1932

Abstract

Television (TV) news, and especially local TV news, remains an important vehicle through which Americans obtain information about health-related topics. In this review, we synthesize theory and evidence on four main functions of TV news in shaping public health policy and practice: reporting events and information to the public (surveillance); providing the context for and meaning surrounding health issues (interpretation); cultivating community values, beliefs, and norms (socialization); and attracting and maintaining public attention for advertisers (attention merchant). We also identify challenges for TV news as a vehicle for improving public health, including declining audiences, industry changes such as station consolidation, increasingly politicized content, potential spread of misinformation, and lack of attention to inequity. We offer recommendations for public health practitioners and researchers to leverage TV news to improve public health and advance health equity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044017
2019-04-01
2024-06-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/40/1/annurev-publhealth-040218-044017.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044017&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    Abroms LC, Maibach EW 2008. The effectiveness of mass communication to change public behavior. Annu. Rev. Public Health 29:219–34
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. 
    Armstrong EM, Carpenter DP, Hojnacki M 2006. Whose deaths matter? Mortality, advocacy, and attention to disease in the mass media. J. Health Politics Policy Law 31:729–72
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. 
    Bachhuber MA, McGinty EE, Kennedy-Hendricks A, Niederdeppe J, Barry CL 2015. Messaging to increase public support for naloxone distribution policies in the United States: results from a randomized survey experiment. PLOS ONE 10:e0130050
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4. 
    Barry CL, Brescoll VL, Gollust SE 2013. Framing childhood obesity: how individualizing the problem affects public support for prevention. Political Psychol 34:3327–49
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5. 
    Barry CL, Jarlenski M, Grob R, Schlesinger M, Gollust SE 2011. News media framing of childhood obesity in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Pediatrics 128:132–45
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    Beall AT, Hofer MK, Schaller M 2016. Infections and elections: Did an Ebola outbreak influence the 2014 U.S. federal elections (and if so, how)?. Psychol. Sci. 27:595–605
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. 
    Berinsky AJ 2017. Rumors and health care reform: experiments in political misinformation. Br. J. Political Sci. 47:241–62
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8. 
    Berkman LF, Glass T, Brissette I, Seeman TE 2000. From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Soc. Sci. Med. 51:843–57
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    Bigman CA 2014. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk. Health Commun 29:267–80
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. 
    Bloodhart B, Maibach E, Myers T, Zhao X 2015. Local climate experts: the influence of local TV weather information on climate change perceptions. PLOS ONE 10:e0141526
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11. 
    Branswell H 2018. When towns lose their newspapers, disease detectives are left flying blind. STAT March 20. https://www.statnews.com/2018/03/20/news-deserts-infectious-disease/
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12. 
    Braveman P, Egerter S, Williams DR 2011. The social determinants of health: coming of age. Annu. Rev. Public Health 32:381–98
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. 
    Brodie M, Foehr U, Rideout V, Baer N, Miller C et al. 2001. Communicating health information through the entertainment media. Health Aff 20:192–99
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. 
    Brodie M, Hamel E, Altman D, Blendon R, Benson J 2003. Health news and the American public, 1996–2002. J. Health Politics Policy Law 28:927–50
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    Cacciatore MA, Scheufele DA, Iyengar S 2016. The end of framing as we know it…and the future of media effects. Mass Commun. Soc. 19:7–23
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. 
    Cappella JN, Jamieson KH 1996. News frames, political cynicism, and media cynicism. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 546:71–84
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. 
    Cappella JN, Jamieson KH 1997. Spiral of Cynicism: The Press and the Public Good Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. 
    Chong D, Druckman JN 2007. Framing theory. Annu. Rev. Political Sci. 10:103–26
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    Cook DM, Boyd EA, Grossmann C, Bero LA 2009. Journalists and conflicts of interest in science: beliefs and practices. Ethics Sci. Environ. Politics 9:33–40
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. 
    Dahlstrom MF 2014. Using narratives and storytelling to communicate science with nonexpert audiences. PNAS 111:13614–20
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21. 
    Davis RM, Gilpin EA, Loken B, Viswanath K, Wakefield MA 2008. The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use Tob. Control Monogr. 19, NIH Pub. 07–6242 Natl. Inst. Health, Natl. Cancer Inst Bethesda, MD: https://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/TCRB/monographs/19/m19_complete.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22. 
    De Vreese CH, Boomgaarden H 2006. News, political knowledge and participation: the differential effects of news media exposure on political knowledge and participation. Acta Politica 41:317–41
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. 
    Donohue JM, Cevasco M, Rosenthal MB 2007. A decade of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs. N. Engl. J. Med. 357:673–81
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. 
    Druckman JN 2006. Media matter: how newspapers and television news cover campaigns and influence voters. Political Commun 22:463–81
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25. 
    Dunaway J 2008. Markets, ownership, and the quality of campaign news coverage. J. Politics 70:1193–202
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. 
    Entman RM 1993. Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. J. Commun. 43:51–58
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. 
    Farhi P, Gillum J, Alcantara C 2018. In this town, you can flip the channel all you want—the news is often the same. Washington Post May 15. https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2018/lifestyle/sinclair-broadcasting/?utm_term=.21d54cb2c513
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. 
    Fisher WR 1984. Narration as a human communication paradigm: the case of public moral argument. Commun. Monogr. 51:1–22
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29. 
    Fortin J, Bromwich JE 2018. Sinclair made dozens of local news anchors recite the same script. New York Times April 2. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/02/business/media/sinclair-news-anchors-script.html
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. 
    Fowler EF 2018. All politics is local? Assessing the role of local television news in a polarized era. New Directions in Media and Politics TN Ridout 80–98 New York: Routledge, 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. 
    Fowler EF, Baum LM, Barry CL, Niederdeppe J, Gollust SE 2017. Media messages and perceptions of the Affordable Care Act during the early phase of implementation. J. Health Politics Policy Law 42:167–95
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32. 
    Fowler EF, Franz MM, Ridout TN 2018. Political Advertising in the United States New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33. 
    Fowler EF, Gollust SE 2015. The content and effect of politicized health controversies. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 658:155–71
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34. 
    Fowler EF, Stroud NJ 2018. Thinking strategically about informing the public on complex issues White Pap., Knight Found Miami, FL: https://kf-site-production.s3.amazonaws.com/media_elements/files/000/000/159/original/Topos_KF_White-Paper_Fowler_V1_ado.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35. 
    Gentzkow M 2006. Television and voter turnout. Q. J. Econ. 121:931–72
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. 
    Gerbner G, Gross L, Morgan M, Signorielli N 1980. The “mainstreaming” of America: violence profile no. 11. J. Commun. 30:10–29
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37. 
    Gerbner G, Gross L, Morgan M, Signorielli N 1982. What television teaches about physicians and health. Möbius 2:44–51
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38. 
    Goffman E 1974. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience New York: Harper & Row
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39. 
    Gollust SE, Barry CL, Niederdeppe J 2017. Partisan responses to public health messages: motivated reasoning and sugary drink taxes. J. Health. Politics Policy Law 42:1005–37
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40. 
    Gollust SE, Baum LM, Niederdeppe J, Barry CL, Fowler EF 2017. Local television news coverage of the Affordable Care Act: emphasizing politics over consumer information. Am. J. Public Health 107:5687–93
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    Gollust SE, Lantz PM 2009. Communicating population health: print news media coverage of type 2 diabetes. Soc. Sci. Med. 69:1091–98
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42. 
    Gollust SE, Niederdeppe J, Barry CL 2013. Framing the consequences of childhood obesity to increase public support for obesity prevention policy. Am. J. Public Health 103:e96–102
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43. 
    Gollust SE, Rahn WM 2015. The bodies politic: chronic health conditions and voter turnout in the 2008 election. J. Health Politics Policy Law 40:1115–55
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44. 
    Gollust SE, Wilcock A, Fowler EF, Barry CL, Niederdeppe J et al. 2018. TV advertising volumes were associated with insurance marketplace shopping and enrollment in 2014. Health Aff 37:6956–63
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45. 
    Gottfried J, Shearer E 2017. Americans’ online news use is closing in on TV news use Fact Tank Sept. 7, Pew Res. Cent Washington, DC: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/07/americans-online-news-use-vs-tv-news-use/
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46. 
    Graber DA, Dunaway JL 2018. Mass Media and American Politics Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. 
    Green MC 2006. Narratives and cancer communication. J. Commun. 56:S163–83
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. 
    Gross K, Aday S 2003. The scary world in your living room and neighborhood: using local broadcast news, neighborhood crime rates, and personal experience to test agenda setting and cultivation. J. Commun. 53:411–26
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49. 
    Harris JL, Pomeranz JL, Lobstein T, Brownell KD 2009. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done. Annu. Rev. Public Health 30:211–25
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50. 
    Hayes D, Lawless JL 2015. As local news goes, so goes citizen engagement: media, knowledge, and participation in US House elections. J. Politics 77:447–62
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51. 
    Hendriks Vettehen P, Nuijten K, Beentjes J 2005. News in an age of competition: the case of sensationalism in Dutch television news, 1995–2001. J. Broadcast. Electron. Media 49:282–95
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. 
    Hochman M, Hochman S, Bor D, McCormick D 2008. News media coverage of medication research: reporting pharmaceutical company funding and use of generic medication names. JAMA 300:1544–50
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. 
    Ishikawa Y, Kondo N, Kawachi I, Viswanath K 2016. Are socioeconomic disparities in health behavior mediated by differential media use? Test of the communication inequality theory. Patient Educ. Couns. 99:1803–07
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54. 
    Iyengar S 1991. Is Anyone Responsible? How Television Frames Political Issues Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55. 
    Iyengar S 1996. Framing responsibility for political issues. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 546:59–70
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56. 
    Iyengar S, Kinder DR 1987. News That Matters: Television and American Opinion Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57. 
    Jacobs L, Meeusen C, d'Haenens L 2016. News coverage and attitudes on immigration: public and commercial television news compared. Eur. J. Commun. 31:642–60
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58. 
    Jensen JD, Carcioppolo N, King AJ, Bernat JK, Davis L et al. 2011. Including limitations in news coverage of cancer research: effects of news hedging on fatalism, medical skepticism, patient trust, and backlash. J. Health Commun. 16:486–503
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. 
    Jensen JD, Pokharel M, Scherr CL, King AJ, Brown N, Jones C 2017. Communicating uncertain science to the public: how amount and source of uncertainty impact fatalism, backlash, and overload. Risk Anal 37:40–51
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60. 
    Kahan DM 2013. Ideology, motivated reasoning, and cognitive reflection: an experimental study. Judgm. Decis. Mak. 8:407–24
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. 
    Kahneman D, Tversky A 1979. Prospect theory—analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47:263–91
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62. 
    Kahneman D, Tversky A 1984. Choices, values, and frames. Am. Psychol. 39:341–50
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63. 
    Karaca-Mandic P, Wilcock A, Baum L, Barry CL, Fowler EF et al. 2017. The volume of TV advertisements during the ACA's first enrollment period was associated with increased insurance coverage. Health Aff 36:747–54
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. 
    Kennedy-Hendricks A, McGinty EE, Barry CL 2016. Effects of competing narratives on public perceptions of opioid pain reliever addiction during pregnancy. J. Health Politics Policy Law 41:873–916
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. 
    Kim AE, Kumanyika S, Shive D, Igweatu U, Kim SH 2010. Coverage and framing of racial and ethnic health disparities in US newspapers, 1996–2005. Am. J. Public Health 100:S224–31
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. 
    Kim SH, Willis LA 2007. Talking about obesity: news framing of who is responsible for causing and fixing the problem. J. Health Commun. 12:359–76
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67. 
    Lakoff G, Johnson M 2008. Metaphors We Live By Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68. 
    Lasswell HD 1948. The structure and function of communication in society. The Communication of Ideas: A Series of Addresses L Bryan 215–28 New York: Harper & Bros
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69. 
    Lawrence RG 2000. Game-framing the issues: tracking the strategy frame in public policy news. Political Commun 17:93–114
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70. 
    Lawrence RG 2004. Framing obesity: the evolution of news discourse on a public health issue. Harvard Int. J. Press Politics 9:56–75
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71. 
    Lee C-J, Long M, Slater MD, Song W 2014. Comparing local TV news with national TV news in cancer coverage: an exploratory content analysis. J. Health Commun. 19:1330–42
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72. 
    Lee C-J, Niederdeppe J 2011. Genre-specific cultivation effects: lagged associations between overall TV viewing, local TV news viewing, and fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. Commun. Res. 38:731–53
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73. 
    Lee H, Lee Y, Park S-A, Willis E, Cameron GT 2013. What are Americans seeing? Examining the message frames of local television health news stories. Health Commun 28:846–52
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74. 
    Leeper TJ, Slothuus R 2014. Political parties, motivated reasoning, and public opinion formation. Political Psychol 35:129–56
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75. 
    Long M, Slater MD, Boiarsky G, Stapel L, Keefe T 2005. Obtaining nationally representative samples of local news media outlets. Mass Commun. Soc. 8:299–322
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76. 
    Lord CG, Ross L, Lepper MR 1979. Biased assimilation and attitude polarization—the effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 37:2098–109
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77. 
    Lowry DT, Nio TCJ, Leitner DW 2003. Setting the public fear agenda: a longitudinal analysis of network TV crime reporting, public perceptions of crime, and FBI crime statistics. J. Commun. 53:61–73
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78. 
    Lyles A 2002. Direct marketing of pharmaceuticals to consumers. Annu. Rev. Public Health 23:73–91
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79. 
    Magzamen S, Charlesworth A, Glantz SA 2001. Print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law. Tob. Control 10:154–60
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80. 
    Martin GJ, McCrain J 2018. Yes, Sinclair Broadcast Group does cut local news, increase national news and tilt its stations rightward. Washington Post April 10. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/04/10/yes-sinclair-broadcast-group-does-cut-local-news-increase-national-news-and-tilt-its-stations-rightward/?utm_term=.e7599a14c713
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81. 
    Matsa KE 2017. Local TV news fact sheet Fact Sheet July 12, Pew Res. Cent Washington, DC: http://www.journalism.org/fact-sheet/local-tv-news/
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82. 
    McClure KJ, Puhl RM, Heuer CA 2011. Obesity in the news: Do photographic images of obese persons influence antifat attitudes?. J. Health Commun. 16:359–71
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83. 
    McCombs ME, Shaw DL 1972. The agenda-setting function of the mass media. Public Opin. Q. 36:176–87
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. 
    McGinty EE, Goldman HH, Pescosolido BA, Barry CL 2018. Communicating about mental illness and violence: balancing stigma and increased support for services. J. Health Politics Policy Law 43:185–228
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85. 
    McLeod JM, Daily K, Guo Z, Eveland WP, Bayer J et al. 1996. Community integration, local media use, and democratic processes. Commun. Res. 23:179–209
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86. 
    Mendes E 2012. Americans’ concerns about obesity soar, surpass smoking. Gallup July 18. http://news.gallup.com/poll/155762/americans-concerns-obesity-soar-surpass-smoking.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87. 
    Nagler RH 2014. Adverse outcomes associated with media exposure to contradictory nutrition messages. J. Health Commun. 19:24–40
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88. 
    Nagler RH, Bigman CA, Ramanadhan S, Ramamurthi D, Viswanath K 2016. Prevalence and framing of health disparities in local print news: implications for multilevel interventions to address cancer inequalities. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 25:603–12
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89. 
    Nagler RH, Fowler EF, Gollust SE 2015. Covering controversy: What are the implications for women's health?. Women's Health Issues 25:318–21
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90. 
    Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C, Wellborn R, Clark EM et al. 2008. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 17:2946–53
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91. 
    Niederdeppe J, Bigman CA, Gonzales AL, Gollust SE 2013. Communication about health disparities in the mass media. J. Commun. 63:8–30
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92. 
    Niederdeppe J, Fowler EF, Goldstein K, Pribble J 2010. Does local television news coverage cultivate fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention?. J. Commun. 60:230–53
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93. 
    Niederdeppe J, Gollust SE, Jarlenski MP, Nathanson AM, Barry CL 2013. News coverage of sugar-sweetened beverage taxes: pro-and antitax arguments in public discourse. Am. J. Public Health 103:e92–98
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94. 
    Niederdeppe J, Heley K, Barry CL 2015. Inoculation and narrative strategies in competitive framing of three health policy issues. J. Commun. 65:838–62
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95. 
    Niederdeppe J, Lee T, Robbins R, Kim HK, Kresovich A et al. 2014. Content and effects of news stories about uncertain cancer causes and preventive behaviors. Health Commun 29:332–46
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96. 
    Niederdeppe J, Roh S, Dreisbach C 2016. How narrative focus and a statistical map shape health policy support among state legislators. Health Commun 31:242–55
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97. 
    Niederdeppe J, Roh S, Shapiro MA 2015. Acknowledging individual responsibility while emphasizing social determinants in narratives to promote obesity-reducing public policy: a randomized experiment. PLOS ONE 10:e0117565
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98. 
    Nielsen. 2017. Q1 2017 local watch report: television trends in our cities. Nielsen Sept. 14. http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports/2017/q1-2017-local-watch-report-tv-trends-in-our-cities.html
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99. 
    Nixon L, Mejia P, Cheyne A, Dorfman L 2015. Big Soda's long shadow: news coverage of local proposals to tax sugar-sweetened beverages in Richmond, El Monte and Telluride. Crit. Public Health 25:333–47
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100. 
    Nyhan B, Reifler J, Ubel PA 2013. The hazards of correcting myths about health care reform. Med. Care 51:127–32
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101. 
    Oatley K 1999. Why fiction may be twice as true as fact: fiction as cognitive and emotional simulation. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 3:2101–17
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102. 
    Pacheco J, Fletcher J 2015. Incorporating health into studies of political behavior: evidence for turnout and partisanship. Political Res. Q. 68:104–16
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103. 
    Paek H-J, Yoon S-H, Shah DV 2005. Local news, social integration, and community participation: hierarchical linear modeling of contextual and cross-level effects. Journal. Mass Commun. Q. 82:587–606
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104. 
    Patton EW, Moniz MH, Hughes LS, Buis L, Howell J 2017. National network television news coverage of contraception—a content analysis. Contraception 95:98–104
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105. 
    Pedersen RT 2012. The game frame and political efficacy: beyond the spiral of cynicism. Eur. J. Commun. 27:225–40
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106. 
    Pierce JP, Gilpin EA 2001. News media coverage of smoking and health is associated with changes in population rates of smoking cessation but not initiation. Tob. Control 10:145–53
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107. 
    Pribble JM, Goldstein KM, Fowler EF, Greenberg MJ, Noel SK, Howell JD 2006. Medical news for the public to use? What's on local TV news. Am. J. Manag. Care 12:170–76
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108. 
    Prior M 2005. News versus entertainment: how increasing media choice widens gaps in political knowledge and turnout. Am. J. Political Sci. 49:577–92
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109. 
    Randolph W, Viswanath K 2004. Lessons learned from public health mass media campaigns: marketing health in a crowded media world. Annu. Rev. Public Health 25:419–37
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110. 
    Robert SA, Booske BC 2011. US opinions on health determinants and social policy as health policy. Am. J. Public Health 101:1655–63
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111. 
    Romer D, Jamieson KH, Aday S 2003. Television news and the cultivation of fear of crime. J. Commun. 53:88–104
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112. 
    Rosenstiel T, Just M, Belt T, Pertilla A, Dean W, Chinni D 2007. We Interrupt This Newscast: How to Improve Local News and Win Ratings, Too Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113. 
    Scacco JM, Potts L, Hearit L, Sonderman J, Stroud NJ 2017. General election news coverage: what engages audiences down the ballot. Engag. News Proj. Rep., Am. Press Inst., Arlington, VA. https://mediaengagement.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/General-Election-News-Coverage-What-Engages-Audiences-Down-the-Ballot.pdf
  114. 114. 
    Schäfer MS 2017. How changing media structures are affecting science news coverage. The Oxford Handbook of the Science of Science Communication KH Jamieson, D Kahan, DA Scheufele 51–60 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115. 
    Scheufele DA, Tewksbury D 2006. Framing, agenda setting, and priming: the evolution of three media effects models. J. Commun. 57:9–20
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 116. 
    Schudson M 2002. The news media as political institutions. Annu. Rev. Political Sci. 5:249–69
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 117. 
    Schwitzer G, Mudur G, Henry D, Wilson A, Goozner M et al. 2005. What are the roles and responsibilities of the media in disseminating health information?. PLOS Med 2:e215
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 118. 
    Scully M, Brennan E, Durkin S, Dixon H, Wakefield M et al. 2017. Competing with big business: a randomised experiment testing the effects of messages to promote alcohol and sugary drink control policy. BMC Public Health 17:945
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 119. 
    Segijn CM, Voorveld HA, Vandeberg L, Smit EG 2017. The battle of the screens: unraveling attention allocation and memory effects when multiscreening. Hum. Commun. Res. 43:295–314
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 120. 
    Shaker L 2014. Dead newspapers and citizens’ civic engagement. Political Commun 31:131–48
    [Google Scholar]
  121. 121. 
    Smith KC, Niederdeppe J, Blake KD, Cappella JN 2013. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 2013:175–81
    [Google Scholar]
  122. 122. 
    SteelFisher GK, Blendon RJ, Lasala-Blanco N 2015. Ebola in the United States—public reactions and implications. N. Engl. J. Med. 373:789–91
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 123. 
    Strickland AA, Taber CS, Lodge M 2011. Motivated reasoning and public opinion. J. Health Politics Policy Law 36:935–44
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 124. 
    Strömbäck J, Shehata A 2010. Media malaise or a virtuous circle? Exploring the causal relationships between news media exposure, political news attention and political interest. Eur. J. Political Res. 49:575–97
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 125. 
    Stroud NJ 2017. Attention as a valuable resource. Political Commun 34:479–89
    [Google Scholar]
  126. 126. 
    Taber CS, Lodge M 2006. Motivated skepticism in the evaluation of political beliefs. Am. J. Political Sci. 50:755–69
    [Google Scholar]
  127. 127. 
    Tanner AH 2004. Agenda building, source selection, and health news at local television stations: a nationwide survey of local television health reporters. Sci. Commun. 25:350–63
    [Google Scholar]
  128. 128. 
    Tanner AH, Friedman DB, Zheng Y 2015. Influences on the construction of health news: the reporting practices of local television news health journalists. J. Broadcast. Electron. Media 59:359–76
    [Google Scholar]
  129. 129. 
    Thorson E 2016. Belief echoes: the persistent effects of corrected misinformation. Political Commun 33:460–80
    [Google Scholar]
  130. 130. 
    Tiokhin L, Hruschka D 2017. No evidence that an Ebola outbreak influenced voting preferences in the 2014 elections after controlling for time-series autocorrelation: A Commentary on Beall, Hofer, and Schaller 2016. Psychol. Sci. 28:1358–60
    [Google Scholar]
  131. 131. 
    Turnock BJ, Handler AS 1997. From measuring to improving public health practice. Annu. Rev. Public Health 18:261–82
    [Google Scholar]
  132. 132. 
    Viswanath K 2006. Public communications and its role in reducing and eliminating health disparities. Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished Business Inst. Med 215–53 Washington, DC: Inst. Med.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 133. 
    Viswanath K, Blake KD, Meissner HI, Saiontz NG, Mull C et al. 2008. Occupational practices and the making of health news: a national survey of US health and medical science journalists. J. Health Commun. 13:759–77
    [Google Scholar]
  134. 134. 
    Viswanath K, Finnegan JR, Rooney B, Potter J 1990. Community ties in a rural Midwest community and use of newspapers and cable television. Journal. Mass Commun. Q 67:899–911
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 135. 
    Wakefield MA, Loken B, Hornik RC 2010. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour. Lancet 376:1261–71
    [Google Scholar]
  136. 136. 
    Wallack L, Dorfman L, Jernigan D, Themba M 1993. Media Advocacy and Public Health Newbury Park, CA: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  137. 137. 
    Wallington SF, Blake KD, Taylor-Clark K, Viswanath K 2010. Challenges in covering health disparities in local news media: an exploratory analysis assessing views of journalists. J. Community Health 35:487–94
    [Google Scholar]
  138. 138. 
    Wang S 2017. How the Kremlin tried to pose as American news sites on Twitter. Bloomberg, Dec. 5. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-12-05/how-the-kremlin-tried-to-pose-as-american-news-sites-on-twitter
  139. 139. 
    Wang Z, Gantz W 2007. Health content in local television news. Health Commun 21:213–21
    [Google Scholar]
  140. 140. 
    Wang Z, Gantz W 2010. Health content in local television news: a current appraisal. Health Commun 25:230–37
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 141. 
    Wenger D, Papper B 2018. The state of the industry: local TV news and the new media landscape Rep., Knight Found., Miami, FL. https://knightfoundation.org/reports/local-tv-news-and-the-new-media-landscape
    [Google Scholar]
  142. 142. 
    Williams DR, Purdie-Vaughns V 2016. Needed interventions to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in health. J. Health Politics Policy Law 41:4627–51
    [Google Scholar]
  143. 143. 
    Wu T 2017. The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads New York: Vintage
    [Google Scholar]
  144. 144. 
    Yamamoto M 2011. Community newspaper use promotes social cohesion. Newsp. Res. J. 32:19–33
    [Google Scholar]
  145. 145. 
    Yanich D 2014. Duopoly light? Service agreements and local TV. Journal. Mass Commun. Q. 91:159–76
    [Google Scholar]
  146. 146. 
    Yanovitzky I, Stryker J 2001. Mass media, social norms, and health promotion efforts. Commun. Res. 28:208–39
    [Google Scholar]
  147. 147. 
    Zillman D, Brosius H-B 2000. Exemplification: On the Influence of Case Reports on the Perception of Issues Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  148. 148. 
    Zillmann D, Gibson R, Sundar SS, Perkins JW 1996. Effects of exemplification in news reports on the perception of social issues. Journal. Mass Commun. Q. 73:427–44
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044017
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044017
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error