1932

Abstract

Africa's rural population continues to expand rapidly, and labor productivity in agriculture and many rural-off farm activities remains low. This review uses the lens of a dual economy and the associated patterns of agricultural, rural, and structural transformation to review the evolution of Africa's rural employment and its inclusiveness. Many African countries still find themselves in an early stage of the agricultural and rural transformation. Given smaller sectoral productivity gaps than commonly assumed, greater size effects, and larger spillovers, investment in agriculture and the rural off-farm economy remains warranted to broker the transition to more and more productive rural employment. The key policy questions thus become how best to invest in the agri-food system (on and increasingly also off the farm) and how best to generate demand for nonagricultural goods and services that rural households can competitively produce. Informing these choices continues to present a major research agenda, with digital technologies, the imperative of greening, and intra-African liberalization raising many unarticulated and undocumented opportunities and challenges.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111820-014312
2022-10-05
2024-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/resource/14/1/annurev-resource-111820-014312.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111820-014312&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abay KA, Asnake W, Ayalew H, Chamberlin J, Sumberg J. 2021. Landscapes of opportunity: patterns of young people's engagement with the rural economy in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Dev. Stud. 57:4594–613
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ackah C. 2013. Nonfarm employment and incomes in rural Ghana. J. Int. Dev. 25:3325–39
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ali D, Bowen D, Deininger K, Duponchel M. 2016. Investigating the gender gap in agricultural productivity: evidence from Uganda. World Dev 87:152–70
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Allen T, Heinrigs P, Heo I. 2018. Agriculture, food and jobs in West Africa West Afr. Pap. 14 Organ. Econ. Co-op. Dev. Paris:
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Amadou A, Aronda T. 2020. Structural transformation in Sub-Sahara Africa. A comparative analysis of sub-regions performances. Afr. J. Econ. Manag. Stud. 11:2233–52
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Andalón M, Pagés C. 2008. Minimum wages in Kenya IZA Discuss. Pap. 3390 Inst. Study Labor Bonn, Ger: https://ftp.iza.org/dp3390.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ayenew HY, Estruch E, Sauer J, Abate-Kassa G, Schickramm L, Wobst P. 2017. Decent rural employment and farm production efficiency: empirical evidence from Tanzania and Ethiopia. Agric. Econ. 48:587–96
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Badiane O, Diao X, Jayne T 2021. Africa's unfolding agricultural transformation. Agricultural Development: New Perspectives in a Changing World K Otsuka, S Fan 153–92 Washington, DC: IFPRI
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Baffour PT, Quartey P. 2016. A gendered perspective of underemployment in Ghana. Ghana Sci. J. 13:2209–31
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Barrett CB, Reardon T, Swinnen J, Zilberman D. 2021. Agri-food value chain revolutions in low- and middle-income countries. J. Econ. Lit. In press
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Beegle K, Bundervoet T 2019. Moving to jobs off the farm. Accelerating Poverty Reduction in Africa K Beegle, L Christiaensen 155–86 World Bank Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Beegle K, Christiaensen L. 2019. Accelerating Poverty Reduction in Africa Washington, DC: World Bank
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Beegle K, De Weerdt J, Dercon S. 2011. Migration and economic mobility in Tanzania: evidence from a tracking survey. Rev. Econ. Stat. 93:31010–33
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bellemare MF. 2018. Contract-farming: opportunity cost and trade-offs. Agric. Econ. 49:3279–88
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bezu S, Holden S. 2014. Are rural youth in Ethiopia abandoning agriculture?. World Dev 64:259–72
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bhorat H, Kanbur R, Mayet N. 2013. The impact of sectoral minimum wage laws on employment, wages, and hours of work in South Africa. IZA J. Labor Dev. 2:1
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bhorat H, Kanbur R, Stanwix B. 2014. Estimating the impact of minimum wages on employment, wages, and non-wage benefits: the case of agriculture in South Africa. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 96:51402–19
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bhorat H, Kanbur R, Stanwix B. 2017. Minimum wages in Sub-Saharan Africa: a primer. World Bank Res. Obs. 32:121–74
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bigler C, Amacker M, Inabire C, Birachi E. 2017. Rwanda's gendered agricultural transformation: a mixed-method study on the rural labour market, wage gap and care penalty. Women's Stud. . Int. Forum 64:17–27
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Binswanger-Mkhize HP, Savastano S 2017. Agricultural intensification: the status in six African countries. Food Policy 67:26–40
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Burchell B, Sehnbruch K, Piasna A, Agloni N. 2014. The quality of employment and decent work: definitions, methodologies, and ongoing debates. Camb. . J. Econ. 38:459–77
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Busse M, Erdogan C, Muehlen H. 2019. Structural transformation and its relevance for economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Rev. Dev. Econ. 23:33–53
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Campos APD, Covarrubias KA, Patron AP. 2016. How does the choice of the gender indicator affect the analysis of gender differences in agricultural productivity? Evidence from Uganda. World Dev. 77:17–33
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Carreras M, Sumberg J, Saha A. 2020. Work and rural livelihoods: the micro dynamics of Africa's ‘youth employment crisis. .’ Eur. J. Dev. Res. 33:1666–94
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cattaneo A, Adukia A, Brown DL, Christiaensen L, Evans DK et al. 2021a. Economic and social development along the urban-rural continuum—new opportunities to inform policy Work. Pap. 9756 World Bank Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cattaneo A, Nelson A, McMenomy T. 2021b. Global mapping of urban–rural catchment areas reveals unequal access to services. PNAS 118:2e2011990118
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Chamberlin J, Jayne T 2020. Does farm structure affect rural household incomes? Evidence from Tanzania. Food Policy 90:101805
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chamberlin J, Jayne T, Sitko N 2020. Rural in-migration and agricultural development: evidence from Zambia. Agric. Econ. 51:4491–504
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Christiaensen L, Demery L, Kuhl J. 2011. The (evolving) role of agriculture in poverty reduction. J. Dev. Econ. 96:2239–54
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Christiaensen L, De Weerdt J, Kanbur R. 2019. Decomposing the contribution to poverty reduction: methodology and application to Tanzania. Appl. Econ. Lett. 26:12978–82
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Christiaensen L, De Weerdt J, Todo Y. 2013. Urbanization and poverty reduction: the role of rural diversification and secondary towns. Agric. Econ. 44:4–5435–47
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Christiaensen L, Premand P, eds. 2017. Côte d'Ivoire jobs diagnostic: employment, productivity, and inclusion for poverty reduction Rep. AUS13233 World Bank Washington, DC: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/26384
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Christiaensen L, Rutledge Z, Taylor JE 2021. Viewpoint: the future of work in agri-food. Food Policy 99:1019–63
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Christiaensen L, Vandercasteelen J 2019. Earning more on the farm. Accelerating Poverty Reduction in Africa K Beegle, L Christiaensen 95–144 Washington, DC: World Bank
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Colen L, Maertens M, Swinnen J. 2012. Private standards, trade and poverty: GlobalGAP and horticultural employment in Senegal. World Econ 35:81073–88
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Collier P, Dercon S. 2014. African agriculture in 50 years: Smallholders in a rapidly changing world?. World Dev 63:92–101
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Cramer C, Oya C, Sender J. 2008. Lifting the blinkers: a new view of power, diversity and poverty in Mozambican rural labour markets. J. Mod. Afr. Stud. 46:3361–92
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Croppenstedt A, Goldstein M, Rosas N. 2013. Gender and agriculture: inefficiencies, segregation and low productivity traps. World Bank Res. Obs. 28:179–109
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Daum T, Birner R. 2017. The neglected governance challenge of agricultural mechanization in Africa—insights from Ghana. Food Secur. 9:959–79
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Daum T, Birner R. 2020. Agricultural mechanization in Africa: myths, realities and an emerging research agenda. Glob. Food Secur 26:100393
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Davis B, Di Giuseppe S, Zezza A. 2017. Are African households (not) leaving agriculture? Patterns of households’ income sources in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy 67:153–74
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Davis B, Winters P, Carletto G, Covarrubias K, Quinones E et al. 2010. Assets, activities and rural poverty alleviation: evidence from a multicountry analysis. World Dev 38:148–63
    [Google Scholar]
  43. de Janvry A, Sadoulet E. 2020. Using agriculture for development: supply- and demand-side approaches. World Dev 133:105003
    [Google Scholar]
  44. De Weerdt J, Christiaensen L, Kanbur R. 2021. When distance drives destination, towns can stimulate development IZA Discuss. Pap. 14157 Inst. Study Labor Bonn, Ger:.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Diao X, McMillan M. 2018. Toward an understanding of economic growth in Africa: a reinterpretation of the Lewis model. World Dev 109:511–22
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Diao X, McMillan M, Wangwe S. 2018. Agricultural labour productivity and industrialization: lessons for Africa. J. Afr. Econ. 27:128–65
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Djurfeldt AA. 2015. Urbanization and linkages to smallholder farming in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for food security. . Glob. Food Secur. 4:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Djurfeldt AA, Djurfeldt G. 2013. Structural transformation and African smallholders: drivers of mobility within and between the farm and non-farm sectors for eight countries. Oxf. Dev. Stud. 41:3281–306
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Dolislager M, Reardon T, Arslan A, Fox L, Liverpool-Tasie S et al. 2021. Youth and adult agrifood system employment in developing regions: rural (peri-urban to hinterland) versus urban. J. Dev. Stud. 57:4571–93
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Eberhard-Ruiz A, Moradi A 2019. Regional market integration in East Africa: Local but no regional effects?. J. Dev. Econ. 140:255–68
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Ehlert C, Mithoefer D, Waibel H. 2014. Worker welfare on Kenyan export vegetable farms. Food Policy 46:66–73
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Elder S, de Haas H, Principi M, Schewel K. 2015. Youth and rural development: evidence from 25 school-to-work transition surveys Work4Youth Publ. Ser. 29 Int. Labour Off. Geneva, Switz:.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Fabry A, Van den Broeck G, Maertens M. 2022a. Decent work in global food value chains: evidence from Senegal. World Dev 152:105790
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Fabry A, Van den Broeck G, Maertens M. 2022b. Gender inequality and job satisfaction in Senegal: a multiple mediation model. J Happiness Stud. 23:2291311
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Fibaek MM. 2021. Working poor? A study of rural workers’ economic welfare in Kenya. J. Int. Dev. 33:41–69
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Fox L, Senbet LW, Simbanegavi W. 2016. Youth employment in Sub-Saharan Africa: challenges, constraints and opportunities. J. Afr. Econ. 25:Suppl. 1i3–15
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Fuglie K, Madhur G, Aparajita G, Maloney WF. 2020. Harvesting Prosperity: Technology and Productivity Growth in Agriculture Washington, DC: World Bank
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gebre GG, Isoda H, Rahut DB, Amekawa Y, Nomura H. 2021. Gender differences in agricultural productivity: evidence from maize farm households in southern Ethiopia. Geojournal 86:2843–64
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gollin D. 2014. The Lewis model: a 60-year retrospective. J. Econ. Perspect. 28:371–88
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Gollin D, Jedwab R, Vollrath D. 2016. Urbanization with and without industrialization. J. Econ. Growth 21:135–70
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Gollin D, Kirchberger M, Lagakos D. 2021. Do urban wage premia reflect lower amenities? Evidence from Africa. J. Urban Econ. 121:103301
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Gollin D, Lagakos D, Waugh ME. 2014. The agricultural productivity gap. Q. J. Econ. 129:2939–93
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Gollin D, Udry C. 2021. Heterogeneity, measurement error, and misallocation: evidence from African agriculture. J. Political Econ. 129:11–80
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Habanabakize T, Meyer DF, Oláh J. 2019. The impact of productivity, investment and real wages on employment absorption rate in South Africa. Soc. Sci. 8:330
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Hamory J, Kleemans M, Li NY, Miguel E 2021. Reevaluating agricultural productivity gaps with longitudinal microdata. J. Eur. Econ. Assoc. 19:1522–55
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Heckert J, Pereira A, Doss C, Myers EC, Quisumbing A. 2021. Structural transformation and gendered transitions to adulthood among rural youth: cross-national evidence from low- and middle-income countries. J. Dev. Stud. 57:4614–34
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Henderson JV, Kriticos S. 2018. The development of the African system of cities. Annu. Rev. Econ. 10:287–314
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Hussmans R. 2004. Statistical definition of informal employment: guidelines endorsed by the Seventeenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (2003) Presented to the 7th Meeting of the Expert Group on Informal Sector Statistics (Delhi Group) New Delhi: Feb. 2–4 for the Int. Labour Organ., Geneva. https://ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/download/papers/def.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  69. IFAD (Int. Fund Agric. Dev.) 2019. Creating opportunities for rural youth. 2019 Rural development report: overview Rep. Int. Fund Agric. Dev. Rome: https://www.ifad.org/documents/38714170/41190221/RDR2019_Overview_e_W.pdf/699560f2-d02e-16b8-4281-596d4c9be25a
    [Google Scholar]
  70. IFAD (Int. Fund Agric. Dev.) 2021. Transforming food systems for rural prosperity: rural development report 2021 Rep. Int. Fund Agric. Dev. Rome: https://www.ifad.org/en/rural-development-report/
    [Google Scholar]
  71. ILO (Int. Labour Organ.) 2018. World employment and social outlook 2018: greening with jobs Flagship Rep., Int. Labour Organ. Geneva:
    [Google Scholar]
  72. ILO (Int. Labour Organ.) 2019. Recent trends in average wages, gender pay gaps and wage disparities Rep. Int. Labour Organ. Geneva:
    [Google Scholar]
  73. ILO (Int. Labour Organ.) 2020. Global wage report 2020–21: wages and minimum wages in the time of COVID-19 Flagship Rep., Int. Labour Organ. Geneva:
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Ingelaere B, Christiaensen L, DeWeerdt J, Kanbur R. 2018. Why secondary towns can be important for poverty reduction—a migrant perspective. World Dev 105:273–82
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Jäckering L, Meemken EM, Sellare J, Qaim M. 2021. Promoting written employment contracts: evidence from a randomized awareness campaign. Eur. Rev. Agric. Econ. 48:41007–30
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Jayne TS, Chamberlin J, Benfica R. 2018. Africa's unfolding economic transformation. J. Dev. Stud. 54:5777–87
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Jayne TS, Chamberlin J, Headey DD. 2014. Land pressures, the evolution of farming systems, and development strategies in Africa: a synthesis. Food Policy 48:1–17
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kerr A, Wittenberg M. 2021. Union wage premia and wage inequality in South Africa. Econ. Model. 97:255–71
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Kilic T, Palacios-Lopez A, Goldstein M. 2015. Caught in productivity trap: a distributional perspective on gender differences in Malawian agriculture. World Dev 70:416–63
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Kim J, Shah P, Gaskell JC, Prasann A, Luthra A. 2020. Scaling Up Disruptive Agricultural Technologies in Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Krumbiegel K, Maertens M, Wollni M. 2018. The role of Fairtrade certification for wages and job satisfaction of plantation workers. World Dev 102:195–212
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Krumbiegel K, Maertens M, Wollni M. 2020. Can employment empower women? Female workers in the pineapple sector in Ghana. J. Rural Stud. 20:76–90
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Lagakos D. 2016. Explaining cross-country productivity differences in retail trade. J. Political Econ. 124:2579–620
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Lanjouw JO, Lanjouw P. 2001. The rural nonfarm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries. Agric. Econ. 26:11–23
    [Google Scholar]
  85. LaRue K, Thomas D, Mausch K, Harris D. 2021. Who wants to farm? Answers depend on how you ask: a case study on youth aspirations in Kenya. Eur. J. Dev. Res. 33:885–909
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Lewis WA. 1954. Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour. Manch. Sch. 22:139–91
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Ligon E, Sadoulet E. 2018. Estimating the relative benefits of agricultural growth on the distribution of expenditures. World Dev 109:417–28
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Mabiso A, Benfica R. 2019. The Narrative on Rural Youth and Economic Opportunities in Africa: Facts, Myths and Gaps IFAD Res. Ser. 61 Rome: IFAD
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Maertens M, Fabry A. 2019. Creating more and better jobs in global value chains Presented at the Future for Work in Agriculture Conference, World Bank Washington, DC: March 19–20
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Maertens M, Swinnen J. 2009. Trade, standards and poverty: evidence from Senegal. World Dev 37:1161–78
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Maertens M, Swinnen J. 2012. Gender and modern supply chains in developing countries. J. Dev. Stud. 48:101412–30
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Maiga E, Christiaensen L, Palacios-Lopez A. 2015. Are the youth exiting agriculture en masse? Presented at the Centre for the Study of African Economies Conference Oxford, UK: March 22–24
    [Google Scholar]
  93. McCullough E. 2017. Labor productivity and employment gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy 67:133–52
    [Google Scholar]
  94. McMillan M, Rodrik D, Verduzco-Gallo I. 2014. Globalization, structural change and productivity growth, with an update on Africa. World Dev. 63:11–32
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Meemken E, Sellare J, Kouame C, Qaim M. 2019. Effects of Fairtrade on the livelihoods of poor rural workers. Nat. Sustain. 2:635–42
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Mellor J. 2017. Agricultural Development and Economic Transformation: Promoting Growth with Poverty Reduction Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Mueller V, Lee HK 2019. Can migration be a conduit for transformative youth employment?. Youth and Jobs in Rural Africa: Beyond Stylized Facts V Mueller, J Thurlow 25–46 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Mueller V, Schmidt E, Lozano N, Murray S 2019. Implications of migration on employment and occupational transitions in Tanzania. Int. Reg. Sci. Rev. 42:2119–46
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Mueller V, Thurlow J, eds. 2019. Youth and Jobs in Rural Africa: Beyond Stylized Facts Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Mugisha J, Sebatta C, Mausch K, Ahikiriza E, Okello DK, Njuguna EM. 2019. Bridging the gap: decomposing sources of gender yield gaps in Uganda groundnut production. Gender Technol. Dev. 23:119–35
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Nagler P, Naudé W. 2017. Non-farm entrepreneurship in rural Sub-Saharan Africa: new empirical evidence. Food Policy 67:175–91
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Nattrass N, Seekings J. 2018. Employment and labor productivity in high unemployment developing countries. Dev. Policy Rev. 36:769–85
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Nayyar G, Hallward-Driemeier M, Davies E. 2021. At Your Service? The Promise of Services-Led Development Washington, DC: World Bank Group
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Nchanji A, Collins OA, Katungi E, Nduguru A, Kabungo C et al. 2021. What does gender yield gap tell us about smallholder farming in developing countries?. Sustainability 13:177
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Ndiaye M, Christiaensen L. 2021. Natural resource riches and agricultural spending Work. Pap., World Bank Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Nix E, Gamberoni E, Heath R. 2016. Bridging the gender gap: Identifying what is holding self-employed women back in Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania, the Republic of Congo, and Uganda. World Bank Econ. Rev. 30:3501–21
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Nordhagen S, Igbeka U, Rowlands H, Shine RS, Heneghan E, Tench J. 2021. Covid-19 and small enterprises in the food supply chain: early impacts and implications for longer-term food system resilience in low- and middle-income countries. World Dev 141:105405
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Oduol J, Mithoefer D, Place F, Nang'ole E, Olwande J et al. 2017. Women's participation in high value agricultural commodity chains in Kenya: strategies for closing the gender gap. J. Rural Stud. 50:228–39
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Oseni G, Corral P, Goldstein M, Winters P. 2015. Explaining gender differentials in agricultural production in Nigeria. Agric. Econ. 46:3285–310
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Pahle S. 2015. Stepchildren of liberation: South African farm workers’ elusive rights to organise and bargain collectively. J. South Afr. Stud. 41:1121–40
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Palacios-Lopez A, Christiaensen L, Kilic T. 2017. How much of the labor force in African agriculture is provided by women?. Food Policy 67:52–63
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Peter MN, Bukachi SA, Olungah CO. 2018. Opportunities and challenges in export horticulture as an agro-industrial food system: case study of Northwest Mount Kenya region. Food Syst. Dyn. 9:5470–83
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Rao EJO, Qaim M. 2013. Supermarkets and agricultural labor demand in Kenya: a gendered perspective. Food Policy 38:165–76
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Reardon T. 2015. The hidden middle: the quiet revolution in the midstream of agrifood value chains in developing countries. Oxf. Rev. Econ. Policy 31:45–63
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Reardon T, Liverpool-Tasie LSO, Minten B. 2021a. Quiet revolution by SMEs in the midstream of value chains in developing regions: wholesale markets, wholesalers, logistics, and processing. Food Secur. 13:61577–94
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Reardon T, Tschirley D, Liverpool-Tasie LSO, Awokuse T, Fanzo J et al. 2021b. The processed food revolution in African food systems and the double burden of malnutrition. Glob. Food Secur. 28:100466
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Restuccia D. 2016. Resource allocation and productivity in agriculture Work. Pap. Univ. Toronto, Can:.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Rijkers B, Costa R. 2012. Gender and rural non-farm entrepreneurship. World Dev 40:122411–26
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Rodriguez-Pose A, Griffiths J. 2021. Developing intermediate cities. Reg. Sci. Policy Pract. 13:3441–56
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Rodrik D. 2021. How can we generate more good jobs in developing countries?. World Bank Blogs Oct. 5. https://blogs.worldbank.org/jobs/how-can-we-generate-more-good-jobs-developing-countries
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Ruml A, Qaim M. 2021. New evidence regarding the effects of contract farming on labor use. Agric. Econ. 52:51–66
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Sauer CM, Reardon T, Tschirley D, Liverpool-Tasie S, Awokuse T et al. 2021. Consumption of processed food and food away from home in big cities, small towns, and rural areas of Tanzania. Agric. Econ. 52:749–70
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Schwidrowski ZB, Imai S, Kangoye T, Yameogo ND. 2021. Assessing gender gaps in employment and earnings in Africa: the case of Eswatini. Dev. South. Afr. 38:643–63
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Slavchesvska V. 2015. Gender differences in agricultural productivity: the case of Tanzania. Agric. Econ. 46:3335–55
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Smale M, Theriault V, Haider H, Kergna AO. 2019. Intrahousehold productivity differentials and land quality in the Sudan Savanna of Mali. Land Econ 95:154–70
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Sumberg J, Fox L, Flynn J, Mader P, Oosterom M. 2021. Africa's “youth employment” crisis is actually a “missing job” crisis. Dev. Policy Rev. 39:4621–43
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sumberg J, Hunt S. 2019. Are African rural youth innovative? Claims, evidence and implications. J. Rural Stud. 69:130–36
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Suzuki A, Mano Y, Abebe G. 2018. Earnings, savings, and job satisfaction in a labor-intensive export sector: evidence from the cut flower industry in Ethiopia. World Dev 111:176–91
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Tsan M, Totapally S, Hailu M, Addom BK. 2019. The digitalisation of African agriculture report 20182019 Rep., CTA/Dalberg Advisers Wageningen, Neth: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/101498
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Tschirley D, Reardon T, Dolislager M, Snyder J. 2015a. The rise of a middle class in East and Southern Africa: implications for food system transformation. J. Int. Dev. 27:5628–46
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Tschirley D, Snyder J, Dolislager M, Reardon T, Haggblade S et al. 2015b. Africa's unfolding diet transformation: implications for agrifood system employment. J. Agribus. Dev. Emerging Econ. 5:2102–36
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Van den Broeck G, Kilic T. 2019. Dynamics of off-farm employment in Sub-Saharan Africa: a gender perspective. World Dev 119:81–99
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Van Hoyweghen K, Fabry A, Feyaerts H, Wade I, Maertens M 2021. The resilience of global and local value chains to the Covid-19 pandemic: survey evidence from vegetables supply chains in Senegal. Agric. Econ. 52:3423–40
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Van Hoyweghen K, Van den Broeck G, Maertens M. 2020. Employment dynamics and linkages in the rural economy: insights from Senegal. J. Agric. Econ. 71:3904–28
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Wang X, Piesse J. 2013. The micro-foundations of dual economy models. Manch. Sch. 81:180–101
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Wantchekon L, Stanig P. 2016. The curse of good soil? Land fertility, roads, and rural poverty in Africa Work. Pap., Princeton Univ. Princeton, NJ: https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.721.4305&rep=rep1&type=pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Wineman A, Jayne TS. 2017. Intra-rural migration and pathways to greater well-being: evidence from Tanzania FSP Res. Pap. 60 Feed Fut. Innov. Lab Food Secur. Res., Mich. State Univ. Lansing: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/261669/
    [Google Scholar]
  138. World Bank 2008. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development Washington, DC: World Bank
    [Google Scholar]
  139. World Bank 2020. The African Continental Free Trade Area: Economic and Distributional Effects Washington, DC: World Bank
    [Google Scholar]
  140. World Bank 2021. Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Development. Washington, DC: World Bank
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Yeboah FK, Jayne TS 2018. Africa's evolving employment trends. J. Dev. Stud. 54:5803–32
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Young A. 2013. Inequality, the urban-rural gap, and migration. Q. J. Econ. 128:41727–85
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Yu D. 2020. Employment quality index for the South African labour market. Dev. South Afr. 37:2276–94
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111820-014312
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111820-014312
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error