1932

Abstract

C6 deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is catalyzed by a family of enzymes known as ADARs (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) encoded by three genes in mammals. Alternative promoters and splicing produce two ADAR1 proteins, an interferon-inducible cytoplasmic p150 and a constitutively expressed p110 that like ADAR2 is a nuclear enzyme. ADAR3 lacks deaminase activity. A-to-I editing occurs with both viral and cellular RNAs. Deamination activity is dependent on dsRNA substrate structure and regulatory RNA-binding proteins and ranges from highly site selective with hepatitis D RNA and glutamate receptor precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) to hyperediting of measles virus and polyomavirus transcripts and cellular inverted elements. Because I base-pairs as guanosine instead of A, editing can alter mRNA decoding, pre-mRNA splicing, and microRNA silencing. Editing also alters dsRNA structure, thereby suppressing innate immune responses including interferon production and action.

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2021-09-29
2024-04-22
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