1932

Abstract

This article reviews the literature at the intersection of war, armed conflict, and food security, focusing on intergroup violent conflicts such as interstate conflict, civil war, insurgencies, state violence toward civilians, riots, and nonstate conflict. We briefly discuss recent trends in conflict and food security and note the channels through which conflict may impact food security in developing countries. Next, we review the quantitative literature, studying the pathways between conflict and food security and their effects on child health and household coping strategies, displacement, changes in factors of production, market and travel restrictions, and insurgent predation. The effect of food insecurity on conflict, related to limited access to land and shocks to commodity prices, is discussed. We briefly survey the effects of aid and assistance programs and then discuss the connection between climate change, conflict, and food security. The review concludes by identifying topics in this field that are ripe for future research.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111920-021918
2022-10-05
2024-06-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/resource/14/1/annurev-resource-111920-021918.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111920-021918&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adong A, Kornher L, Kirui OK, von Braun J 2021. Conflict exposure and food consumption pathways during and after conflict: evidence from Northern Uganda. World Dev 147:105636
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Akande D, Gillard EC. 2019. Conflict-induced food insecurity and the war crime of starvation of civilians as a method of warfare: the underlying rules of international humanitarian law. J. Int. Crim. Just. 17:4753–79
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Akbulut-Yuksel M. 2014. Children of war: the long-run effects of large-scale physical destruction and warfare on children. J. Hum. Resour. 49:3634–62
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Akbulut-Yuksel M. 2017. War during childhood: the long run effects of warfare on health. J. Health Econ. 53:117–30
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Akresh R, Bhalotra S, Leone M, Osili UO. 2012a. War and stature: growing up during the Nigerian Civil War. Am. Econ. Rev. 102:3273–77
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Akresh R, Bhalotra S, Leone M, Osili UO 2022. First and second generation impacts of the Biafran war. J. Hum. Resour. In press
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Akresh R, Lucchetti L, Thirumurthy H. 2012b. Wars and child health: evidence from the Eritrean-Ethiopian conflict. J. Dev. Econ. 99:330–40
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Akresh R, Verwimp P, Bundervoet T. 2011. Civil war, crop failure, and child stunting in Rwanda. Econ. Dev. Cult. Change 59:4777–810
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Alderman H, Hoddinott J, Kinsey B. 2006. Long-term consequences of early childhood malnutrition. Oxf. Econ. Pap. 58:3450–74
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Alix-Garcia J, Bartlett A, Saah D 2013. The landscape of conflict: IDPs, aid, and land use change in Darfur. J. Econ. Geog. 13:4589–617
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Angrist J, Kugler A. 2008. Rural windfall or new resource curse? Coca, income, and civil conflict in Colombia. Rev. Econ. Stat. 90:2191–215
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Arias MA, Ibáñez AM, Zambrano A. 2019. Agricultural production amid conflict: separating the effects of conflict into shocks and uncertainty. World Dev 119:165–84
    [Google Scholar]
  13. [Google Scholar]
  14. Bahney B, Iyengar RK, Johnston PB, Jung DF, Shapiro JN, Shatz HJ. 2013. Insurgent compensation: evidence from Iraq. Am. Econ. Rev. 103:3518–22
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Balcells L, Stanton JA. 2021. Violence against civilians during armed conflict: moving beyond the macro- and micro-level divide. Annu. Rev. Political Sci. 24:45–69
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Barrett C. 2010. Measuring food insecurity. Science 327:825–28
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Barro RJ, Sala-i-Martin XI. 2004.. Economic Growth Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bazzi S, Blattman C. 2014. Economic shocks and conflict: evidence from commodity prices. Am. Econ. J. Macroecon. 6:41–38
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bellemare MF. 2015. Rising food prices, food price volatility, and social unrest. Am. J. Agric. Econ.971–21
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Berman N, Couttenier M. 2015. External shocks, internal shots: the geography of civil conflicts. Rev. Econ. Stat. 97:4758–76
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Blattman C, Annan J. 2010. The consequences of child soldiering. Rev. Econ. Stat. 92:4882–98
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Blattman C, Miguel E 2010. Civil war. J. Econ. Lit. 48:13–57
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Blouin M, Pallage S. 2008. Humanitarian relief and civil conflict. J. Confl. Resol. 52:4548–65
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Blouin M, Pallage S. 2016. Warlords, famine and food aid: Who fights, who starves?. Eur. J. Political Econ. 45:18–38
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Bohlken AT, Sergenti EJ. 2010. Economic growth and ethnic violence: an empirical investigation of Hindu–Muslim riots in India. J. Peace Res. 47:5589–600
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Bozzoli C, Brueck T, Muhumuza T. 2016. Activity choices of internally displaced persons and returnees: quantitative survey evidence from post-war northern Uganda. Bull. Econ. Res 68:4329–47
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Brown R. 2018. The Mexican drug war and early-life health: the impact of violent crime on birth outcomes. Demography 55:1319–40
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Brück T. 2003. Investment in land, tenure security and area farmed in Northern Mozambique Work. Pap. 1 Househ. Conf. Netw. Berlin: https://ideas.repec.org/p/hic/wpaper/01.html
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Brück T, d'Errico M. 2019. Food security and violent conflict: introduction to the special issue. World Dev 119:167–71
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Brück T, d'Errico M, Pietrelli R. 2019. The effects of violent conflict on household resilience and food security: evidence from the 2014 Gaza conflict. World Dev 119:203–23
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Brück T, Habib N, Martin-Shields M, Sneyers A, Stoetz W, van Weezel S. 2016. The relationship between food security and violent conflict Rep. to FAO, Int. Secur. Dev. Cent. Berlin: https://isdc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Food-Security-and-Conflict-2016-12-22.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Brückner M, Ciccone A. 2010. International commodity prices, growth and the outbreak of civil war in Sub-Saharan Africa. Econ. J. 120:519–34
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Bundervoet T, Verwimp P, Akresh R. 2009. Health and civil war in rural Burundi. J. Hum. Res. 44:2536–63
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Burke MB, Hsiang SM, Miguel E 2015. Climate and conflict. Annu. Rev. Econ. 7:577–617
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Calì M, Miaari SH. 2018. The labor market impact of mobility restrictions: evidence from the West Bank. Labour Econ 51:136–51
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Camacho A. 2008. Stress and birth weight: evidence from terrorist attacks. Am. Econ. Rev. 98:2511–15
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Cassar A, Grosjean P, Whitt S. 2011. Civil war, social capital and market development: experimental and survey evidence on the negative consequences of violence Work. Pap., Univ San Francisco, CA: https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/swewpaper/2011-14.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Cherri Z, Gil Cuesta J, Rodriguez-Llanes JM, Guha-Sapir D 2017. Early marriage and barriers to contraception among Syrian refugee women in Lebanon: a qualitative study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Pub. Health 14:8836
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Collier P, Elliot VL, Hegre H, Hoeffler A, Reynal-Querol M, Sambanis N. 2003. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy Washington, DC/New York: World Bank/Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Crost B, Felter JH, Johnston PB. 2016. Conditional cash transfers, civil conflict and insurgent influence: experimental evidence from the Philippines. J. Dev. Econ. 118:171–82
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Currie J. 2009. Healthy, wealthy, and wise: socioeconomic status, poor health in childhood, and human capital development. J. Econ. Lit. 47:187–122
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Currie J, Almond D 2011. Human capital development before age five. In Handbook of Labor EconomicsVol. 4:Part Bed. D Card, O Ashenfelterpp. 1315486 Amsterdam: Elsevier
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Dabalen AL, Paul S 2014. Effect of conflict on dietary diversity: evidence from Côte d'Ivoire. World Dev. 58:143–58
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Deaton A. 1989. Household survey data and pricing policies in developing countries. World Bank Econ. Rev.3183–210
    [Google Scholar]
  45. de Onis M, Blössner M. 2003. The World Health Organization Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition: methodology and applications. Int. J. Epidemiol. 32:4518–26
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Dercon S, Gollin D. 2014. Agriculture in African development: theories and strategies. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ. 6:471–92
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Dercon S, Gutiérrez-Romero R. 2012. Triggers and characteristics of the 2007 Kenyan electoral violence. World Dev 40:4731–44
    [Google Scholar]
  48. de Ree J, Nillesen E. 2009. Aiding violence or peace? The impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Dev. Econ. 88:230113
    [Google Scholar]
  49. De Winne J, Peersman G. 2021. The impact of food prices on conflict revisited. J. Bus. Econ. Stat. 39:2547–60
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Di Maio M, Nandi TK. 2013. The effect of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict on child labor and school attendance in the West Bank. J. Dev. Econ. 100:1107–16
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Domingues P, Barre T. 2013. The health consequences of the Mozambican civil war: an anthropometric approach. Econ. Dev. Cult. Change 61:4755–88
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Dube O, Vargas J. 2013. Commodity price shocks and civil conflict: evidence from Colombia. Rev. Econ. Stud. 80:41384–421
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Dupas P, Robinson J 2010. Coping with political instability: micro evidence from Kenya's 2007 election crisis. Am. Econ. Rev. 100:2120–24
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Eklund L, Degerald M, Brandt M, Prishchepov AV, Pilesjö P. 2017. How conflict affects land use: agricultural activity in areas seized by the Islamic State. Env. Res. Lett. 12:5054004
    [Google Scholar]
  55. FAO (Food Agric. Organ.) 2006. Food security Policy Brief, Issue 2, June. https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/faoitaly/documents/pdf/pdf_Food_Security_Cocept_Note.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  56. FAO (Food Agric. Organ.), IFAD (Int. Fund Agric. Dev.), UNICEF (United Nations Child. Fund), WFP (World Food Progr.), WHO (World Health Organ.) 2017. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017. Building Resilience for Peace and Food Security Rome: FAO
    [Google Scholar]
  57. FAO (Food Agric. Organ.), IFAD (Int. Fund Agric. Dev.), UNICEF (United Nations Child. Fund), WFP (World Food Progr.), WHO (World Health Organ.) 2021. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021. Transforming Food Systems for Food Security, Improved Nutrition and Affordable Healthy Diets for All Rome: FAO
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Fjelde H. 2015. Farming or fighting? Agricultural price shocks and civil war in Africa. World Dev 67:525–34
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gil-Alana L, Singh P 2015. The impact of ethnic violence in Kenya on wheat and maize markets. J. Afr. Econ. 24:4502–29
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Gleditsch NP, Wallensteen P, Eriksson M, Sollenberg M, Strand H. 2002. Armed conflict 1946–2001: a new dataset. J. Peace Res. 39:5615–37
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Grimard F, Laszlo S. 2014. Long-term effects of civil conflict on women's health outcomes in Peru. World Dev 54:139–55
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hendrix C, Brinkman HJ. 2013. Food insecurity and conflict dynamics: causal linkages and complex feedbacks. Stab. Int. J. Sec. Dev. 2:226
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Holleman C, Jackson J, Sánchez MV, Vos R, eds. 2017. Sowing the Seeds of Peace for Food Security—Disentangling the Nexus Between Conflict, Food Security and Peace Rome: FAO
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Humphreys M, Weinstein J. 2006. Handling and manhandling civilians in civil war. Am. Political Sci. Rev. 100:6429–47
    [Google Scholar]
  65. IASC (Inter-Agency Standing Comm.) 1994. Definition of complex emergencies Rep., Inter-Agency Standing Comm. Geneva: https://interagencystandingcommittee.org/system/files/legacy_files/WG16_4.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Jakiela P, Ozier O. 2019. The impact of violence on individual risk preferences: evidence from a natural experiment. Rev. Econ. Stat. 101:3547–59
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Jun T. 2017. Temperature, maize yield, and civil conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. Clim. Change 142:183–97
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Khanna G, Zimmermann L. 2017. Guns and butter? Fighting violence with the promise of development. J. Dev. Econ. 124:120–41
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Kondylis F. 2008. Agricultural outputs and conflict displacement: evidence from a policy intervention in Rwanda. Econ. Dev. Cult. Change 57:131–66
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Kondylis F. 2010. Conflict displacement and labor market outcomes in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina. J. Dev. Econ. 93:2235–48
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Koren O. 2018. Food abundance and violent conflict in Africa. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 100:981–1006
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Koren O, Bagozzi BE. 2016. From global to local, food insecurity is associated with contemporary armed conflicts. Food Secur 8:5999–1010
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Mansour H, Rees DI. 2012. Armed conflict and birth weight: evidence from the Al-Aqsa Intifada. . J. Dev. Econ. 99:1190–99
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Martin-Shields CP, Stojetz W 2019. Food security and conflict: empirical challenges and future opportunities for research and policy making on food security and conflict. World Dev 119:150–64
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Masterson D, Lehmann MC. 2020. Refugees, mobilization, and humanitarian aid: evidence from the Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon. J. Confl. Resol. 64:5817–43
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Melnikov N, Schmidt-Padilla C, Sviatschi MM. 2020. Gangs, labor mobility and development NBER Work. Pap. 27832
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Messer E, Cohen MJ. 2007. Conflict, food insecurity and globalization. Food Cult. Soc. 10:2297–315
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Miguel E, Satyanath S, Sergenti E. 2004. Economic shocks and civil conflict: an instrumental variables approach. J. Political Econ. 112:4725–53
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Minoiu C, Shemyakina ON. 2014. Armed conflict, household victimization, and child health in Côte d'Ivoire. J. Dev. Econ. 108:237–55
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Nunn N, Qian N. 2014. U.S. food aid and civil conflict. Am. Econ. Rev. 104:61630–66
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Østby G, Shemyakina O, Tollefsen AF, Urdal H, Verpoorten M. 2021. Public health and armed conflict: immunization in times of systemic disruptions. Pop. Dev. Rev. 47:4114377
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Pettersson T, Davis S, Deniz A, Engström G, Hawach N et al. 2021. Organized violence 1989–2020, with a special emphasis on Syria. J. Peace Res. 58:4809–25
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Porter C, Santora N. 2021. Hours after Haiti's president is assassinated, 4 suspects are killed and 2 arrested. New York Times Sept. 14. https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/07/07/world/jovenel-moise-assassinated-killed
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Raleigh C, Choi HJ, Kniveton D. 2015. The devil is in the details: an investigation of the relationships between conflict, food price and climate across Africa. Glob. Environ. Change 32:187–99
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Raleigh C, Linke A, Hegre H, Karlsen J. 2010. Introducing ACLED: an armed conflict location and event dataset. J. Peace Res. 47:5651–60
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Rohner D, Thoenig M, Zilibotti F. 2013. Seeds of distrust: conflict in Uganda. J. Econ. Growth 18:3217–52
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Sanch-Maritan M, Vedrine L. 2019. Forced displacement and technology adoption: an empirical analysis based on agricultural households in Bosnia and Herzegovina. J. Dev. Stud. 55:61325–43
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Security Council Report 2018. March 2018 monthly forecast: conflict and hunger Feb. 28. https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/monthly-forecast/2018-03/conflict_and_hunger.php
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Serneels P, Verpoorten M. 2015. The impact of armed conflict on economic performance: evidence from Rwanda. J. Confl. Resol. 59:4555–92
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Shemyakina O. 2013. Patterns in female age at first marriage and Tajik armed conflict. Eur. J. Popul. 29:303–43
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Shemyakina O. 2015. Exploring the impact of conflict exposure during formative years on labour market outcomes in Tajikistan. J. Dev. Stud. 51:4422–46
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Shemyakina ON. 2021. Political violence, land reform and child health: results from Zimbabwe. Econ. Hum. Biol. 42:101010
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Suárez AR. 2000. Parasites and predators: guerrillas and the insurrection economy of Colombia. J. Int. Aff. 53:2577–601
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Theisen OM. 2012. Climate clashes? Weather variability, land pressure, and organized violence in Kenya, 1989–2004. J. Peace Res. 49:181–96
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Tranchant JP, Gelli A, Bliznashka L, Diallo AS, Sacko M et al. 2019. The impact of food assistance on food insecure populations during conflict: evidence from a quasi-experiment in Mali. World Dev 119:185–202
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Tranchant JP, Justino P, Müller C. 2020. Political violence, adverse shocks and child malnutrition: empirical evidence from Andhra Pradesh, India. Econ. Hum. Biol. 39:100900
    [Google Scholar]
  97. [Google Scholar]
  98. Verme P, Schuettler K. 2021. The impact of forced displacement on host communities: a review of the empirical literature in economics. J. Dev. Econ. 150:102606
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Verpoorten M. 2009. Cattle sales in war and peacetime: a study of household coping in Rwanda. 1991–2001. J. Dev. Econ. 88:67–86
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Verpoorten M. 2012. Detecting hidden violence: the spatial distribution of excess mortality in Rwanda. Political Geogr. 31:144–56
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Verwimp P. 2005. An economic profile of peasant perpetrators of genocide. J. Dev. Econ. 77:297–323
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Verwimp P. 2012. Undernutrition, subsequent risk of mortality and civil war in Burundi. Econ. Hum. Biol. 10:3221–31
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Weiss TG, Collins C. 2000. Humanitarian Challenges and Intervention Boulder, CO: Westview Press. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  104. WHO (World Health Organ.) 2021. Malnutrition in children Nutr. Landsc. Inf. Syst., WHO New York: https://www.who.int/data/nutrition/nlis/info/malnutrition-in-children
    [Google Scholar]
  105. World Bank 2011. World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development Washington, DC: World Bank
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111920-021918
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111920-021918
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error