1932

Abstract

Many low-income and minority children in the United States and globally are at risk of poor educational trajectories and, consequently, diminished life courses, because their households and neighborhoods lack resources to adequately support learning and development prior to formal schooling. This review summarizes evidence on center-based early childhood education (ECE) for three- and four-year-olds as a means of assuring school readiness in cognitive and socioemotional skills. While the details of ECE programs merit further research, it is clear that ECE can benefit children, especially those most disadvantaged, with additional societal benefits and positive long-run economic returns. Universal ECE is not a cure-all, and its success requires ongoing alignment with subsequent education and attention to child household and community conditions. Because resource deprivation is concentrated in low-income and minority communities, publicly funded universal ECE can also be a powerful instrument for the promotion of social equity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-071321-032337
2023-04-03
2024-06-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/44/1/annurev-publhealth-071321-032337.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-071321-032337&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Arteaga I, Humpage S, Reynolds AJ, Temple JA. 2014. One year of preschool or two—Is it important for adult outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers. Econ. Educ. Rev. 40:221–37
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.
    Baciu A, Negussie Y, Geller A, Weinstein JN, eds. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.
    Bailey D, Duncan GJ, Odgers CL, Yu W. 2017. Persistence and fadeout in the impacts of child and adolescent interventions. J. Res. Educ. Eff. 10:7–39
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.
    Barnett WS. 2010. Universal and targeted approaches to preschool education in the United States. Int. J. Child Care Educ. Policy 4:1–12
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5.
    Barnett WS, Bernal R, Nores M 2020. The contributions of economics to early childhood education and care. Scientific Influences on Early Childhood Education: From Diverse Perspectives to Common Practices DF Gullo, ME Graue 119–31. New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.
    Barnett WS, Jung K 2021. Effects of New Jersey's Abbott preschool program on children's achievement, grade retention, and special education through tenth grade. Early Child. Res. Q. 56:248–59
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7.
    Bartik TJ, Hershbein BJ. 2018. Pre-K in the public schools: evidence from within U.S. states Work. Pap. 18-285 Upjohn Inst. Kalamazoo, MI: https://research.upjohn.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1303&context=up_workingpapers
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.
    Belfield CR, Kelly IR. 2013. Early education and health outcomes of a 2001 U.S. birth cohort. Econ. Hum. Biol. 11:310–25
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.
    Bowne JB, Magnuson KA, Schindler HS, Duncan GJ, Yoshikawa H. 2017. A meta-analysis of class sizes and ratios in early childhood education programs: Are thresholds of quality associated with greater impacts on cognitive, achievement, and socioemotional outcomes?. Educ. Eval. Policy Anal. 39:407–28
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.
    Bronfenbrenner U, Morris PA 2006. The bioecological model of human development. Handbook of Child Psychology: Theoretical Models of Human Development, Vol. 1 RM Lerner, W Damon 793–828. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.
    Brunello G, Fort M, Schneeweis N, Winter-Ebmer R. 2016. The causal effect of education on health: What is the role of health behaviors?. Health Econ 25:314–36
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.
    Burchinal M. 2018. Measuring early care and education quality. Child Dev. Perspect. 12:3–9
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.
    Bustamante AS, Dearing E, Zachrisson HD, Vandell DL. 2022. Adult outcomes of sustained high-quality early child care and education: Do they vary by family income?. Child Dev 93:502–23
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.
    Camilli G, Vargas S, Ryan S, Barnett WS 2010. Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teach. Coll. Rec. 112:579–620
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.
    Campbell F, Conti G, Heckman JJ, Moon SH, Pinto R et al. 2014. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science 343:1478–85
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16.
    Campbell FA, Pungello EP, Burchinal M, Kainz K, Pan Y et al. 2012. Adult outcomes as a function of an early childhood educational program: an Abecedarian Project follow-up. Dev. Psychol. 48:1033–43
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17.
    Campbell FA, Ramey CT. 1995. Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: positive effects of early intervention. Am. Educ. Res. J. 32:743–72
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18.
    Cascio EU. 2017. Does universal preschool hit the target? Program access and preschool impacts Work. Pap. 23215 Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Cambridge, MA:
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19.
    Cascio EU. 2021. Early childhood education in the United States: what, when, where, who, how, and why Work. Pap. 28722 Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Cambridge, MA:
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20.
    Cascio EU, Staiger DO. 2012. Knowledge, tests, and fadeout in educational interventions Work. Pap. 18038 Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Cambridge, MA:
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21.
    Cebolla-Boado H, Radl J, Salazar L. 2017. Preschool education as the great equalizer? A cross-country study into the sources of inequality in reading competence. Acta Sociol 60:41–60
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22.
    Chiu MM. 2009. Inequalities’ harmful effects on both disadvantaged and privileged students: sources mechanisms and strategies. J. Educ. Res. 3:109–28
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23.
    Claessens A, Engel M, Curran FC. 2014. Academic content, student learning, and the persistence of preschool effects. Am. Educ. Res. J. 51:403–34
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24.
    Cunha F, Elo I, Culhane J. 2013. Eliciting maternal expectations about the technology of cognitive skill formation Work. Pap. 19144 Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Cambridge, MA:
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25.
    Cunha F, Heckman J. 2007. The technology of skill formation. Am. Econ. Rev. 97:31–47
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26.
    Currie J, Thomas D. 1998. School quality and the longer-term effects of Head Start Work. Pap. 6362 Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Cambridge, MA:
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27.
    Cutler DM, Lleras-Muney A. 2006. Education and health: evaluating theories and evidence Work. Pap. 12352 Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Cambridge, MA:
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28.
    Dang TT, Farkas G, Burchinal MR, Duncan GJ, Vandell DL et al. 2011. Preschool center quality and school readiness: quality main effects and variation by demographic and child characteristics SREE Conf. Abstr. Soc. Res. Educ. Eff. Evanston, IL:
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29.
    de Brey C, Snyder TD, Zhang A, Dillow SA. 2021. Digest of education statistics 2019 NCES 2021–009 Natl. Cent. Educ. Stat. Washington, DC: https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2021/2021009.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.
    Duncan GJ, Kalil A, Ziol-Guest KM. 2013. Early childhood poverty and adult achievement, employment and health. Family Matters 2013:9327–35
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31.
    Duncan GJ, Magnuson K. 2013. Investing in preschool programs. J. Econ. Perspect. 27:109–32
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32.
    Duncan GJ, Murnane RJ, eds. 2011. Whither Opportunity: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances New York: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33.
    Early Child Care Res. Netw., Natl. Inst. Child Health Hum. Dev 2003. Does amount of time spent in child care predict socioemotional adjustment during the transition to kindergarten?. Child Dev. 74:976–1005
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34.
    Elango S, García JL, Heckman JJ, Hojman A 2016. Early childhood education. Economics of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Vol. 2 RA Moffitt Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35.
    Eller TJ. 1996. Dynamics of economic well-being: poverty, 1992–1993. Who stays poor? Who doesn't? Rep. P70-55 US Dep. Commer., Econ. Stat. Adm., Bur. Census Washington, DC: https://www2.census.gov/library/publications/1996/demographics/p70-55.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36.
    Engle PL, Black MM, Behrman JR, de Mello MC, Gertler PJ et al. 2007. Strategies to avoid the loss of developmental potential in more than 200 million children in the developing world. Lancet 369:229–42
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37.
    Englund MM, White B, Reynolds AJ, Schweinhart LJ, Campbell FA 2014. Health outcomes of the Abecedarian, Child-Parent Center and High-Scope Perry preschool programs. Health and Education in Early Childhood: Predictors, Interventions, and Policies, ed. AJ Reynolds, AJ Rolnick, JA Temple 257–85. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38.
    Feller A, Grindal T, Miratrix L, Page LC. 2016. Compared to what? Variation in the impacts of early childhood education by alternative care type. Ann. Appl. Stat. 10:1245–85
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39.
    Flood S, McMurry JFS, Sojourner A, Wiswall MJ. 2021. Inequality in early care experienced by US children Work. Pap. 29249 Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Cambridge, MA:
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40.
    Frede EC. 1995. The role of program quality in producing early childhood program benefits. Future Child. 5:115–32
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41.
    Friedman-Krauss A, Barnett WS. 2013. Early childhood education: pathways to better health Presch. Policy Brief Issue 25 Natl. Inst. Early Educ. Res. New Brunswick, NJ: https://nieer.org/policy-issue/early-childhood-education-pathways-to-better-health
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.
    Friedman-Krauss AH, Barnett WS, Garver KA, Hodges KS, Weisenfeld GG, Gardiner BA. 2021. The state of preschool 2020 State Presch. Yearb., Natl. Inst. Early Educ. Res. New Brunswick, NJ: https://nieer.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/YB2020_Full_Report.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43.
    Fryer RG Jr., Levitt SD. 2013. Testing for racial differences in the mental ability of young children. Am. Econ. Rev. 103:981–1005
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44.
    García E. 2015. Inequalities at the starting gate: cognitive and noncognitive skills gaps between 2010–2011 kindergarten classmates Rep. Econ. Policy Inst. Washington, DC: https://www.epi.org/publication/inequalities-at-the-starting-gate-cognitive-and-noncognitive-gaps-in-the-2010-2011-kindergarten-class/
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.
    García E 2016. The need to address non-cognitive skills in the education policy agenda. Non-Cognitive Skills and Factors in Educational Attainment MS Khine, S Areepattamannil 31–64. Leiden, Neth.: Brill Sense
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46.
    Gormley WT, Gayer T. 2005. Promoting school readiness in Oklahoma: an evaluation of Tulsa's pre-K program. J. Hum. Resour. 40:3533–58
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47.
    Gray-Lobe G, Pathak PA, Walters CR. 2021. The long-term effects of universal preschool in Boston Work. Pap. 28756 Natl. Bur. Econ. Res. Cambridge, MA:
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48.
    Grindal T, Bowne JB, Yoshikawa H, Schindler HS, Duncan GJ et al. 2016. The added impact of parenting education in early childhood education programs: a meta-analysis. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 70:238–49
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.
    Hahn R, Fielding JE, Johnson RL, Muntaner C, Truman BI, Orleans CT. 2016. The Guide to Community Preventive Services review of interventions to promote health equity in the United States. J. Health Disparities Res. Pract. 9:2
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50.
    Hahn RA. 2021. What is a social determinant of health? Back to basics. J. Public Health Res. 10:2324
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.
    Hahn RA, Barnett WS, Knopf JA, Truman BI, Johnson RL et al. 2016. Early childhood education to promote health equity: a community guide systematic review. J. Public Health Manag. Pract. 22:E1–8
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52.
    Hahn RA, Truman BI. 2015. Education improves public health and promotes health equity. Int. J. Health Serv. 45:657–78
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.
    Hall J, Sylva K, Sammons P, Melhuish E, Siraj-Blatchford I, Taggart B. 2013. Can preschool protect young children's cognitive and social development? Variation by center quality and duration of attendance. Sch. Eff. Sch. Improv. 24:155–76
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54.
    Halle T, Vick Whittaker J, Anderson R. 2010. Quality in early childhood care and education settings: a compendium of measures Rep. Child Trends Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55.
    Harms T, Clifford RM, Cryer D. 2005. Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale. Revised Edition New York: Teach. Coll. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56.
    Hart B, Risley TR. 1995. Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57.
    Heckman JJ. 2006. Skill formation and the economics of investing in disadvantaged children. Science 312:1900–2
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58.
    Herbst CM. 2017. Universal child care, maternal employment, and children's long-run outcomes: evidence from the US Lanham Act of 1940. J. Labor Econ. 35:519–64
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59.
    Hoagland C, Fumia D, Reynolds M. 2019. Early childhood education for low-income students: a review of the evidence and benefit-cost analysis UPDATE Rep. 19-12-2201 Wash. State Inst. Public Policy Olympia:
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60.
    Hong SLS, Sabol TJ, Burchinal MR, Tarullo L, Zaslow M, Peisner-Feinberg ES. 2019. ECE quality indicators and child outcomes: analyses of six large child care studies. Early Child. Res. Q. 49:202–17
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61.
    IMPACT DHSS 2014. The role of program quality in determining Head Start's impact on child development OPRE Rep. 2014-10 Off. Plan. Res. Eval., Adm. Child. Fam., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/opre/hs_quality_report_4_28_14_final.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62.
    Jenkins JM, Watts TW, Magnuson K, Gershoff ET, Clements DH et al. 2018. Do high-quality kindergarten and first-grade classrooms mitigate preschool fadeout?. J. Res. Educ. Eff. 11:339–74
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63.
    Johnson RC, Jackson CK. 2019. Reducing inequality through dynamic complementarity: evidence from Head Start and public school spending. Am. Econ. J. Econ. Policy 11:310–49
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64.
    Joo YS, Magnuson K, Duncan GJ, Schindler HS, Yoshikawa H, Ziol-Guest KM. 2020. What works in early childhood education programs? A meta–analysis of preschool enhancement programs. Early Educ. Dev. 31:1–26
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65.
    Karoly LA. 2016. The economic returns to early childhood education. Future Child 26:37–55
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66.
    Kay N, Pennucci A. 2014. Early childhood education for low-income students: a review of the evidence and benefit-cost analysis Doc. 14-01-2201 Wash. State. Inst. Public Policy Olympia: https://www.wsipp.wa.gov/ReportFile/1547/Wsipp_Early-Childhood-Education-for-Low-Income-Students-A-Review-of-the-Evidence-and-Benefit-Cost-Analysis_Full-Report.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.
    Kearney MS, Harris BH 2014. Policies to address poverty in America Rep. Brookings Inst. Press Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68.
    Kline P, Walters CR. 2016. Evaluating public programs with close substitutes: the case of Head Start. Q. J. Econ. 131:1795–848
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69.
    Lareau A. 2015. Cultural knowledge and social inequality. Am. Sociol. Rev. 80:1–27
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70.
    Li W, Duncan GJ, Magnuson K, Schindler HS, Yoshikawa H, Leak J. 2020. Timing in early childhood education: how cognitive and achievement program impacts vary by starting age, program duration, and time since the end of the program Work. Pap. 20–201 Annenberg Inst. Sch. Reform, Brown Univ. Providence, RI:
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71.
    Ludwig J, Miller DL. 2007. Does Head Start improve children's life chances? Evidence from a regression discontinuity design. Q. J. Econ. 122:159–208
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72.
    Magnuson K, Schindler HS. 2016. Parent programs in pre-K through third grade. Future Child. 26:207–21
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73.
    Magnuson KA, Kelchen R, Duncan GJ, Schindler HS, Shager H, Yoshikawa H. 2016. Do the effects of early childhood education programs differ by gender? A meta-analysis. Early Child. Res. Q. 36:521–36
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74.
    Magnuson KA, Ruhm C, Waldfogel J. 2007. Does prekindergarten improve school preparation and performance?. Econ. Educ. Rev. 26:33–51
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75.
    Mashburn AJ, Justice LM, Downer JT, Pianta RC. 2009. Peer effects on children's language achievement during pre-kindergarten. Child Dev 80:686–702
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76.
    Mashburn AJ, Pianta RC, Hamre BK, Downer JT, Barbarin OA et al. 2008. Measures of classroom quality in prekindergarten and children's development of academic, language, and social skills. Child Dev 79:732–49
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77.
    McCoy DC, Yoshikawa H, Ziol-Guest KM, Duncan GJ, Schindler HS et al. 2017. Impacts of early childhood education on medium- and long-term educational outcomes. Educ. Res. 46:474–87
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78.
    Morris PA, Connors M, Friedman-Krauss A, McCoy DC, Weiland C et al. 2018. New findings on impact variation from the Head Start Impact Study: informing the scale-up of early childhood programs. AERA Open 4:2332858418769287
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79.
    Nelson CA, Sheridan MA. 2011. Lessons from neuroscience research for understanding causal links between family and neighborhood characteristics and educational outcomes. See Ref. 32 27–46
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80.
    Nores M, Barnett WS. 2014. Access to high quality early care and education: readiness and opportunity gaps in America CEELO Policy Rep., Natl. Inst. Early Educ. Res., Cent. Enhanc. Early Learn. Outcomes New Brunswick, NJ: https://nieer.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/ceelo_policy_report_access_quality_ece.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81.
    OECD 2021. Education at a Glance 2021: OECD Indicators Paris: OECD Publ https://doi.org/10.1787/19991487
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  82. 82.
    Pavolini E, Van Lancker W. 2018. The Matthew effect in childcare use: a matter of policies or preferences?. J. Eur. Public Policy 25:878–93
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83.
    Perry RE, Braren SH, Blair C, Vernon-Feagans L, Cox M et al. 2018. Socioeconomic risk and school readiness: longitudinal mediation through children's social competence and executive function. Front. Psychol. 9:1544
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84.
    Phillips M. 2011. Parenting, time use, and disparities in academic outcomes. See Ref. 32 207–28
  85. 85.
    Pianta RC, LaParo KM, Hamre BK. 2008. Classroom Assessment Scoring System™: Manual K-3 Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86.
    Puma M, Bell S, Cook R, Heid C, Lopez M. 2005. Head Start Impact Study: first year findings Rep. Adm. Child. Fam., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/opre/first_yr_finds.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87.
    Puma M, Bell S, Cook R, Heid C, Shapiro G et al. 2010. Head Start Impact Study. Final Report Rep. Adm. Child. Fam., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/opre/report/head-start-impact-study-final-report-executive-summary
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88.
    Raizada RDS, Kishiyama MM. 2010. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to leveling the playing field. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 4:3
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89.
    Ramey CT, Campbell FA, Blair C 1998. Enhancing the life course for high-risk children: results. Social Programs that Work J Crane 163–83. New York: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90.
    Rea D, Burton T. 2020. New evidence on the Heckman curve. J. Econ. Surveys 34:241–62
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91.
    Reynolds AJ. 1994. Effects of a preschool plus follow-on intervention for children at risk. Dev. Psychol. 30:787–804
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92.
    Reynolds AJ. 2000. Success in Early Intervention: The Chicago Child Parent Centers Lincoln: Univ. Neb. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93.
    Reynolds AJ, Englund MM, Ou S-R, Schweinhart LJ, Campbell FA 2010. Paths of effects of preschool participation to educational attainment at age 21: a three-study analysis. Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life: A Human Capital Integration AJ Reynolds, AJ Rolnick, MM Englund, JA Temple 415–52. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94.
    Reynolds AJ, Temple JA. 2008. Cost-effective early childhood development programs from preschool to third grade. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 4:109–39
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95.
    Robin K, Frede EC, Barnett WS. 2006. Is more better? The effects of full-day vs. half-day preschool on early school achievement Work Pap. Early Child. Educ. Res. (NIEER) New Brunswick, NJ: https://nieer.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/IsMoreBetter.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96.
    Rosholm M, Paul A, Bleses D, Højen A, Dale PS et al. 2021. Are impacts of early interventions in the Scandinavian welfare state consistent with a Heckman curve? A meta-analysis. J. Econ. Surveys 35:106–40
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97.
    Ross CE, Wu C-L. 1995. The links between education and health. Am. Sociol. Rev. 60:719–45
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98.
    Rothstein R. 2004. A wider lens on the black-white achievement gap. Phi Delta Kappan 86:104–10
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99.
    Schindler HS, Kholoptseva J, Oh SS, Yoshikawa H, Duncan GJ et al. 2015. Maximizing the potential of early childhood education to prevent externalizing behavior problems: a meta-analysis. J. Sch. Psychol. 53:243–63
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100.
    Schweinhart LJ 2007. Outcomes of the high/scope Perry preschool study and Michigan school readiness program. Early Child Development: From Measurement to Action ME Young, LM Richardson 87–102. Washington, DC: World Bank
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101.
    Schweinhart LJ, Barnes HV, Weikhart DP. 2005. Significant benefits: the High/Scope Perry preschool study through age 27. Child Welfare: Major Themes in Health and Social Welfare, Vol. IV Issues in Child Welfare N Frost9–29. New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102.
    Schweinhart LJ, Weikart DP. 1997. The High/Scope preschool curriculum comparison study through age 23. Early Child. Res. Q. 12:117–43
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103.
    Shager HM, Schindler HS, Magnuson KA, Duncan GJ, Yoshikawa H, Hart CMD. 2013. Can research design explain variation in Head Start research results? A meta-analysis of cognitive and achievement outcomes. Educ. Eval. Policy Anal. 35:76–95
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104.
    Shonkoff JP. 2011. Protecting brains, not simply stimulating minds. Science 333:982–83
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105.
    Shonkoff JP, Phillips DA, eds. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Sci.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106.
    Snyder TD, de Brey C, Dillow SA. 2016. Digest of education statistics 2014 NCES 2016–006 Natl. Cent. Educ. Stat. Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107.
    Ulferts H, Wolf KM, Anders Y. 2019. Impact of process quality in early childhood education and care on academic outcomes: longitudinal meta-analysis. Child Dev 90:1474–89
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108.
    UNESCO 2020. Inclusion and education: all means all. Global education monitoring report 2020 Rep. UNESCO Paris: https://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2020/inclusion
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109.
    van Huizen T, Plantenga J. 2018. Do children benefit from universal early childhood education and care? A meta-analysis of evidence from natural experiments. Econ. Educ. Rev. 66:206–22
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110.
    Van Lancker W. 2013. Putting the child-centred investment strategy to the test: evidence for the EU27. Eur. J. Soc. Secur. 15:4–27
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111.
    Vitiello VE, Pianta RC, Whittaker JE, Ruzek EA. 2020. Alignment and misalignment of classroom experiences from pre-K to kindergarten. Early Child. Res. Q. 52:44–56
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112.
    Waters TEA, Magro SW, Alhajeri J, Yang R, Groh A et al. 2021. Early child care experiences and attachment representations at age 18 years: evidence from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Dev. Psychol. 57:4548–56
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113.
    Williams DR, Mohammed SA. 2013. Racism and health I: pathways and scientific evidence. Am. Behav. Sci. 57:1152–73
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 114.
    Yoshikawa H, Weiland C, Brooks-Gunn J, Burchinal MR, Espinosa LM et al. 2013. Investing in our future: the evidence base on preschool education Rep. Soc. Res. Child Dev. Washington, DC: https://www.srcd.org/news/investing-our-future-evidence-base-preschool-education
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115.
    Zaslow M, Anderson R, Redd Z, Wessel J, Tarullo L, Burchinal M. 2010. Quality dosage, thresholds, and features in early childhood settings: a review of the literature OPRE 2011-5 Off. Plan. Res. Eval., Adm. Child. Fam., US Dep. Health Hum. Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/opre/quality_tables_0.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-071321-032337
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-071321-032337
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error