1932

Abstract

Health care workers (HCWs) can acquire infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), from patients. Herein, COVID-19 is used with the source–pathway–receptor framework as an example to assess evidence for the roles of aerosol transmission and indirect contact transmission in viral respiratory infectious diseases. Evidence for both routes is strong for COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses, but aerosol transmission is likely dominant for COVID-19. Key knowledge gaps about transmission processes and control strategies include the distribution of viable virus among respiratory aerosols of different sizes, the mechanisms and efficiency by which virus deposited on the facial mucous membrane moves to infection sites inside the body, and the performance of source controls such as face coverings and aerosol containment devices. To ensure that HCWs are adequately protected from infection, guidelines and regulations must be updated to reflect the evidence that respiratory viruses are transmitted via aerosols.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-052120-110009
2022-04-05
2024-04-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/43/1/annurev-publhealth-052120-110009.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-052120-110009&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    Ahn JY, An S, Sohn Y, Cho Y, Hyun JH et al. 2020. Environmental contamination in the isolation rooms of COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy. J. Hosp. Infect. 106:570–76
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. 
    Alsved M, Matamis A, Bohlin R, Richter M, Bengtsson PE et al. 2020. Exhaled respiratory particles during singing and talking. Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 54:111245–48
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. 
    Am. Soc. Heat. Refrig. Air-Cond. Eng 2021. ANSI/AHSRAE/ASHE Standard 170–2021, ventilation of health care facilities Rep., ASHRAE, Peachtree Corners GA: https://www.techstreet.com/ashrae/standards/ashrae-170-2021?product_id=2212971
  4. 4. 
    Anderson CE, Boehm AB. 2021. Transfer rate of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses between fingerpads and surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 87:e0121521
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5. 
    Ansari SA, Springthorpe VS, Sattar SA, Rivard S, Rahman M 1991. Potential role of hands in the spread of respiratory viral infections: studies with human parainfluenza virus 3 and rhinovirus 14. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:2115–19
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    Arora VM, Chivu M, Schram A, Meltzer D. 2020. Implementing physical distancing in the hospital: a key strategy to prevent nosocomial transmission of COVID-19. J. Hosp. Med. 15:5290–91
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. 
    Asadi S, Gaaloul ben Hnia N, Barre RS, Wexler AS, Ristenpart WD, Bouvier NM 2020. Influenza A virus is transmissible via aerosolized fomites. Nat. Comm. 11:4062
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8. 
    Azimi P, Keshavarz Z, Cedeno Laurent JG, Stephens B, Allen JG 2021. Mechanistic transmission modeling of COVID-19 on the Diamond Princess cruise ship demonstrates the importance of aerosol transmission. PNAS 118:8e2015482118
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    Barrett ES, Horton DB, Roy J, Gennaro ML, Brooks A et al. 2020. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously undiagnosed health care workers in New Jersey, at the onset of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Infect. Dis. 20:853
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. 
    Belser JA, Wadford DA, Xu J, Katz JM, Tumpey TM. 2009. Ocular infection of mice with influenza A (H7) viruses: a site of primary replication and spread to the respiratory tract. J. Virol. 83:147075–84
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11. 
    Ben-Shumel A, Brosh-Nissimov T, Glinert I, Bar-David E, Sittner A et al. 2020. Detection and infectivity potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) environmental contamination in isolation units and quarantine facilities. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 26:1658–62
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12. 
    Birgand G, Peiffer-Smadja N, Fournier S. 2020. Assessment of air contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in hospital settings. JAMA Netw. Open. 3:12e2033232
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. 
    Biryukov J, Boydston JA, Dunning RA, Yeager JJ, Wood S et al. 2020. Increasing temperature and relative humidity accelerates inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces. mSphere 5:4e00441–20
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. 
    Bischoff WE, Reid T, Russell GB, Peters TR 2011. Transocular entry of seasonal influenza-attenuated virus aerosols and the efficacy of N95 respirators, surgical masks and eye protection in humans. J. Infect. Dis. 204:193–99
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    Boone SA, Gerba CP. 2007. Significance of fomites in the spread of respiratory and enteric viral disease. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:61687–96
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. 
    Brosseau LM, Jones RM, Harrison R. 2021. Elastomeric respirators for all healthcare workers. Am. J. Infect. Control 49:3405–6
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. 
    Bullard J, Dust K, Funk D, Strong JE, Alexander D et al. 2020. Predicting infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from diagnostic samples. Clin. Infect. Dis. 71:102663–66
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. 
    Buonanno G, Stabile L, Morawksa L. 2020. Estimation of airborne viral emission: Quanta emission rate of SARS-CoV-2 for infection risk assessment. Environ. Int. 141:105794
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    CDC. (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2021. SARS-CoV-2 transmission Sci. Brief, May 7 CDC Atlanta: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/science/science-briefs/sars-cov-2-transmission.html
  20. 20. 
    CEN (Eur. Comm. Stand.) 1993. EN 481. Workplace atmospheres: size fraction definitions for measurement of airborne particles in the workplace Rep. CEN, Brussels Belg: https://standards.iteh.ai/catalog/standards/cen/646a21ce-c8a0-4915-8da8-ec743fde090b/en-481-1993
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21. 
    Cevik M, Kuppalli K, Kindrachuk J, Peiris M 2020. Virology, transmission, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. BMJ 371:m3862
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22. 
    Chan JFW, Yuan S, Zhang AJ, Poon VKM, Chan CCS et al. 2020. Surgical mask partition reduces the risk of noncontact transmission in a Golden Syrian Hamster model for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clin. Infect. Dis. 71:162139–49
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. 
    Chao C, Wan M, Morawksa L, Johnson GR, Ristovski Z et al. 2009. Characterization of expiration air jets and droplet size distributions immediately at the mouth opening. J. Aerosol Sci. 40:122–33
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. 
    Cherrie JW, Cherrie MPC, Smith A, Holmes D, Semple S et al. 2021. Contamination of air and surfaces in workplaces with SARS-CoV-2 virus: a systematic review. Ann. Work Expo. Health 65:8879–92
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25. 
    Chia PY, Coleman KK, Tan YK, Ong SWX, Gum M et al. 2020. Detection of air and surface contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in hospital rooms of infected patients. Nat. Comm. 11:2800
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. 
    Colaneri M, Seminari E, Novati S, Asperges E, Biscarini S et al. 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA contamination on inanimate surfaces and virus viability in a health care emergency unit. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 26:1094.e1–5
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. 
    Daller M, Harlow J, Nasheri N 2021. Human coronaviruses do not transfer efficiently between surfaces in the absence of organic materials. Viruses 13:1352
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. 
    Elder NC, Sawyer W, Pallerla H, Khaja S, Blacker M 2014. Hand hygiene and face touching in family medicine offices: a Cincinnati Area Research and Improvement Group (CARInG) network study. J. Am. Board Fam. Med. 27:3339–46
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29. 
    Fabian P, McDevitt J, DeHaan W, Fung ROP, Cowling BJ et al. 2008. Influenza virus in human exhaled breath: an observational study. PLOS ONE 3:7e2691
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. 
    Haas CN. 2002. Conditional dose-response relationships for microorganisms: development and application. Risk Anal 22:3455–63
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. 
    Haas CN, Rose JB, Gerba CP. 2014. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. , 2nd ed.
  32. 32. 
    Hammond A, Khalid T, Thornton HV, Woodall CA, Hay AD. 2021. Should homes and workplaces purchase portable air filters to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections? A systematic review. PLOS ONE 16:4e01251049
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33. 
    Hamner L, Dubbel P, Capron I, Ross A, Jordan A et al. 2020. High SARS-CoV-2 attack rate following exposure at a choir practice—Skagit County, Washington, March 2020. MMWR 69:19606–10
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34. 
    Harvey AP, Fuhrmeister ER, Cantrell ME, Pitol AK, Swarthout JM et al. 2021. Longitudinal monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on high-touch surfaces in a community setting. Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 8:2168–75
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35. 
    Hellman S, Chen GH, Irie T. 2020. Rapid clearing of aerosol in an intubation box by vacuum filtration. Br. J. Anaesth. 125:3e296–99
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. 
    Hinds W. 1999. Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. , 2nd ed..
  37. 37. 
    Hirose R, Bandou R, Hikegaya H, Watanabe N, Yoshida T et al. 2021. Disinfectant effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses present on human skin: model-based evaluation. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 27:1042.e1–e4
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38. 
    Hirose R, Ikegaya H, Naito Y, Watanabe N, Yoshida T et al. 2021. Survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza virus on human skin: importance of hand hygiene in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clin. Infect. Dis. 73:e4329–35
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39. 
    Hou YJ, Okuda K, Edwards CE, Martinez DR, Asakura T et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 reverse genetics reveals a variable infection gradient in the respiratory tract. Cell 182:2429–46.e14
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40. 
    Hughes MM, Groenewold MR, Lessem SE, Xu K, Ussery EN et al. 2020. Update: characteristics of health care personnel with COVID-19—United States, February 12–July 16, 2020. MMWR 69:381364–68
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    Hui KPY, Cheung MC, Perera RAPM, Ng KC, Bui CHT et al. 2020. Tropism, replication competence, and innate immune responses of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in human respiratory tract and conjunctiva: an analysis of ex-vivo and in-vitro cultures. Lancet Respir. Med. 8:687–95
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42. 
    Int. Organ. Stand 1995. ISO 7708:1995 Air quality—particle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling Rep., Int. Organ. Stand. Geneva:
  43. 43. 
    Johnston JD, Eggett D, Johnson MJ, Reading JC 2014. The influence of risk perception on biosafety level-2 laboratory workers’ hand-to-face contact behaviors. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 11:9625–32
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44. 
    Jones DL, Quintela Baluja M, Graham DW, Corbishley A, McDonald JE et al. 2020. Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in feces and urine and its potential role in person-to-person transmission and the environment-based spread of COVID-19. Sci. Total Environ. 749:141364
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45. 
    Jones RM. 2020. Relative contributions of transmission routes for COVID-19 among healthcare personnel providing patient care. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 17:408–15
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46. 
    Jones RM, Brosseau LM. 2015. Aerosol transmission of infectious disease. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 57:5501–8
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. 
    Jones RM, Rempel D. 2021. Standards for surgical respirators and masks: relevance for protecting healthcare workers and the public during pandemics. Ann. Work Expo. Health 65:5495–504
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. 
    Jones RM, Xia Y. 2016. Occupational exposure to influenza among healthcare workers in the United States. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 13:3213–22
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49. 
    Jones RM, Xia Y. 2018. Annual burden of occupationally-acquired influenza infections in hospitals and emergency departments. Risk Anal 38:3442–53
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50. 
    Kampf G, Lemmen S, Suchomel M 2021. Ct values and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces. Lancet Infect. Dis. 21:e141
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51. 
    Kasloff SB, Leung A, Strong JE, Funk D, Cutts T. 2021. Stability of SARS-CoV-2 on critical personal protective equipment. Sci. Rep. 11:984
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. 
    Kirby T. 2020. COVID-19 human challenge studies in the UK. Lancet 8:e96
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. 
    Kratzel A, Todt D, V'Kosvki P, Steiner S, Gultom M et al. 2020. Inactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by WHO-recommended hand rub formulations and alcohols. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 26:71592–95
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54. 
    Kwok YLA, Gralton J, McLaws M-L. 2015. Face touching: a frequent habit that has implications for hand hygiene. Am. J. Infect. Control 43:2112–14
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55. 
    Lai HY. 2020. Design. Aerosol Box https://sites.google.com/view/aerosolbox/design
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56. 
    Lechien JR, Radulesco T, Calvo-Henriquez C, Chiesa-Estomba CM, Hans S et al. 2021. ACE2 & TMPRESS2 expressions in head & neck tissues: a systematic review. Head Neck Pathol. 15:225–35
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57. 
    Lednicky JA, Lauzardo M, Fan ZH, Jutla A, Tilly TB et al. 2020. Viable SARS-CoV-2 in the air of a hospital room with COVID-19 patients. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 100:476–82
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58. 
    Lednicky JA, Shankar SN, Elbadry MA, Gibson JC, Alam MM et al. 2020. Collection of SARS-CoV-2 virus from the air of a clinic within a university student health care center and analyses of the viral genomic sequence. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20:61167–71
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. 
    Leung NHL, Chu DKW, Shiu EYC, Chan K-H, McDevitt JJ et al. 2020. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nat. Med. 26:5676–80
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60. 
    Li Y. 2021. Basic routes of transmission of respiratory pathogens—a new proposal for transmission categorization based on respiratory spray, inhalation and touch. Indoor Air 31:3–6
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. 
    Lieber C, Melekidis S, Koch R, Bauer H-J. 2021. Insights into the evaporation characteristics of saliva droplets and aerosols: levitation experiments and numerical modeling. J. Aerosol Sci. 154:105760
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62. 
    Lindsley WG, Blachere FM, Law BF, Beezhold DH, Noti JD. 2020. Efficacy of face masks, neck gaiters and face shields for reducing the expulsion of simulated cough-generated aerosols. Aerosol Sci. Tech. 55:4449–57
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63. 
    Lindsley WG, Blachere FM, Thewlis RE, Vishnu A, Davis KA et al. 2010. Measurement of airborne influenza virus in aerosol particles from human coughs. PLOS ONE 5:11e15100
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. 
    Lindsley WG, Noti JD, Blachere FM, Thewlis RE, Martin SB et al. 2015. Viable influenza A virus in airborne particles from human coughs. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 12:2107–13
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. 
    Lopez GU, Gerba CP, Tamimi AH, Kitajima M, Maxwell SL, Rose JB 2013. Transfer efficiency of bacteria and viruses from porous and nonporous fomites to fingers under different relative humidity conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:185728–34
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. 
    Lu J, Gu J, Li K, Xu C, Su W et al. 2020. COVID-19 outbreak associated with air conditioning in restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 26:71628–31
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67. 
    Ma J, Qi X, Chen H, Li X, Zhang Z et al. 2021. Coronavirus disease 2019 patients in earlier stages exhaled millions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 per hour. Clin. Infect. Dis. 72:e652–54
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68. 
    MacIntyre CR, Chughati AA. 2020. A rapid systematic review of the efficacy of face masks and respirators against coronaviruses and other respiratory transmissible viruses for the community, healthcare workers and sick patients. Int. J. Nurs. Stud. 108:103629
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69. 
    Mead KR, Feng A, Hammond DR, Shulman SA. 2012. Expedient methods for surge airborne isolation within healthcare settings during response to a natural or manmade epidemic EPHB Rep. 301–05f Natl. Inst. Occup. Saf. Health Cincinnati, OH: https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/37781
  70. 70. 
    Miller SL, Nazaroff WW, Jimenez JL, Boerstra A, Buonanno G et al. 2021. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by inhalation of respiratory aerosol in the Skagit Valley Chorale superspreading event. Indoor Air 31:2314–23
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71. 
    Milton DK, Fabian MP, Cowling BJ, Grantham ML, McDevitt JJ. 2013. Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks. PLOS Pathog 9:e1003205
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72. 
    Moore G, Rickard H, Stevenson D, Aranega-Bou P, Pitman J et al. 2021. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 within the healthcare environment: a multi-centre study conducted during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in England. J. Hosp. Infect. 108:189–96
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73. 
    Morawska L, Cao J. 2020. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: the world should face reality. Environ. Int. 139:105730
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74. 
    Nicas M, Jones RM. 2009. Relative contributions of four exposure pathways to influenza infection risk. Risk Anal 29:91292–303
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75. 
    Occup. Saf. Health Adm 2021. Occupational exposure to COVID-19; emergency temporary standard. Fed. Regist 86:11632376–628
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76. 
    Oliver SE, Gargano JW, Marin M, Wallace M, Curran KG et al. 2020. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ interim recommendation for use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine—United States, December 2020. MMWR 69:501922–24
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77. 
    Oliver SE, Gargano JW, Marin M, Wallace M, Curran KG et al. 2021. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ interim recommendation for use of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine—United States, December 2020. MMWR 69:51521653–56
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78. 
    Oliver SE, Gargano JW, Scobie H, Wallace M, Hadler SC et al. 2021. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ interim recommendation for use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine—United States, February 2021. MMWR 70:9329–32
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79. 
    Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chai PY, Lee TH, Ng OT et al. 2020. Air, surface environmental and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a symptomatic patient. JAMA 323:161610–12
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80. 
    Ong SWX, Tan YK, Coleman KK, Tan BH, Lee Y-S et al. 2021. Lack of viable severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among PCR-positive air samples from hospital rooms and community isolation facilities. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 42:1327–32
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81. 
    Ong SWX, Tan YK, Sutjipto S, Chia PY, Young BE et al. 2020. Absence of contamination of personal protective equipment (PPE) by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 41:614–16
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82. 
    Pandya VK, Tiwari RS. 2006. Nasal mucociliary clearance in health and disease. Indian J. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 58:4332–34
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83. 
    Phan LT, Maita D, Mortiz DC, Bleasdale SC, Jones RM. 2019. Environmental contact and self-contact patterns of healthcare workers: implications for infection prevention and control. Clin. Infect. Dis. 69:S3S178–84
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. 
    Phan LT, Sweeney D, Maita D, Moritz DC, Bleasdale SC, Jones RM. 2019. Respiratory viruses on personal protective equipment and bodies of healthcare workers. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 40:121356–60
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85. 
    Phan LT, Sweeney DM, Maita D, Mortiz DC, Bleasdale SC, Jones RM. 2020. Respiratory viruses in the patient environment. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 41:3259–66
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86. 
    Pitol AK, Julian TR. 2021. Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by surfaces: risks and risk reduction strategies. Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 8:263–69
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87. 
    Port JR, Kwe Yinda C, Offei Owusu I, Holbrook M, Fischer R et al. 2021. SARS-CoV-2 disease severity and transmission efficiency is increased for airborne compared to fomite exposure in Syrian hamsters. Nat. Commun. 12:4985
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88. 
    Prussin AJ II, Marr LC. 2015. Sources of airborne microorganisms in the built environment. Microbiome 3:78
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89. 
    Quinn MM, Henneberger PK, Braun B, Delclos GL, Fagan K et al. 2015. Cleaning and disinfecting environmental surfaces in health care: toward an integrated framework for infection and occupational illness prevention. Am. J. Infect. Control 43:424–34
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90. 
    Quirouette C, Younis NP, Reddy MB, Beauchemin CAA. 2020. A mathematical model describing the localization and spread of influenza A virus infection within the human respiratory tract. PLOS Comp. Biol. 16:4e1007705
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91. 
    Raboud J, Shigayeva A, McGeer A, Bontovics E, Chapman M et al. 2010. Risk factors for SARS transmission from patients requiring intubation: a multicentre investigation in Toronto, Canada. PLOS ONE 5:5e10717
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92. 
    Razzini K, Castrica M, Menchetti L, Maggi L, Negroni L et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the air and on surfaces in the COVID-19 ward of a hospital in Milan, Italy. Sci. Total Environ. 742:140540
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93. 
    Richard M, Kok A, de Meulder D, Bestebroer TM, Lamers MM et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted via contact and via the air between ferrets. Nat. Commun. 11:13496
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94. 
    Rodríguez M, Palop ML, Sesena S, Rodríguez A 2021. Are the portable air cleaners (PAC) really effective to terminate airborne SARS-CoV-2?. Sci. Total Environ. 785:1473000
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95. 
    Roy CJ, Milton DK. 2004. Airborne transmission of communicable infection—the elusive pathway. N. Engl. J. Med. 350:171710–12
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96. 
    Sampath R, Hofstadler SA, Blyn LB, Eshoo MW, Hall TA et al. 2005. Rapid identification of emerging pathogens: coronavirus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:3373–79
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97. 
    Santarpia JL, Rivera DN, Herrera VL, Morwitzer MJ, Creager HM et al. 2020. Aerosol and surface contamination of SARS-CoV-2 observed in quarantine and isolation care. Sci. Rep. 10:12732
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98. 
    Saran S, Gurjar M, Baronia A, Sivapurapu V, Ghosh PS et al. 2020. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) in intensive care unit. Crit. Care 24:194
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99. 
    Schuit M, Ratnesar-Shumate S, Yolitz J, Williams G, Weaver W et al. 2020. Airborne SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly inactivated by simulated sunlight. J. Infect. Dis. 222:564–71
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100. 
    Setti L, Passarini F, De Gennaro G, Barbieri P, Perrone MG et al. 2020. Airborne transmission route of COVID-19: why 2 meters/6 feet of inter-personal distance could not be enough. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17:8e2932
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101. 
    Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello LHealthc. Infect. Control Pract. Advis. Comm 2007. 2007 guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings Rep., Cent. Dis. Control Prev. Atlanta: https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/pdf/guidelines/isolation-guidelines-H.pdf
  102. 102. 
    Sorbello M, Rosenblatt W, Hofmeyr R, Greif R, Urdaneta F 2020. Aerosol boxes and barrier enclosures for airway management in COVID-19 patients: a scoping review and narrative synthesis. Br. J. Anaesth. 125:6880–94
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103. 
    Sun C-B, Wang Y-Y, Liu G-H, Liu Z. 2020. Role of the eye in transmitting human coronavirus: what we know and what we do not know. Front. Public Health 8:155
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104. 
    Tang S, Mao Y, Jones RM, Tan Q, Ji JS et al. 2020. Aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2? Evidence, prevention and control. Environ. Int. 144:106039
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105. 
    Thompson K-A, Pappachan JV, Bennett AM, Mittal H, Macken S et al. 2013. Influenza aerosols in UK hospitals during the H1N1 2009 pandemic—the risk of aerosol generation during medical procedures. PLOS ONE 8:2e56278
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106. 
    Thompson MG, Burgess JL, Naleway AL, Tyner HL, Yoon SK et al. 2021. Interim estimates of vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among health care personnel, first responders, and other essential and frontline workers—eight U.S. locations, December 2020–March 2021. MMWR 70:13495–500
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107. 
    Todt D, Miester TL, Tamele B, Howes J, Paulmann D et al. 2021. A realistic transfer method reveals low risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via contaminated euro coins and banknotes. iScience 24:102908
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108. 
    Tran K, Cimon K, Severn M, Pessoa-Silva C, Conly J. 2012. Aerosol generating procedures and risk of transmission of acute respiratory infections to healthcare workers: a systematic review. PLOS ONE 7:4e35797
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109. 
    Tuladhar E, Hazeleger WC, Koopmans M, Zwietering MH, Duizer E, Beumer RR 2013. Transfer of noroviruses between fingers and fomites and food products. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 167:3346–52
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110. 
    US EPA (Environ. Prot. Agency) 2020. List N tool: COVID-19 disinfectants. EPA https://cfpub.epa.gov/wizards/disinfectants/
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111. 
    van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris D, Holbrook M, Gamble A et al. 2020. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N. Engl. J. Med. 382:1564–67
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112. 
    WHO (World Health Organ.) 2021. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): How is it transmitted?. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-how-is-it-transmitted
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113. 
    Wilson AM, Weir MH, Bloomfield SF, Scott EA, Reynolds KA 2021. Modeling COVID-19 infection risks for a single hand-to-fomite scenario and potential risk reductions offered by surface disinfection. Am. J. Infect. Control 49:6846–48
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 114. 
    Wölfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W, Seilmaier M, Zange S et al. 2020. Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID 19. Nature 581:7809465–69
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115. 
    Xie C, Zhao H, Li K, Zhang Z, Lu X et al. 2020. The evidence of indirect transmission of SARS-CoV-2 reported in Guangzhou, China. BMC Public Health 20:1202
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 116. 
    Zhou J, Otter JA, Price JR, Cimpeanu C, Meno Garcia D et al. 2021. Investigating SARS-CoV-2 surface and air contamination in an acute healthcare setting during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in London. Clin. Infect. Dis. 73:e1870–77
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 117. 
    Zietsman M, Phan LT, Jones RM. 2019. Potential for occupational exposures to pathogens during bronchoscopy procedures. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 16:10707–16
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-052120-110009
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-052120-110009
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error