Assessing the extent to which public health research findings can be causally interpreted continues to be a critical endeavor. In this symposium, we invited several researchers to review issues related to causal inference in social epidemiology and environmental science and to discuss the importance of external validity in public health. Together, this set of articles provides an integral overview of the strengths and limitations of applying causal inference frameworks and related approaches to a variety of public health problems, for both internal and external validity.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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