigsgaard T, Forsberg B, Annesi-Maesano I, Blomberg A, Bølling A et al. 2015. Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world. Eur. Respir. J. 46:1577–88
    [Google Scholar]
  129. 129. 
    Smith KR, Frumkin H, Balakrishnan K, Butler CD, Chafe ZA et al. 2013. Energy and human health. Annu. Rev. Public Health 34:159–88
    [Google Scholar]
  130. 130. 
    Sovacool BK. 2012. The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power. J. Integr. Environ. Sci. 9:255–78
    [Google Scholar]
  131. 131. 
    Stout BM, Papillo J. 2004. Well water quality in the vicinity of a coal slurry impoundment near Williamson, West Virginia Rep., Wheeling Jesuit Univ Wheeling, WV:
  132. 132. 
    Temple JMF, Sykes AM. 1992. Asthma and open cast mining. BMJ 305:396–97
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 133. 
    Thurston GD, Burnett RT, Turner MC, Shi Y, Krewski D et al. 2016. Ischemic heart disease mortality and long-term exposure to source-related components of U.S. fine particle air pollution. Environ. Health Perspect. 124:785–94
    [Google Scholar]
  134. 134. 
    Turney D, Fthenakis V. 2011. Environmental impacts from the installation and operation of large-scale solar power plants. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15:3261–70
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 135. 
    UN 2015. China submits its Climate Action Plan ahead of 2015 Paris Agreement UN Clim Change Press Release June 30. https://unfccc.int/news/china-submits-its-climate-action-plan-ahead-of-2015-paris-agreement
  136. 136. 
    UN 2017. More than 20 countries launch global alliance to phase out coal. United Nations Climate Change Nov. 17. https://unfccc.int/news/more-than-20-countries-launch-global-alliance-to-phase-out-coal
    [Google Scholar]
  137. 137. 
    UN 2018. 2018 revision of world urbanization prospects Rep., UN Dep. Econ. Soc Aff., New York: https://www.un.org/development/desa/publications/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html
  138. 138. 
    UN 2018. The Paris Agreement Agreem., UN Framew. Conv. Clim. Change Bonn, Ger.: https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement
  139. 139. 
    UN 2018. World population prospects. The 2017 revision. Key findings and advance tables. Rep., UN New York: https://population.un.org/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2017_KeyFindings.pdf
  140. 140. 
    US EPA (Environ. Prot. Agency) 2018. Comparison of ACE and CPP Fact Sheet, US EPA Washington, DC: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018-08/documents/ace-cpp_side_by_side.pdf
  141. 141. 
    US EPA (Environ. Prot. Agency) 2018. Surface coal mining in Appalachia. US Environmental Protection Agency https://www.epa.gov/sc-mining
    [Google Scholar]
  142. 142. 
    US EPA (Environ. Prot. Agency) 2019. EPA finalizes Affordable Clean Energy Rule, ensuring reliable, diversified energy resources while protecting our environment News Release June 19. https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-finalizes-affordable-clean-energy-rule-ensuring-reliable-diversified-energy
  143. 143. 
    Walker Whitworth K, Kaye Marshall A, Symanski E 2018. Drilling and production activity related to unconventional gas development and severity of preterm birth. Environ. Health Perspect. 126:037006
    [Google Scholar]
  144. 144. 
    Watts N, Amann M, Arnell N, Ayeb-Karlsson S, Belesova K et al. 2018. The 2018 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: shaping the health of nations for centuries to come. Lancet 392:2479–514
    [Google Scholar]
  145. 145. 
    Wei H, Feng Y, Liang F, Cheng W, Wu X et al. 2017. Role of oxidative stress and DNA hydroxymethylation in the neurotoxicity of fine particulate matter. Toxicology 380:94–103
    [Google Scholar]
  146. 146. 
    Werner AK, Vink S, Watt K, Jagals P 2015. Environmental health impacts of unconventional natural gas development: a review of the current strength of evidence. Sci. Total Environ. 505:1127–41
    [Google Scholar]
  147. 147. 
    Yapici G, Can G, Kiziler AR, Aydemir B, Timur IH, Kaypmaz A 2006. Lead and cadmium exposure in children living around a coal-mining area in Yatağan, Turkey. Toxicol. Ind. Health 22:357–62
    [Google Scholar]
  148. 148. 
    Zierold KM, Sears CG. 2015. Community views about the health and exposure of children living near a coal ash storage site. J. Community Health 40:357–63
    [Google Scholar]
  149. 149. 
    Zocche JJ, Damiani AP, Hainzenreder G, Mendonça RA, Peres PB et al. 2013. Assessment of heavy metal content and DNA damage in Hypsiboas faber (anuran amphibian) in coal open-casting mine. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 36:194–201
    [Google Scholar]
  150. 150. 
    Zullig KJ, Hendryx M. 2011. Health-related quality of life among central Appalachian residents in mountaintop mining counties. Am. J. Public Health 101:848–53
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094104
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094104
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error