1932

Abstract

In the United States, breast cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women. Reproductive factors, estrogen, and progesterone have major causal roles, but concerns about other potential causes in the external environment continue to drive research inquiries and stimulate calls for action at the policy level. The environment is defined as anything that is not genetic and includes social, built, and chemical toxicant aspects. This review covers the scope of known and suspected environmental factors that have been associated with breast cancer and illustrates how epidemiology, toxicology, and mechanistic studies work together to create the full picture of environmental effects on this malignancy. Newer approaches to risk-related evaluations may allow this field to move forward and more clearly delineate actionable environmental causes of this most common of cancers in women.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014101
2018-04-01
2024-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/39/1/annurev-publhealth-040617-014101.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014101&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ambrosone CB, Kropp S, Yang J, Yao S, Shields PG, Chang-Claude J. 1.  2008. Cigarette smoking, N-acetyltransferase2 genotypes, and breast cancer risk: pooled analysis and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 17:15–26 [Google Scholar]
  2. Andersen HR, Andersson A-M, Arnold SF, Autrup H, Barfoed M. 2.  et al. 1999. Comparison of short-term estrogenicity tests for identification of hormone-disrupting chemicals. Environ. Health Perspect. 107:Suppl. 189–108 [Google Scholar]
  3. Andersen ZJ, Stafoggia M, Weinmayr G, Pedersen M, Galassi C. 3.  et al. 2017. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in 15 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project. Environ. Health Perspect. 125:107005 [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, Bassford T, Beresford SA. 4.  et al. 2004. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291:1701–12 [Google Scholar]
  5. 5. ATSDR (Agency Toxic Subst. Dis. Regist.). 1997. Toxicological Profile for Benzene Atlanta: US Dep. Health Hum. Serv. [Google Scholar]
  6. Baan R, Grosse Y, Straif K, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F. 6.  et al. 2009. A review of human carcinogens—Part F: chemical agents and related occupations. Lancet Oncol 10:1143–44 [Google Scholar]
  7. Beral V, Reeves G, Bull D, Green J, Million Women Study Collab. 7.  2011. Breast cancer risk in relation to the interval between menopause and starting hormone therapy. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 103:296–305 [Google Scholar]
  8. Biro FM, Greenspan LC, Galvez MP. 8.  2012. Puberty in girls of the 21st century. J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol. 25:289–94 [Google Scholar]
  9. Blanck HM, Marcus M, Tolbert PE, Rubin C, Henderson AK. 9.  et al. 2000. Age at menarche and tanner stage in girls exposed in utero and postnatally to polybrominated biphenyl. Epidemiology 11:641–47 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC, Long M, Fredslund SO, Bossi R, Olsen J. 10.  2014. Breast cancer risk after exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Danish women: a case-control study nested in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Cancer Causes Control 5:1439–48 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bonner MR, Han D, Nie J, Rogerson P, Vena JE. 11.  et al. 2005. Breast cancer risk and exposure in early life to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using total suspended particulates as a proxy measure. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 14:53–60 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brody JG, Moysich KB, Humblet O, Attfield KR, Beehler GP, Rudel RA. 12.  2007. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer: epidemiologic studies. Cancer 109:2667–711 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brody JG, Rudel RA, Michels KB, Moysich KB, Bernstein L. 13.  et al. 2007. Environmental pollutants, diet, physical activity, body size, and breast cancer: Where do we stand in research to identify opportunities for prevention?. Cancer 109:2627–34 [Google Scholar]
  14. Brody JG, Tickner J, Rudel RA. 14.  2005. Community-initiated breast cancer and environment studies and the precautionary principle. Environ. Health Perspect. 113:920–25 [Google Scholar]
  15. Brotons JA, Olea-Serrano MF, Villalobos M, Pedraza V, Olea N. 15.  1995. Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coatings in food cans. Environ. Health Perspect. 103:608–12 [Google Scholar]
  16. Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Caudill SP, Ekong J, Needham LL. 16.  2005. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in a human reference population. Environ. Health Perspect. 113:391–95 [Google Scholar]
  17. Calafat AM, Wong LY, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Needham LL. 17.  2007. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the U.S. population: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and comparisons with NHANES 1999–2000. Environ. Health Perspect. 115:1596–602 [Google Scholar]
  18. Calle EE, Frumkin H, Henley SJ, Savitz DA, Thun MJ. 18.  2002. Organochlorines and breast cancer risk. CA Cancer J. Clin. 52:301–9 [Google Scholar]
  19. Cantor KP, Stewart PA, Brinton LA, Dosemeci M. 19.  1995. Occupational exposures and female breast cancer mortality in the United States. J. Occup. Envrion. Med. 37:336–48 [Google Scholar]
  20. Carmichael A, Sami AS, Dixon JM. 20.  2003. Breast cancer risk among the survivors of atomic bomb and patients exposed to therapeutic ionising radiation. Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29:475–79 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chlebowski RT. 21.  2013. Vitamin D and breast cancer incidence and outcome. Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 13:98–106 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chou YY, Huang PC, Lee CC, Wu MH, Lin SJ. 22.  2009. Phthalate exposure in girls during early puberty. J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 22:69–77 [Google Scholar]
  23. Cohn BA, La Merrill M, Krigbaum NY, Yeh G, Park JS. 23.  et al. 2015. DDT exposure in utero and breast cancer. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 100:2865–72 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cohn BA, Terry MB, Plumb M, Cirillo PM. 24.  2012. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners measured shortly after giving birth and subsequent risk of maternal breast cancer before age 50. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 136:267–75 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cohn BA, Wolff MS, Cirillo PM, Sholtz RI. 25.  2007. DDT and breast cancer in young women: new data on the significance of age at exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 115:1406–14 [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. Collab. Group Horm. Factors in Breast Cancer. 2002. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer—collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. Br. J. Cancer 87:1234–45 [Google Scholar]
  27. Conroy SM, Clarke CA, Yang J, Shariff-Marco S, Shvetsov YB. 27.  et al. 2017. Contextual impact of neighborhood obesogenic factors on postmenopausal breast cancer: the Multiethnic Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 26:480–89 [Google Scholar]
  28. Conroy SM, Shariff-Marco S, Koo J, Yang J, Keegan TH. 28.  et al. 2017. Racial/ethnic differences in the impact of neighborhood social and built environment on breast cancer risk: the Neighborhoods and Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 26:541–52 [Google Scholar]
  29. Costantini AS, Gorini G, Consonni D, Miligi L, Giovannetti L, Quinn M. 29.  2009. Exposure to benzene and risk of breast cancer among shoe factory workers in Italy. Tumori 95:8–12 [Google Scholar]
  30. Daniels K, Daugherty J, Jones J, Mosher W. 30.  2015. Current contraceptive use and variation by selected characteristics among women aged 15–44: United States,. 2011–2013 Natl. Health Stat. Rep.861–14 [Google Scholar]
  31. de Kok IM, van Lenthe FJ, Avendano M, Louwman M, Coebergh JW, Mackenbach JP. 31.  2008. Childhood social class and cancer incidence: results of the globe study. Soc. Sci. Med. 66:1131–39 [Google Scholar]
  32. Deardorff J, Ekwaru JP, Kushi LH, Ellis BJ, Greenspan LC. 32.  et al. 2011. Father absence, body mass index, and pubertal timing in girls: differential effects by family income and ethnicity. J. Adolesc. Health 48:441–47 [Google Scholar]
  33. Deierlein AL, Wolff MS, Pajak A, Pinney SM, Windham GC. 33.  et al. 2016. Longitudinal associations of phthalate exposures during childhood and body size measurements in young girls. Epidemiology 27:492–99 [Google Scholar]
  34. Denham M, Schell LM, Deane G, Gallo MV, Ravenscroft J, DeCaprio AP. 34.  2005. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls. Pediatrics 115:e127–34 [Google Scholar]
  35. DeSantis C, Howlader N, Cronin KA, Jemal A. 35.  2011. Breast cancer incidence rates in U.S. women are no longer declining. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 20:733–39 [Google Scholar]
  36. Dodson RE, Perovich LJ, Covaci A, Van den Eede N, Ionas AC. 36.  et al. 2012. After the PBDE phase-out: a broad suite of flame retardants in repeat house dust samples from California. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46:13056–66 [Google Scholar]
  37. Engel LS, Hill DA, Hoppin JA, Lubin JH, Lynch CF. 37.  et al. 2005. Pesticide use and breast cancer risk among farmers' wives in the Agricultural Health Study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 161:121–35 [Google Scholar]
  38. Falck F Jr., Ricci A Jr., Wolff MS, Godbold J, Deckers P. 38.  1992. Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their relation to breast cancer. Arch. Environ. Health 47:143–46 [Google Scholar]
  39. Fenton SE. 39.  2006. Endocrine-disrupting compounds and mammary gland development: early exposure and later life consequences. Endocrinology 147:S18–24 [Google Scholar]
  40. Ferlay J, Shin H, Bray F. 40.  et al. 2010. GLOBOCAN 2008. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide. IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet], Version 2.0 Int. Agency Res Cancer, Lyon, Fr.: [Google Scholar]
  41. Gammon MD, John EM, Britton JA. 41.  1998. Recreational and occupational physical activities and risk of breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90:100–17 [Google Scholar]
  42. Gammon MD, Neugut AI, Santella RM, Teitelbaum SL, Britton JA. 42.  et al. 2002. The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project: description of a multi-institutional collaboration to identify environmental risk factors for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 74:235–54 [Google Scholar]
  43. Gammon MD, Santella RM. 43.  2008. PAH, genetic susceptibility and breast cancer risk: an update from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Eur. J. Cancer 44:636–40 [Google Scholar]
  44. Garcia E, Hurley S, Nelson DO, Hertz A, Reynolds P. 44.  2015. Hazardous air pollutants and breast cancer risk in California teachers: a cohort study. Environ. Health 14:14 [Google Scholar]
  45. Gladen BC, Ragan NB, Rogan WJ. 45.  2000. Pubertal growth and development and prenatal and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene. J. Pediatr. 136:490–96 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gore AC, Chappell VA, Fenton SE, Flaws JA, Nadal A. 46.  et al. 2015. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Endocr. Rev. 36:E1–150 [Google Scholar]
  47. Graham C, Cook MR, Gerkovich MM, Sastre A. 47.  2001. Examination of the melatonin hypothesis in women exposed at night to EMF or bright light. Environ. Health Perspect. 109:501–7 [Google Scholar]
  48. Hart JE, Bertrand KA, DuPre N, James P, Vieira VM. 48.  et al. 2016. Long-term particulate matter exposures during adulthood and risk of breast cancer incidence in the Nurses' Health Study II Prospective Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 25:1274–76 [Google Scholar]
  49. Herbst AL, Ulfelder H, Poskanzer DC. 49.  1971. Adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Association of maternal stilbestrol therapy with tumor appearance in young women. N. Engl. J. Med. 284:878–81 [Google Scholar]
  50. Hiatt RA. 50.  2008. Epidemiology: key to translational, team, and transdisciplinary science. Ann. Epidemiol. 18:859–61 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hiatt RA. 51.  2011. Epidemiologic basis of the role of environmental endocrine disruptors and breast cancer. Environment and Breast Cancer J Russo 1–27 New York: Springer Sci.+Bus. Media [Google Scholar]
  52. Hiatt RA, Haslam SZ, Osuch J. 52.  2009. The breast cancer and the environment research centers: transdisciplinary research on the role of the environment in breast cancer etiology. Environ. Health Perspect. 117:1814–22 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hiatt RA, Porco TC, Liu F, Balke K, Balmain A. 53.  et al. 2014. A multilevel model of postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 23:2078–92 [Google Scholar]
  54. Holmes AK, Koller KR, Kieszak SM, Sjodin A, Calafat AM. 54.  et al. 2014. Case-control study of breast cancer and exposure to synthetic environmental chemicals among Alaska Native women. Int. J. Circumpolar Health 73:25760 [Google Scholar]
  55. Høyer AP, Grandjean P, Jørgensen T, Brock JW, Hartvig HB. 55.  1998. Organochlorine exposure and risk of breast cancer. Lancet 352:1816–20 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE, Malspeis S, Spiegelman D. 56.  et al. 2010. Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer: a prospective study of young women. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 19:2496–502 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hurley S, Reynolds P, Goldberg D, Nelson DO, Jeffrey SS, Petreas M. 57.  2011. Adipose levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and risk of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 129:505–11 [Google Scholar]
  58. 58. IARC (Int. Agency Res. Cancer). 1987. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity. IARC Monographs on the Evalution of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Lyon, Fr.: IARC, World Health Organ. [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. IARC (Int. Agency Res. Cancer). 2004. Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. IARC Monographs on the Evalution of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Lyon, Fr.: IARC, World Health Organ. [Google Scholar]
  60. 60. IARC (Int. Agency Res. Cancer). 2008. 1,3-Butadiene, Ethylene Oxide and Vinyl Halides (Vinyl Fluoride, Vinyl Chloride and Vinyl Bromide). IARC Monographs on the Evalution of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Lyon, Fr.: IARC, World Health Organ. [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. IARC (Int. Agency Res. Cancer). 2010. Painting, Firefighting, and Shiftwork. IARC Monographs on the Evalution of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Lyon, Fr.: IARC, World Health Organ. [Google Scholar]
  62. 62. IARC (Int. Agency Res. Cancer). 2016. Outdoor Air Pollution. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, Fr.: IARC, World Health Organ. [Google Scholar]
  63. 63. IBCERCC (Interagency Breast Cancer Environ. Res. Coord. Comm.). 2013. Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention Research Triangle Park, NC: Natl. Inst. Environ. Health Sci. (NIEHS) https://www.niehs.nih.gov/about/assets/docs/breast_cancer_and_the_environment_prioritizing_prevention_508.pdf [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. IOM (Inst. Med.). 2012. Breast Cancer and the Environment: A Life Course Approach Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  65. Jemal A, Ward EM, Johnson CJ, Cronin KA, Ma J. 65.  et al. 2017. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2014, featuring survival. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 109:djx030 [Google Scholar]
  66. Johnson KC, Miller AB, Collishaw NE, Palmer JR, Hammond SK. 66.  et al. 2011. Active smoking and secondhand smoke increase breast cancer risk: the report of the Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk 2009. Tob. Control 20:e2 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kelsey JL, Gammon MD, John EM. 67.  1993. Reproductive factors and breast cancer. Epidemiol. Rev. 15:36–47 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kogevinas M. 68.  2001. Human health effects of dioxins: cancer, reproductive and endocrine system effects. Hum. Reprod. Update 7:331–39 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kohler BA, Sherman RL, Howlader N, Jemal A, Ryerson AB. 69.  et al. 2015. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2011, featuring incidence of breast cancer subtypes by race/ethnicity, poverty, and state. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 107:djv048 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kolstad HA. 70.  2008. Nightshift work and risk of breast cancer and other cancers—a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 34:5–22 [Google Scholar]
  71. Korde LA, Wu AH, Fears T, Nomura AM, West DW. 71.  et al. 2009. Childhood soy intake and breast cancer risk in Asian American women. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 18:1050–59 [Google Scholar]
  72. Labrèche F, Goldberg MS, Valois MF, Nadon L. 72.  2010. Postmenopausal breast cancer and occupational exposures. Occup. Environ. Med. 67:263–69 [Google Scholar]
  73. Laden F, Ishibe N, Hankinson SE, Wolff MS, Gertig DM. 73.  et al. 2002. Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1, and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 11:1560–65 [Google Scholar]
  74. Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J. 74.  2007. Perfluoroalkyl acids: a review of monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99:366–94 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lee SA, Shu XO, Li H, Yang G, Cai H. 75.  et al. 2009. Adolescent and adult soy food intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:1920–26 [Google Scholar]
  76. Leung CW, Gregorich SE, Laraia BA, Kushi LH, Yen IH. 76.  2010. Measuring the neighborhood environment: associations with young girls' energy intake and expenditure in a cross-sectional study. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Activity 7:52 [Google Scholar]
  77. Liu R, Nelson DO, Hurley S, Hertz A, Reynolds P. 77.  2015. Residential exposure to estrogen disrupting hazardous air pollutants and breast cancer risk: the California Teachers Study. Epidemiology 26:365–73 [Google Scholar]
  78. López-Carrillo L, Hernández-Ramírez RU, Calafat AM, Torres-Sánchez L, Galván-Portillo M. 78.  et al. 2010. Exposure to phthalates and breast cancer risk in northern Mexico. Environ. Health Perspect. 118:539–44 [Google Scholar]
  79. López-Cervantes M, Torres-Sánchez L, Tobías A, López-Carrillo L. 79.  2004. Dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethane burden and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of the epidemiologic evidence. Environ. Health Perspect. 112:207–14 [Google Scholar]
  80. Ma H, Bernstein L, Pike MC, Ursin G. 80.  2006. Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk according to joint estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Breast Cancer Res 8:R43 [Google Scholar]
  81. Mabry PL, Olster DH, Morgan GD, Abrams DB. 81.  2008. Interdisciplinarity and systems science to improve population health: a view from the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. Am. J. Prev. Med. 35:S211–24 [Google Scholar]
  82. Madigan MP, Ziegler RG, Benichou J, Byrne C, Hoover RN. 82.  1995. Proportion of breast cancer cases in the United States explained by well-established risk factors. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87:1681–85 [Google Scholar]
  83. Maffini MV, Rubin BS, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 83.  2006. Endocrine disruptors and reproductive health: the case of bisphenol-A. Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 254–255:179–86 [Google Scholar]
  84. Maltoni C, Ciliberti A, Cotti G, Conti B, Belpoggi F. 84.  1989. Benzene, an experimental multipotential carcinogen: results of the long-term bioassays performed at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Environ. Health Perspect. 82:109–24 [Google Scholar]
  85. Manz A, Berger J, Dwyer JH, Flesch-Janys D, Nagel S, Waltsgott H. 85.  1991. Cancer mortality among workers in chemical plant contaminated with dioxin. Lancet 338:959–64 [Google Scholar]
  86. Matthews JB, Twomey K, Zacharewski TR. 86.  2001. In vitro and in vivo interactions of bisphenol A and its metabolite, bisphenol A glucuronide, with estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Chem. Res. Toxicol 14:149–57 [Google Scholar]
  87. McElroy JA, Shafer MM, Trentham-Dietz A, Hampton JM, Newcomb PA. 87.  2006. Cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 98:869–73 [Google Scholar]
  88. McGuinn LA, Voss RW, Laurent CA, Greenspan LC, Kushi LH, Windham GC. 88.  2016. Residential proximity to traffic and female pubertal development. Environ. Int. 94:635–41 [Google Scholar]
  89. McKelvey W, Brody JG, Aschengrau A, Swartz CH. 89.  2004. Association between residence on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and breast cancer. Ann. Epidemiol. 14:89–94 [Google Scholar]
  90. Mettlin C. 90.  1999. Global breast cancer mortality statistics. CA: A Cancer J. Clin. 49:138–44 [Google Scholar]
  91. Miller MD, Broadwin R, Green S, Marty MA, Polakoff J. 91.  et al. 2005. Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant. Part B: Health Effects Sacramento: OEHHA (Calif. Environ. Health Hazard Assess.), Calif. Environ. Prot. Agency (CalEPA) https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/crnr/app3partb2005.pdf [Google Scholar]
  92. Morabia A. 92.  2002. Smoking (active and passive) and breast cancer: epidemiologic evidence up to June 2001. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 39:89–95 [Google Scholar]
  93. Morello-Frosch R, Jesdale BM. 93.  2006. Separate and unequal: residential segregation and estimated cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics in U.S. metropolitan areas. Environ. Health Perspect. 114:386–93 [Google Scholar]
  94. Morris JJ, Seifter E. 94.  1992. The role of aromatic hydrocarbons in the genesis of breast cancer. Med. Hypotheses 38:177–84 [Google Scholar]
  95. Moysich KB, Shields PG, Freudenheim JL, Schisterman EF, Vena JE. 95.  et al. 1999. Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P4501A1 polymorphism, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 8:41–44 [Google Scholar]
  96. Naess O, Strand BH, Smith GD. 96.  2007. Childhood and adulthood socioeconomic position across 20 causes of death: a prospective cohort study of 800,000 Norwegian men and women. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 61:1004–9 [Google Scholar]
  97. 97. Natl. Acad. Sci., Eng., Med. 2017. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  98. 98. Natl. Res. Counc. 2009. Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  99. Nie J, Beyea J, Bonner MR, Han D, Vena JE. 99.  et al. 2007. Exposure to traffic emissions throughout life and risk of breast cancer: the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study. Cancer Causes Control 18:947–55 [Google Scholar]
  100. Niehoff NM, Nichols HB, White AJ, Parks CG, D'Aloisio AA, Sandler DP. 100.  2016. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. Epidemiology 27:326–33 [Google Scholar]
  101. Olea N, Pulgar R, Pérez P, Olea-Serrano F, Rivas A. 101.  et al. 1996. Estrogenicity of resin-based composites and sealants used in dentistry. Environ. Health Perspect. 104:298–305 [Google Scholar]
  102. Olsen GW, Butenhoff JL, Zobel LR. 102.  2009. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and human fetal development: an epidemiologic review with clinical and toxicological perspectives. Reprod. Toxicol. 27:212–30 [Google Scholar]
  103. Ouyang F, Perry MJ, Venners SA, Chen C, Wang B. 103.  et al. 2005. Serum DDT, age at menarche, and abnormal menstrual cycle length. Occup. Environ. Med. 62:878–84 [Google Scholar]
  104. Oyesanmi O, Snyder D, Sullivan N, Reston J, Treadwell J, Schoelles KM. 104.  2010. Alcohol Consumption and Cancer Risk: Understanding Possible Causal Mechanisms for Breast and Colorectal Cancers. Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthc. Res. Qual. [Google Scholar]
  105. Palmer JR, Wise LA, Hatch EE, Troisi R, Titus-Ernstoff L. 105.  et al. 2006. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 15:1509–14 [Google Scholar]
  106. Pan S, Yuan C, Tagmount A, Rudel RA, Ackerman JM. 106.  et al. 2016. Parabens and human epidermal growth factor receptor ligand cross-talk in breast cancer cells. Environ. Health Perspect. 124:563–69 [Google Scholar]
  107. Patisaul HB, Jefferson W. 107.  2010. The pros and cons of phytoestrogens. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 31:400–19 [Google Scholar]
  108. Petralia SA, Vena JE, Freudenheim JL, Dosemeci M, Michalek A. 108.  et al. 1999. Risk of premenopausal breast cancer in association with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 25:215–21 [Google Scholar]
  109. Petralia SA, Vena JE, Freudenheim JL, Michalek A, Goldberg MS. 109.  et al. 1999. Risk of premenopausal breast cancer and patterns of established breast cancer risk factors among teachers and nurses. Am. J. Ind. Med. 35:137–41 [Google Scholar]
  110. Pudrovska T, Anikputa B. 110.  2012. The role of early-life socioeconomic status in breast cancer incidence and mortality: unraveling life course mechanisms. J. Aging Health 24:323–44 [Google Scholar]
  111. Purdue MP, Hutchings SJ, Rushton L, Silverman DT. 111.  2015. The proportion of cancer attributable to occupational exposures. Ann. Epidemiol. 25:188–92 [Google Scholar]
  112. Reding KW, Young MT, Szpiro AA, Han CJ, DeRoo LA. 112.  et al. 2015. Breast cancer risk in relation to ambient air pollution exposure at residences in the Sister Study Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 24:1907–9 [Google Scholar]
  113. Reynolds P, Goldberg D, Hurley S, Nelson DO, Largent J. 113.  et al. 2009. Passive smoking and risk of breast cancer in the California teachers study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 18:3389–98 [Google Scholar]
  114. Reynolds P, Hurley S, Goldberg DE, Anton-Culver H, Bernstein L. 114.  et al. 2004. Active smoking, household passive smoking, and breast cancer: evidence from the California Teachers Study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 96:29–37 [Google Scholar]
  115. Robert SA, Strombom I, Trentham-Dietz A, Hampton JM, McElroy JA. 115.  et al. 2004. Socioeconomic risk factors for breast cancer: distinguishing individual- and community-level effects. Epidemiology 15:442–50 [Google Scholar]
  116. Rodgers KM, Udesky JO, Rudel RA, Brody JG. 116.  2017. Environmental chemicals and breast cancer: an updated review of epidemiological literature informed by biological mechanisms. Environ. Res. 160:152–82 [Google Scholar]
  117. Routledge EJ, White R, Parker MG, Sumpter JP. 117.  2000. Differential effects of xenoestrogens on coactivator recruitment by estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ. J. Biol. Chem. 275:35986–93 [Google Scholar]
  118. Rudel RA, Attfield KR, Schifano JN, Brody JG. 118.  2007. Chemicals causing mammary gland tumors in animals signal new directions for epidemiology, chemicals testing, and risk assessment for breast cancer prevention. Cancer 109:2635–66 [Google Scholar]
  119. Rudel RA, Fenton SE, Ackerman JM, Euling SY, Makris SL. 119.  2011. Environmental exposures and mammary gland development: state of the science, public health implications, and research recommendations. Environ. Health Perspect. 119:1053–61 [Google Scholar]
  120. Salehi F, Turner MC, Phillips KP, Wigle DT, Krewski D, Aronson KJ. 120.  2008. Review of the etiology of breast cancer with special attention to organochlorines as potential endocrine disruptors. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B Crit. Rev. 11:276–300 [Google Scholar]
  121. Santodonato J. 121.  1997. Review of the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: relationship to carcinogenicity. Chemosphere 34:835–48 [Google Scholar]
  122. Secretan B, Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y, El Ghissassi F. 122.  et al. 2009. A review of human carcinogens—Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salted fish. Lancet Oncol 10:1033–34 [Google Scholar]
  123. Selevan SG, Rice DC, Hogan KA, Euling SY, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Bethel J. 123.  2003. Blood lead concentration and delayed puberty in girls. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:1527–36 [Google Scholar]
  124. Shen J, Liao Y, Hopper JL, Goldberg M, Santella RM, Terry MB. 124.  2017. Dependence of cancer risk from environmental exposures on underlying genetic susceptibility: an illustration with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and breast cancer. Br. J. Cancer 116:1229–33 [Google Scholar]
  125. Shu XO, Jin F, Dai Q, Shi JR, Potter JD. 125.  et al. 2001. Association of body size and fat distribution with risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. Int. J. Cancer 94:449–55 [Google Scholar]
  126. Shui I, Giovannucci E. 126.  2014. Vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 810:33–51 [Google Scholar]
  127. Smith-Bindman R, Lipson J, Marcus R, Kim KP, Mahesh M. 127.  et al. 2009. Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer. Arch. Intern. Med. 169:2078–86 [Google Scholar]
  128. Solomon GM, Morello-Frosch R, Zeise L, Faust JB. 128.  2016. Cumulative environmental impacts: science and policy to protect communities. Annu. Rev. Public Health 37:83–96 [Google Scholar]
  129. Steenland K, Fletcher T, Savitz DA. 129.  2010. Epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Environ. Health Perspect. 118:1100–8 [Google Scholar]
  130. Steenland K, Whelan E, Deddens J, Stayner L, Ward E. 130.  2003. Ethylene oxide and breast cancer incidence in a cohort study of 7576 women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 14:531–39 [Google Scholar]
  131. Straif K, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Baan R, Grosse Y, Secretan B. 131.  et al. 2009. A review of human carcinogens—Part C: metals, arsenic, dusts, and fibres. Lancet Oncol 10:453–54 [Google Scholar]
  132. Strand BH, Kunst A. 132.  2007. Childhood socioeconomic position and cause-specific mortality in early adulthood. Am. J. Epidemiol. 165:85–93 [Google Scholar]
  133. Sturgeon SR, Schairer C, Grauman D, El Ghormli L, Devesa S. 133.  2004. Trends in breast cancer mortality rates by region of the United States, 1950–1999. Cancer Causes Control 15:987–95 [Google Scholar]
  134. Suzuki R, Orsini N, Mignone L, Saji S, Wolk A. 134.  2008. Alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status—a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Int. J. Cancer 122:1832–41 [Google Scholar]
  135. Teitelbaum SL, Belpoggi F, Reinlib L. 135.  2015. Advancing research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in breast cancer: expert panel recommendations. Reprod. Toxicol. 54:141–47 [Google Scholar]
  136. Terry PD, Goodman M. 136.  2006. Is the association between cigarette smoking and breast cancer modified by genotype? A review of epidemiologic studies and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 15:602–11 [Google Scholar]
  137. Titus-Ernstoff L, Egan KM, Newcomb PA, Ding J, Trentham-Dietz A, Greenberg ER. 137.  2002. Early life factors in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 110:207–10 [Google Scholar]
  138. Troisi R, Hatch EE, Titus-Ernstoff L, Hyer M, Palmer JR. 138.  et al. 2007. Cancer risk in women prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol. Int. J. Cancer 121:356–60 [Google Scholar]
  139. 139. US DHHS (Dep. Health Hum. Serv.), CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.), Off. Smok. Health. 2010. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General Atlanta: CDC [Google Scholar]
  140. van den Bosch M, Ode Sang A. 140.  2017. Urban natural environments as nature-based solutions for improved public health—a systematic review of reviews. Environ. Res. 158:373–84 [Google Scholar]
  141. Vasiliu O, Muttineni J, Karmaus W. 141.  2004. In utero exposure to organochlorines and age at menarche. Hum. Reprod. 19:1506–12 [Google Scholar]
  142. Warner M, Mocarelli P, Samuels S, Needham L, Brambilla P, Eskenazi B. 142.  2011. Dioxin exposure and cancer risk in the Seveso Women's Health Study. Environ. Health Perspect. 119:1700–5 [Google Scholar]
  143. White AJ, Teitelbaum SL, Wolff MS, Stellman SD, Neugut AI, Gammon MD. 143.  2013. Exposure to fogger trucks and breast cancer incidence in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project: a case-control study. Environ. Health 12:24 [Google Scholar]
  144. Willett WC. 144.  2001. Diet and breast cancer. J. Intern. Med. 249:395–411 [Google Scholar]
  145. Windham GC, Bottomley C, Birner C, Fenster L. 145.  2004. Age at menarche in relation to maternal use of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and tea during pregnancy. Am. J. Epidemiol. 159:862–71 [Google Scholar]
  146. Windham GC, Pinney SM, Sjodin A, Lum R, Jones RS. 146.  et al. 2010. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls. Environ. Res. 110:251–57 [Google Scholar]
  147. Wolff MS. 147.  2006. Endocrine disruptors: challenges for environmental research in the 21st century. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1076:228–38 [Google Scholar]
  148. Wolff MS, Britton JA, Boguski L, Hochman S, Maloney N. 148.  et al. 2008. Environmental exposures and puberty in inner-city girls. Environ. Res. 107:393–400 [Google Scholar]
  149. Wolff MS, Camann D, Gammon M, Stellman SD. 149.  1997. Proposed PCB congener groupings for epidemiological studies. Environ. Health Perspect. 105:13–14 [Google Scholar]
  150. Wolff MS, Collman GW, Barrett JC, Huff J. 150.  1996. Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: epidemiological and experimental findings. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 36:573–96 [Google Scholar]
  151. Wolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham G, Liao L. 151.  et al. 2010. Investigation of relationships between urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols and pubertal stages in girls. Environ. Health Perspect. 118:1039–46 [Google Scholar]
  152. Wolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Windham G, Pinney SM, Britton JA. 152.  et al. 2007. Pilot study of urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols in girls. Environ. Health Perspect. 115:116–21 [Google Scholar]
  153. Wolff MS, Toniolo PG, Lee EW, Rivera M, Dubin N. 153.  1993. Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 85:648–52 [Google Scholar]
  154. 154. World Cancer Res. Fund, Am. Inst. Cancer Res. 2007. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective Washington, DC: Am. Inst. Cancer Res http://www.aicr.org/assets/docs/pdf/reports/Second_Expert_Report.pdf [Google Scholar]
  155. 155. World Cancer Res. Fund, Am. Inst. Cancer Res. 2010. Breast Cancer 2010 Report: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Breast Cancer Washington, DC: Am. Inst. Cancer Res http://www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Breast-Cancer-2010-Report.pdf [Google Scholar]
  156. Wu AH, Yu MC, Tseng CC, Pike MC. 156.  2008. Epidemiology of soy exposures and breast cancer risk. Br. J. Cancer 98:9–14 [Google Scholar]
  157. Wu T, Buck GM, Mendola P. 157.  2003. Blood lead levels and sexual maturation in U.S. girls: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Environ. Health Perspect. 111:737–41 [Google Scholar]
  158. Wu T, Mendola P, Buck GM. 158.  2002. Ethnic differences in the presence of secondary sex characteristics and menarche among US girls: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Pediatrics 110:752–57 [Google Scholar]
  159. Xu X, Dailey AB, Talbott EO, Ilacqua VA, Kearney G, Asal NR. 159.  2010. Associations of serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides with breast cancer and prostate cancer in U.S. adults. Environ. Health Perspect. 118:60–66 [Google Scholar]
  160. Yang XR, Chang-Claude J, Goode EL, Couch FJ, Nevanlinna H. 160.  et al. 2011. Associations of breast cancer risk factors with tumor subtypes: a pooled analysis from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium studies. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 103:250–63 [Google Scholar]
  161. Ye X, Bishop AM, Reidy JA, Needham LL, Calafat AM. 161.  2006. Parabens as urinary biomarkers of exposure in humans. Environ. Health Perspect. 114:1843–46 [Google Scholar]
  162. Ziegler RG, Hoover RN, Pike MC, Hildesheim A, Nomura AM. 162.  et al. 1993. Migration patterns and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 85:1819–27 [Google Scholar]
  163. Zota AR, Rudel RA, Morello-Frosch RA, Brody JG. 163.  2008. Elevated house dust and serum concentrations of PBDEs in California: unintended consequences of furniture flammability standards?. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42:8158–64 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014101
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error