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Abstract

Viruses of bacteria (bacteriophages or phage) have broad effects on bacterial ecology and evolution in nature that mediate microbial interactions, shape bacterial diversity, and influence nutrient cycling and ecosystem function. The unrelenting impact of phages within the microbial realm is the result, in large part, of their ability to rapidly evolve in response to bacterial host dynamics. The knowledge gained from laboratory systems, typically using pairwise interactions between single-host and single-phage systems, has made clear that phages coevolve with their bacterial hosts rapidly, somewhat predictably, and primarily by counteradapting to host resistance. Recent advancement in metagenomics approaches, as well as a shifting focus toward natural microbial communities and host-associated microbiomes, is beginning to uncover the full picture of phage evolution and ecology within more complex settings. As these data reach their full potential, it will be critical to ask when and how insights gained from studies of phage evolution in vitro can be meaningfully applied to understanding bacteria-phage interactions in nature. In this review, we explore the myriad ways that phagesshape and are themselves shaped by bacterial host populations and communities, with a particular focus on observed and predicted differences between the laboratory and complex microbial communities.

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2022-09-29
2024-04-24
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