1932

Abstract

Because schools materially influence both health and education, they substantially determine the future well-being and economic productivity of populations. Recent research suggests that healthier children learn better and that more educated adults are healthier. School health is a cross-disciplinary field of study and a fundamental strategy that can be used to improve both health and education outcomes. Modern school health programs include 10 interactive components: health education; physical education and physical activity; nutrition environment and services; health services; counseling, psychological, and social services; physical environment; social and emotional climate; family engagement; community involvement; and employee wellness. This review is written for both health and education audiences. It integrates recent research and developments in relationships among health, education, and economic outcomes; health and education systems; the school health program, its components, and their effectiveness; cross-disciplinary collaboration; local, state, national, and international infrastructures and strategies; implementation science; and relevant academic research, training, and service.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043727
2019-04-01
2024-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/40/1/annurev-publhealth-040218-043727.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043727&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    AAP (Am. Acad. Pediatr.). 2013. Role of the school physician. Pediatrics 131:178–82
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. 
    AAP (Am. Acad. Pediatr.). 2016. Role of the school nurse in providing school health services. Pediatrics 137: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-0852
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. 
    AAP (Am. Acad. Pediatr.)., APHA (Am. Public Health Assoc.), NRCKIDS (Natl. Resour. Cent. Health Saf. Child Care Early Educ.). 2011. Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance StandardsGuidelines for Early Care and Education Programs Itasca, IL/Washington, DC/Aurora, CO: AAP/APHA/NRCKIDS, 3rd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4. 
    AHG (Alliance Health. Gener.), HSC (Healthy Sch. Campaign). 2017. State ESSA plans to support student health and wellness: a framework for action, 3rd ed. Rep., AHG New York: https://healthyschoolscampaign.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/ESSA-State-Framework.pdf
  5. 5. 
    Am. Cancer Soc. 1993. National action plan for comprehensive school health education. J. Sch. Health 63:46–66
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    ASCD, Int. Sch. Health Netw. 2015. Statement for the Integration of health and education Statement, ASCD Alexandria, VA: http://www.wholechildeducation.org/about/globalschoolhealthstatement
  7. 7. 
    ASTHO (Assoc. State Territ. Health Offic.). 2018. Public health access to student health data: authorities and limitations in sharing information between schools and public health agencies Issue Brief, ASTHO, Arlington, VA. http://www.astho.org/Programs/Preparedness/Public-Health-Emergency-Law/Public-Health-and-Schools-Toolkit/Public-Health-Access-to-Student-Health-Data/
  8. 8. 
    Barrios LC, Davis MK, Kann L, Desai S, Mercy JA 2001. School health guidelines to prevent unintentional injuries and violence. MMWR 50:RR221–46
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    Basch CE 2010. Healthier students are better learners: a missing link in school reforms to close the achievement gap Equity Matters Res. Rev. 6, Columbia Univ. Teach. Coll. Cent. Educ. Equity New York: http://www.centerforeducationalequity.org/publications/expanding-opportunity-comprehensive-strategies-for-improving-education/12558_EquityMattersVol6_WebFINAL.pdf
  10. 10. 
    Berg J, Osher D, Moroney D, Yoder N 2017. The intersection of school climate and social and emotional development Rep., Am Inst. Res Washington, DC: https://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/Intersection-School-Climate-and-Social-and-Emotional-Development-February-2017.pdf
  11. 11. 
    Berg J, Osher D, Same MR, Nolan E, Benson D, Jacobs N 2017. Identifying, defining, and measuring social and emotional competencies: final report Rep., Am. Inst. Res Washington, DC: http://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/Identifying-Defining-and-Measuring-Social-and-Emotional-Competencies-December-2017-rev.pdf
  12. 12. 
    Bethell CD, Newacheck P, Hawes E, Halfon N 2014. Adverse childhood experiences: assessing the impact on health and school engagement and the mitigating role of resilience. Health Aff 33:2106–15
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. 
    Bogart LM, Elliott MN, Cowgill BO, Klein DJ, Hawes-Dawson J et al. 2016. Two-year BMI outcomes from a school-based intervention for nutrition and exercise: a randomized trial. Pediatrics 137:e20152493
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. 
    Braveman P, Gottlieb L 2014. The social determinants of health: It's time to consider the causes of the causes. Public Health. Rep. 129:Suppl. 219–31
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    Brownson RC, Colditz GA, Proctor EK 2018. Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health: Translating Science to Practice Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 2nd ed..
  16. 16. 
    Brownson RC, Fielding JE, Green LW 2018. Building capacity for evidence-based public health: reconciling the pulls of practice and the push of research. Annu. Rev. Public Health 39:27–53
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. 
    Burkhardt JT, Schröter DC, Magura S, Means SN, Coryn CL 2015. An overview of evidence-based program registers (EBPRs) for behavioral health. Eval. Progr. Plan. 48:92–99
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2008. A CDC review of school laws and policies concerning child and adolescent health. J. Sch. Health 78:69–128
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2009. School connectedness: strategies for increasing protective factors among youth Rep., CDC Atlanta: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/protective/pdf/connectedness.pdf
  20. 20. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2011. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity MMWR Rep 605 CDC Atlanta: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/npao/pdf/mmwr-school-health-guidelines.pdf
  21. 21. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2012. Parent engagement: strategies for involving parents in school health Rep., CDC Atlanta: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/parent_engagement/pdf/parent_engagement_strategies.pdf
  22. 22. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2015. Components of the whole school, whole community, whole child (WSCC). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/wscc/components.htm Offers a definition for each component of the school health program.
  23. 23. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2015. Comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/physicalactivity/cspap.htm
  24. 24. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2016. Comprehensive framework for addressing the school nutrition environment and services Pam., CDC Atlanta: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/nutrition/pdf/School_Nutrition_Framework_508tagged.pdf
  25. 25. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2016. For immunization managers—state vaccination requirements. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/laws/state-reqs.html
  26. 26. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2016. Health in All Policies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/policy/hiap/index.html
  27. 27. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2017. Health and academics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/health_and_academics/
  28. 28. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2017. The public health system and 10 essential public health services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/publichealthservices/essentialhealthservices.html
  29. 29. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2017. Registries of programs effective in reducing youth risk behaviors. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/adolescenthealth/registries.htm
  30. 30. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2017. SHPPS resultsfull report: results from the School Health Policies and Practices Study 2016 Rep., CDC Atlanta: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/shpps/results.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2018. Out of school time. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/ost.htm
  32. 32. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2018. The whole school, whole community, whole child (WSCC) model. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/wscc/model.htm
  33. 33. 
    CDC (US Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2018. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm
  34. 34. 
    Coalit. Community Sch. (CCS). 2018. What is a community school?. Coalition for Community Schools http://www.communityschools.org/aboutschools/what_is_a_community_school.aspx
  35. 35. 
    Corbin JH, Jones J, Barry MM 2018. What makes intersectoral partnerships for health promotion work? A review of the international literature. Health Promot. Int. 33:4–26
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. 
    Cowan KC, Vaillancourt K, Rossen E, Pollitt K 2013. A framework for safe and successful schools Rep., Natl. Assoc. Sch. Psychol Bethesda, MD: https://www.nasponline.org/resources-and-publications/resources/school-safety-and-crisis/a-framework-for-safe-and-successful-schools
  37. 37. 
    Cullen KW, Chen T-A 2017. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake. Prev. Med. Rep. 5:82–85
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38. 
    DHPE (Dir. Health Promot. Educ.). 2007. School employee wellness: a guide for protecting the assets of our nation's schools Rep., DHPE Washington, DC: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.dhpe.org/resource/group/75a95e00-448d-41c5-8226-0d20f29787de/Downloadable_Materials/EntireGuide.pdf
  39. 39. 
    Durlak J, Weissberg R, Dymnicki A, Taylor R, Schellinger KB 2011. The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Dev 82:405–32
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40. 
    ED (US Dep. Educ.). 2017. Children and youth with disabilities. The condition of education 2017 Rep., ED Washington, DC: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/pdf/Indicator_CGG/coe_cgg_2017_05.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    ED (US Dep. Educ.). 2017. Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). US Department of Education https://www.ed.gov/esea
  42. 42. 
    ED (US Dep. Educ.). 2018. 201516 civil rights data collectionschool climate and safety Rep., ED Washington, DC: https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/school-climate-and-safety.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 42a. 
    ED (US Dep. Educ.). 2018. Final report of the Federal Commission on School Safety Rep., ED, Washington, DC. https://www2.ed.gov/documents/school-safety/school-safety-report.pdf
  44. 43. 
    ED (US Dep. Educ.). 2018. Student privacy 101: student privacy at the U.S. Department of Education. U.S. Department of Education. https://studentprivacy.ed.gov/
  45. 44. 
    Eitland E, Klingensmith L, MacNaughton P, Cedeno Laurent J, Spengler J et al. 2017. Schools for health: foundations for student success Rep., Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health Cambridge, MA: https://schools.forhealth.org/Harvard.Schools_For_Health.Foundations_for_Student_Success.pdf
  46. 45. 
    Filardo M 2016. State of our schools: America's K12 facilities 2016 Rep., 21st Century Sch. Fund Washington, DC: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED581630.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 46. 
    Fiscella K, Kitzman H 2009. Disparities in academic achievement and health: the intersection of child education and health policy. Pediatrics 123:1073–80
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 47. 
    Frieden TR 2010. A framework for public health action: the health impact pyramid. Am. J. Public Health 100:590–95
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 48. 
    Frisvold DE 2015. Nutrition and cognitive achievement: an evaluation of the School Breakfast Program. J. Public Econ. 124:91–104
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 49. 
    Gallup. 2014. State of America's schools: the path to winning again in education Rep., Gallup Washington, DC: https://www.gallup.com/services/178709/state-america-schools-report.aspx
  51. 50. 
    Gereige R, Dabrow S 2016. School health and medical education. School Health: Policy and Practice RS Gereige, EA Zenni 23–34 Itasca, IL: Am. Acad. Pediatr, 7th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 51. 
    Golden SD, McLeroy KR, Green LW, Earp JA, Lieberman LD 2015. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change. Health Educ. Behav. 42:Suppl. 18S–14S
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 52. 
    Greenberg MT, Brown JL, Abenavoli RM 2016. Teacher stress and health: effects on teachers, students, and schools Issue Brief, Robert Wood Johnson Found Princeton, NJ: https://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/issue_briefs/2016/rwjf430428
  54. 53. 
    Hafner M, Stepanek M, Troxel W 2017. Later school start times in the U.S.: an economic analysis Rep., Rand Corp Santa Monica, CA: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2109.html
  55. 54. 
    IOM (Inst. Med.). 1997. Schools and Health: Our Nation's Investment Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  56. 55. 
    IOM (Inst. Med.). 1998. Executive summary. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century2 Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 56. 
    IOM (Inst. Med.). 2004. Education systems. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion142–66 Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 57. 
    IOM (Inst. Med.). 2007. Nutrition related health concerns, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors of children and adolescents. Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools: Leading the Way Toward Healthier Youth29–72 Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 58. 
    IOM (Inst. Med.). 2015. Exploring Opportunities for Collaboration Between Health and Education to Improve Population Health: Workshop Summary Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  60. 59. 
    IOM (Inst. Med.). 2015. Vital Signs: Core Metrics for Health and Health Care Progress Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  61. 60. 
    Janssen I, Leblanc AG 2010. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 7:40
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 61. 
    Jones D, Greenberg M, Crowley M 2015. Early social-emotional functioning and public health: the relationship between kindergarten social competence and future wellness. Am. J. Public Health 105:2283–90
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 62. 
    Kann L, McManus T, Harris WA, Shanklin SL, Flint KH et al. 2018. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2017. MMWR Surveill. Summ. 67:SS-81–114
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 63. 
    Kase C, Hoover S, Boyd G, West KD, Dubenitz J et al. 2017. Educational outcomes associated with school behavioral health interventions: a review of the literature. J. Sch. Health 87:554–62
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 64. 
    Kern L, Mathur SR, Albrecht SF, Poland S, Rozalski M, Skiba RJ 2017. The need for school-based mental health services and recommendations for implementation. Sch. Ment. Health 9:205–17
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 65. 
    Kim JY 2018. Eliminating poverty in the 21st century: the role of health and human capital. JAMA 320:1427–28
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 66. 
    Kolbe LJ 2005. A framework for school health programs in the 21st century. J. Sch. Health 75:226–28
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 67. 
    Kolbe LJ 2015. On national strategies to improve both education and health—an open letter. J. Sch. Health 85:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 68. 
    Kolbe LJ, Allensworth DD, Potts-Datema W, White DR 2015. What have we learned from collaborative partnerships to concomitantly improve both education and health?. J. Sch. Health 85:766–74
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 69. 
    Kolbe LJ, Hunt H, Ben Abdelaziz F 2019. Planning efforts to help schools prevent noncommunicable diseases: integrating local, state, national, and international efforts. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Program Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation L Green, M Kreuter, D Peterson, A Gielen Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 5th ed. In press
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 70. 
    Kolbe LJ, Rixey S 2015. Will health and education agencies help each other?. J. Public Health Manag. Pract. 21:519–22
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 71. 
    Maier A, Daniel J, Oakes J, Lam L 2017. Community schools as an effective school improvement strategy: a review of the evidence Rep., Learn. Policy Inst., Palo Alto, CA. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Community_Schools_Effective_REPORT.pdf
  73. 72. 
    Michael SL, Merlo CL, Basch CE, Wentzel KR, Wechsler H 2015. Critical connections: health and academics. J. Sch. Health 85:740–58
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 73. 
    Morse LL, Allensworth D 2015. Placing students at the center: the whole school, whole community, whole child model. J. Sch. Health 85:785–94
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 74. 
    Musu-Gillette L, Zhang A, Wang K, Zhang J, Oudekerk BA 2017. Indicators of school crime and safety 2016 NCES 2017-064 Rep., Natl. Cent. Educ. Stat Washington, DC: https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017064.pdf
  76. 75. 
    NACDD (Natl. Assoc. Chronic Dis. Dir.). 2009. Partnering for success: how health departments work and how to work with health departments Rep., NACDD Decatur, GA: http://nacddarchive.org/nacdd-initiatives/school-health/publications/Partnering-for-Success/SHC_HHDWFinal2009
  77. 76. 
    NACDD (Natl. Assoc. Chronic Dis. Dir.). 2013. Speaking education's language: a guide for public health professionals working in the education sector Rep., NACDD, Decatur, GA https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.chronicdisease.org/resource/resmgr/school_health/nacdd_educationsector_guide_.pdf
  78. 77. 
    NACDD (Natl. Assoc. Chronic Dis. Dir.). 2016. A guide for incorporating health and wellness into school improvement plans Rep., NACDD, Decatur, GA https://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.chronicdisease.org/resource/resmgr/school_health/NACDD_SIP_Guide_2016.pdf
  79. 78. 
    NACDD (Natl. Assoc. Chronic Dis. Dir.).2018 Healthy school, healthy staff, healthy students: a guide to improving school employee wellness Rep., NACDD, Decatur, GA https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.chronicdisease.org/resource/resmgr/school_health/school_employee_wellness/nacdd_schoolemployeewellness.pdf
  80. 79. 
    NASN (Natl. Assoc. Sch. Nurses). 2016. Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice. NASN Sch. Nurse 31:145–53
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 80. 
    Natl. Child Trauma. Stress Netw. 2017. Creating, supporting, and sustaining trauma-informed schools: a system framework Rep., Natl. Cent. Child Trauma Stress, Los Angeles/Durham, NC: https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/resources//creating_supporting_sustaining_trauma_informed_schools_a_systems_framework.pdf
  82. 81. 
    NCES (US Natl. Cent. Educ. Stat.). 2017. Back to school statistics for 2017. National Center for Education Statistics https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=372
  83. 82. 
    NCES (US Natl. Cent. Educ. Stat.). 2017. The condition of education 2017 at a glance Rep., NCES Washington, DC: https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017144_AtAGlance.pdf
  84. 83. 
    NPAPA (Natl. Phys. Act. Plan Alliance). 2016. The 2016 United States report card on physical activity for children and youth Rep., NPAPA Columbia, SC: http://www.physicalactivityplan.org/reportcard/2016FINAL_USReportCard.pdf
  85. 84. 
    OECD (Organ. Econ. Coop. Dev.). 2016. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 results in focus Rep., OECD Paris: https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-2015-results-in-focus.pdf
  86. 85. 
    Paulson J, Barnett C 2016. Public health stops at the school house door. Environ. Health Perspect. 124:A171–75
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 86. 
    Perou R, Bitsko RH, Blumberg SJ, Pastor P, Ghandour RM et al. 2013. Mental health surveillance among children—United States, 2005–2011. MMWR 62:Suppl. 21–35
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 87. 
    Powers SG, Flint S 2016. Labor productivity growth in elementary and secondary school services: 1989–2012. Monthly Labor Review June. https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2016/article/labor-productivity-growth-in-elementary-and-secondary-school-services.htm
  89. 88. 
    Public Health Law Cent. 2015. Building healthy schools: health impact assessment on planning school construction projects in Minnesota Rep., Public Health Law Cent. Mitchell Hamline Sch. Law., St. Paul, MN. http://www.publichealthlawcenter.org/sites/default/files/HIA%20-%20Building%20Healthy%20Schools_0.pdf
  90. 89. 
    Pudelski S 2017. Cutting Medicaid: a prescription to hurt the neediest kids Rep., AASA Alexandria, VA: http://aasa.org/uploadedFiles/Policy_and_Advocacy/Resources/medicaid.pdf
  91. 90. 
    Rasberry CN, Lee SM, Robin L, Laris BA, Russell LA et al. 2011. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature. Prev. Med. 52:Suppl.S10–20
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 91. 
    Rasberry CN, Tiu GF, Kann L, McManus T, Michael SL et al. 2017. Health-related behaviors and academic achievement among high school students—United States, 2015. MMWR 66:921–27
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 92. 
    Sanders MG 2003. Community involvement in schools: from concept to practice. Educ. Urban Soc. 35:161–80
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 93. 
    Sauter S, Murphy L, Colligan M, Swanson N, Hurrell J et al. 1999. Stress…at work NIOSH Publ 99–101 Natl. Inst. Occup. Saf. Health (NIOSH) Washington, DC: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/99-101/default.html
  95. 94. 
    SBHA (Sch.-Based Health Alliance). 2018. National school-based health care census. School-Based Health Alliance https://www.sbh4all.org/school-health-care/national-census-of-school-based-health-centers/
  96. 95. 
    SOPHE (Soc. Public Health Educ.). 2017. Health education and the Every Student Succeeds Act Policy Brief, SOPHE Washington, DC: https://www.sophe.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/ESSA-Policy-Brief.pdf
  97. 96. 
    Stokols D, Hall KL, Taylor BK, Moser RP 2008. The science of team science: overview of the field and introduction to the supplement. Am. J. Prev. Med. 35:2 Suppl.S77–89
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 97. 
    Tang KC, Nutbeam D, Aldinger C, St. Leger L, Bundy D et al. 2009. Schools for health, education, and development: a call for action. Health Promot. Int. 24:68–77
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 98. 
    Taub A, Allegrante JP, Barry MP, Sakagami K 2009. Perspectives on terminology and conceptual and professional issues in health education and health promotion credentialing. Health Educ. Behav. 36:439–50
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 99. 
    Taub A, Goekler S, Auld E, Birch D, Muller S, Wengert D, Allegrante JP 2014. Accreditation of professional preparation programs for school health educators: the changing landscape. Health Educ. Behav. 41:349–58
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 100. 
    Transport. Res. Board. 2002. The Relative Risks of School Travel: A National Perspective and Guidance for Local Community Risk Assessment Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  102. 101. 
    UNESCO (UN Educ. Sci. Cult. Organ.). 2016. UNESCO strategy on education for health and well-being: contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals Rep., UNESCO Paris: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002464/246453e.pdf
  103. 102. 
    UNESCO (UN Educ. Sci. Cult. Organ.). 2017. Education: enrolment by level of education, primary education and secondary education, both sexes Database, UNESCO Inst. Stat (UIS), retrieved Oct. 13, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/ Lists enrollment by level of education; sum of world enrollment in primary education—both sexes (746,284,923), plus enrollment in secondary education—both sexes (590,725,243), equals 1.337 billion students.
  104. 103. 
    UNICEF (UN Int. Child. Emerg. Fund). 2009. Child friendly schools manual Rep., UNICEF New York: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Child_Friendly_Schools_Manual_EN_040809.pdf
  105. 104. 
    USDA (US Dep. Agric.). 2017. Team nutrition—local school wellness policy. US Department of Agriculture https://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/local-school-wellness-policy
  106. 105. 
    USDHHS (US Dep. Health Hum. Serv.). 2010. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy Rep., USDHHS Washington, DC: https://health.gov/communication/hlactionplan/pdf/Health_Literacy_Action_Plan.pdf
  107. 106. 
    USDHHS (Dep. Health Hum. Serv.). 2018. Social determinants of health—objectives. Healthy People 2020. HealthyPeople.gov. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/social-determinants-of-health/objectives
  108. 107. 
    Wang LY, Vernon-Smiley M, Gapinski MA, Desisto M, Maughan E, Sheetz A 2014. Cost-benefit study of school nursing services. JAMA Pediatr 168:7642–48
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 108. 
    Wang Y, Cai L, Wu Y, Wilson RF, Weston C et al. 2015. What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes. Rev. 16:547–65
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 109. 
    WHO (World Health Organ.). 2011. Education: shared interests in well-being and development Soc. Determinants Health Sect. Brief. Ser. 2 Rep., WHO, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44737/1/9789241502498_eng.pdf
  111. 110. 
    WHO (World Health Organ.)., UN Dev. Progr. 2016. What ministries of education need to know about chronic diseases Rep., WHO, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/250231/WHO-NMH-NMA-16.93-eng.pdf?sequence=1
  112. 111. 
    Willgerodt MA, Brock DM, Maughan ED 2018. Public school nursing practice in the United States. J. Sch. Nurs. 34:232–44
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 112. 
    Wolfenden L, Nathan NK, Sutherland R et al. 2017. Strategies for enhancing the implementation of school-based policies or practices targeting risk factors for chronic disease. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2017:11CD011677
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 113. 
    World Bank. 2018. Systems Approach to Better Education Results (SABER)—School Health and School Feeding. World Bank http://saber.worldbank.org/index.cfm?indx=8&pd=9&sub=0
  115. 114. 
    Yoshikawa H, Aber JL, Beardslee WR 2012. The effects of poverty on the mental, emotional, and behavioral health of children and youth: implications for prevention. Am. Psychol. 67:272–84
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 115. 
    Young I 2005. Health promotion in schools—a historical perspective. Glob. Health Promot. 12:112–17
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 116. 
    Zajacova A, Lawrence EM 2018. The relationship between education and health: reducing disparities through a contextual approach. Annu. Rev. Public Health 39:273–89
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 117. 
    Zimmerman EB, Woolf SH, Blackburn SM, Kimmel AD, Barnes AJ, Bono RS 2016. The case for considering education and health. Urban Educ 53:744–73
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 118. 
    Zimmerman EB, Woolf SH, Haley A 2015. Understanding the relationship between education and health: a review of evidence and an examination of community perspectives. Population HealthBehavioral and Social Science Insights RM Kaplan, ML Spittel, DH David 347–84 Rockville, MD: US Agency Healthc. Res. Qual.
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043727
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error