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Abstract

The global prevalence of depression has risen over the past three decades across all socioeconomic groups and geographic regions, with a particularly rapid increase in prevalence among adolescents (aged 12–17 years) in the United States. Depression imposes large health, economic, and societal costs, including reduced life span and quality of life, medical costs, and reduced educational attainment and workplace productivity. A wide range of treatment modalities for depression are available, but socioeconomic disparities in treatment access are driven by treatment costs, lack of culturally tailored options, stigma, and provider shortages, among other barriers. This review highlights the need for comparative research to better understand treatments’ relative efficacy, cost-effectiveness, scalability, and potential heterogeneity in efficacy across socioeconomic groups and country and cultural contexts. To address the growing burden of depression, mental health policy could consider reducing restrictions on the supply of providers, implementing digital interventions, reducing stigma, and promoting healthy lifestyles.

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2024-05-20
2024-06-13
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  • Article Type: Review Article