1932

Abstract

Herpesviruses are ubiquitous and can cause disease in all classes of vertebrates but also in animals of lower taxa, including molluscs. It is generally accepted that herpesviruses are primarily species specific, although a species can be infected by different herpesviruses. Species specificity is thought to result from host-virus coevolutionary processes over the long term. Even with this general concept in mind, investigators have recognized interspecies transmission of several members of the family, often with fatal outcomes in non-definitive hosts—that is, animals that have no or only a limited role in virus transmission. We here summarize herpesvirus infections in wild mammals that in many cases are endangered, in both natural and captive settings. Some infections result from herpesviruses that are endemic in the species that is primarily affected, and some result from herpesviruses that cause fatal disease after infection of non-definitive hosts. We discuss the challenges of such infections in several endangered species in the absence of efficient immunization or therapeutic options.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043227
2018-09-29
2024-06-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/virology/5/1/annurev-virology-092917-043227.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043227&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.  McGeoch DJ, Cook S, Dolan A, Jamieson FE, Telford EA 1995. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary timescale for the family of mammalian herpesviruses. J. Mol. Biol. 247:443–58
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.  Calisher CH, Childs JE, Field HE, Holmes KV, Schountz T 2006. Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19:531–45
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.  Escalera-Zamudio M, Rojas-Anaya E, Kolokotronis SO, Taboada B, Loza-Rubio E et al. 2016. Bats, primates, and the evolutionary origins and diversification of mammalian gammaherpesviruses. mBio 7:e01423–16
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.  Benson PM, Malane SL, Banks R, Hicks CB, Hilliard J 1989. B virus (Herpesvirus simiae) and human infection. Arch. Dermatol. 125:1247–48
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5.  Evans TS, Lowenstine LJ, Gilardi KV, Barry PA, Ssebide BJ et al. 2017. Mountain gorilla lymphocryptovirus has Epstein-Barr virus-like epidemiology and pathology in infants. Sci. Rep. 7:5352
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.  Jánoska M, Vidovszky M, Molnár V, Liptovszky M, Harrach B, Benkő M 2011. Novel adenoviruses and herpesviruses detected in bats. Vet. J. 189:118–21
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7.  Chiou SH, Chow KC, Yang CH, Chiang SF, Lin CH 2005. Discovery of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA signal and EBV nuclear antigen leader protein DNA sequence in pet dogs. J. Gen. Virol. 86:899–905
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.  Ehlers B, Dural G, Yasmum N, Lembo T, de Thoisy B et al. 2008. Novel mammalian herpesviruses and lineages within the Gammaherpesvirinae: cospeciation and interspecies transfer. J. Virol. 82:3509–16
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.  Bridgen A, Reid H 1991. Derivation of a DNA clone corresponding to the viral agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever. Res. Vet. Sci. 50:38–44
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.  Stahel AB, Baggenstos R, Engels M, Friess M, Ackermann M 2013. Two different macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species. PLOS ONE 8:e83695
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.  Chmielewicz B, Goltz M, Ehlers B 2001. Detection and multigenic characterization of a novel gammaherpesvirus in goats. Virus Res 75:87–94
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.  Brown C, Bloss L 1992. An epizootic of malignant catarrhal fever in a large captive herd of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J. Wildl. Dis. 28:301–5
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.  Schultheiss PC, Collins JK, Spraker TR, DeMartini JC 2000. Epizootic malignant catarrhal fever in three bison herds: differences from cattle and association with ovine herpesvirus-2. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 12:497–502
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.  Albini S, Zimmermann W, Neff F, Ehlers B, Häni H et al. 2003. Identification and quantification of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in fresh and stored tissues of pigs with symptoms of porcine malignant catarrhal fever. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:900–4
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.  Geoghegan JL, Duchêne S, Holmes EC 2017. Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families. PLOS Pathog 13:e1006215
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16.  Tischer BK, Osterrieder N 2010. Herpesviruses—a zoonotic threat?. Vet. Microbiol. 140:266–70
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17.  Brush LA, Black DH, McCormack KA, Maxwell LK, Wright G et al. 2014. Papiine herpesvirus 2 as a predictive model for drug sensitivity of Macacine herpesvirus 1 (monkey B virus). Comp. Med. 64:386–93
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18.  Engel GA, Jones-Engel L, Schillaci MA, Suaryana KG, Putra A et al. 2002. Human exposure to herpesvirus B–seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:789
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19.  Huff JL, Barry PA 2003. B-virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) infection in humans and macaques: potential for zoonotic disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:246
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20.  Murthy S, Couacy-Hymann E, Metzger S, Nowak K, De Nys H et al. 2013. Absence of frequent herpesvirus transmission in a nonhuman primate predator-prey system in the wild. J. Virol. 87:10651–59
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21.  Heldstab A, Rüedi D, Sonnabend W, Deinhardt F 1981. Spontaneous generalized Herpesvirus hominis infection of a lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J. Med. Primatol. 10:129–35
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22.  Gilardi KV, Oxford KL, Gardner-Roberts D, Kinani JF, Spelman L et al. 2014. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20:1883
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23.  Kik MJ, Bos JH, Groen J, Dorrestein GM 2005. Herpes simplex infection in a juvenile orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 36:131–34
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24.  Landolfi JA, Wellehan JF, Johnson AJ, Kinsel MJ 2005. Fatal human herpesvirus type 1 infection in a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 17:369–71
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25.  Barnes KJ, Garner MM, Wise AG, Persiani M, Maes RK, Kiupel M 2016. Herpes simplex encephalitis in a captive black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya). J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 28:76–78
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26.  Casagrande RA, Pannuti CS, Kanamura C, Freire WS, Grespan A, Matushima ER 2014. Fatal Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) infection in captive marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata) in Brazil: clinical and pathological characterization. Pesqui. Vet. Bras. 34:1109–14
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27.  Costa ÉA, Luppi MM, de Campos Cordeiro Malta M, Luiz APMF, De Araujo MR et al. 2011. Outbreak of human herpesvirus type 1 infection in nonhuman primates (Callithrix penincillata). J. Wildl. Dis. 47:690–93
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28.  Mätz-Rensing K, Jentsch K, Rensing S, Langenhuyzen S, Verschoor E et al. 2003. Fatal herpes simplex infection in a group of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Vet. Pathol. 40:405–11
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29.  Lapid R, Eshar D 2017. Fatal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in a group of zoo-kept white-faced saki monkeys (Pithecia pithecia) in Israel. Israel J. Vet. Med. 72:2
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.  Imura K, Chambers JK, Uchida K, Nomura S, Suzuki S et al. 2014. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in two pet marmosets in Japan. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 76:1667–70
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31.  Wohlsein P, Thiele A, Fehr M, Haas L, Henneicke K et al. 2002. Spontaneous human herpes virus type 1 infection in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera f. dom.). Acta Neuropathol 104:674–78
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32.  Benson KAS, Manire CA, Ewing RY, Saliki JT, Townsend FI et al. 2006. Identification of novel alpha- and gammaherpesviruses from cutaneous and mucosal lesions of dolphins and whales. J. Virol. Methods 136:261–66
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33.  Wertheim JO, Smith MD, Smith DM, Scheffler K, Kosakovsky Pond SL 2014. Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2. Mol. Biol. Evol. 31:2356–64
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34.  Severini A, Tyler SD, Peters GA, Black D, Eberle R 2013. Genome sequence of a chimpanzee herpesvirus and its relation to other primate alphaherpesviruses. Arch. Virol. 158:1825–28
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35.  Razafindratsimandresy R, Jeanmaire EM, Counor D, Vasconcelos PF, Reynes JM 2009. Partial molecular characterization of alphaherpesviruses isolated from tropical bats. J. Gen. Virol. 90:44–47
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36.  Felsenfeld AD, Schmidt NJ 1979. Varicella-zoster virus immunizes patas monkeys against simian varicella-like disease. J. Gen. Virol. 42:171–78
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37.  Gray WL, Pumphrey CY, Ruyechan WT, Fletcher TM 1992. The simian varicella virus and varicella zoster virus genomes are similar in size and structure. Virology 186:562–72
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38.  Grose C 2012. Pangaea and the out-of-Africa model of varicella-zoster virus evolution and phylogeography. J. Virol. 86:9558–65
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39.  Greenwood AD, Tsangaras K, Ho SY, Szentiks CA, Nikolin VM et al. 2012. A potentially fatal mix of herpes in zoos. Curr. Biol. 22:1727–31
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40.  Ma G, Azab W, Osterrieder N 2013. Equine herpesviruses type 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4)—masters of co-evolution and a constant threat to equids and beyond. Vet. Microbiol. 167:123–34
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41.  Thiry J, Keuser V, Muylkens B, Meurens F, Gogev S et al. 2006. Ruminant alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1. Vet. Res. 37:169–90
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.  Six A, Banks M, Engels M, Bascuñana CR, Ackermann M 2001. Latency and reactivation of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in goats and of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CapHV-1) in calves. Arch. Virol. 146:1325–35
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43.  Ek-Kommonen C, Veijalainen P, Rantala M, Neuvonen E 1982. Neutralizing antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1 in reindeer. Acta Vet. Scand. 23:565
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44.  Ek-Kommonen C 1986. Isolation of a herpesvirus serologically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 from a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Acta Vet. Scand. 27:299–301
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.  Thiry J, Widén F, Grégoire F, Linden A, Belák S, Thiry E 2007. Isolation and characterisation of a ruminant alphaherpesvirus closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a free-ranging red deer. BMC Vet. Res. 3:26
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46.  Thiry E, Vercouter M, Dubuisson J, Barrat J, Sepulchre C et al. 1988. Serological survey of herpesvirus infections in wild ruminants of France and Belgium. J. Wildl. Dis. 24:268–73
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47.  Plowright W, Jessett D 1971. Investigations of Allerton-type herpes virus infection in East African game animals and cattle. Epidemiol. Infect. 69:209–22
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48.  Hamblin C, Hedger R 1982. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 2 in African wildlife. J. Wildl. Dis. 18:429–36
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.  Sterz H, Ludwig H, Rott R 1973. Immunologic and genetic relationship between herpes simplex virus and bovine herpes mammillitis virus. Intervirology 2:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50.  Ehlers B, Goltz M, Ejercito MP, Dasika GK, Letchworth GJ 1999. Bovine herpesvirus type 2 is closely related to the primate alphaherpesviruses. Virus Genes 19:197–203
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.  Lillehaug A, Vikøren T, Larsen IL, Åkerstedt J, Tharaldsen J, Handeland K 2003. Antibodies to ruminant alpha-herpesviruses and pestiviruses in Norwegian cervids. J. Wildl. Dis. 39:779–86
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52.  Inglis D, Bowie J, Allan M, Nettleton P 1983. Ocular disease in red deer calves associated with a herpesvirus infection. Vet. Rec. 113:182–83
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.  Lyaku J, Vilcek S, Nettleton P, Marsden H 1996. The distinction of serologically related ruminant alphaherpesviruses by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction endonuclease analysis. Vet. Microbiol. 48:135–42
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54.  Engels M, Palatini M, Metzler AE, Probst U, Kihm U, Ackermann M 1992. Interactions of bovine and caprine herpesviruses with the natural and the foreign hosts. Vet. Microbiol. 33:69–78
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55.  Frölich K, Thiede S, Kozikowski T, Jakob W 2002. A review of mutual transmission of important infectious diseases between livestock and wildlife in Europe. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 969:4–13
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56.  Müller T, Junghans D, Zellmer R, Krupp B, Kramer M et al. 1996. Occurrence of pseudorabies virus (Aujeszky's disease) infections in European wild boar in easternGermany. Paper presented at the 2nd Conference of the European Wildlife Disease Association
  57. 57.  Marcaccini A, Peña ML, Quiroga MI, Bermúdez R, Nieto JM, Alemañ N 2008. Pseudorabies virus infection in mink: a host-specific pathogenesis. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 124:264–73
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58.  Glass CM, McLean RG, Katz JB, Maehr DS, Cropp CB et al. 1994. Isolation of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus from a Florida panther. J. Wildl. Dis. 30:180–84
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59.  Kanitz FA, Cargnelutti JF, Anziliero D, Gonçalves KV, Masuda EK et al. 2015. Respiratory and neurological disease in rabbits experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1. Microb. Pathog. 87:45–50
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60.  Baxi M, Borchers K, Bartels T, Schellenbach A, Baxi S, Field H 1996. Molecular studies of the acute infection, latency and reactivation of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) in the mouse model. Virus Res 40:33–45
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61.  Stokes A, Allen G, Pullen L, Murray PK 1989. A hamster model of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection; passive protection by monoclonal antibodies to EHV-1 glycoproteins 13, 14 and 17/18. J. Gen. Virol. 70:1173–83
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62.  Mori CMC, Mori E, Favaro L, Santos C, Lara M et al. 2012. Equid herpesvirus type-1 exhibits neurotropism and neurovirulence in a mouse model. J. Comp. Pathol. 146:202–10
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63.  El-Nahass E, El-Dakhly KM, El-Habashi N, Anwar SI, Sakai H et al. 2014. Susceptibility of BALB/c-nu/nu mice and BALB/c mice to equine herpesvirus 9 infection. Vet. Pathol. 51:581–90
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64.  El-Habashi N, El-Nahass ES, Namihira Y, Hagiwara H, Fukushi H et al. 2011. Neuropathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 9 in cattle. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 31:72–77
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65.  El-Habashi N, El-Nahass ES, Fukushi H, Hibi D, Sakai H et al. 2010. Experimental intranasal infection of equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) in suckling hamsters: kinetics of viral transmission and inflammation in the nasal cavity and brain. J. Neurovirol. 16:242–48
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66.  Yanai T, Fujishima N, Fukushi H, Hirata A, Sakai H, Masegi T 2003. Experimental infection of equine herpesvirus 9 in dogs. Vet. Pathol. 40:263–67
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.  Yanai T, Tujioka S, Sakai H, Fukushi H, Hirai K, Masegi T 2003. Experimental infection with equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) in cats. J. Comp. Pathol. 128:113–18
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68.  Taniguchi A, Fukushi H, Yanai T, Masegi T, Yamaguchi T, Hirai K 2000. Equine herpesvirus 9 induced lethal encephalomyelitis in experimentally infected goats. Arch. Virol. 145:2619–27
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69.  Narita M, Uchimura A, Kawanabe M, Fukushi H, Hirai K 2001. Invasion and spread of equine herpesvirus 9 in the olfactory pathway of pigs after intranasal inoculation. J. Comp. Pathol. 124:265–72
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70.  Narita M, Uchimura A, Kimura K, Tanimura N, Yanai T et al. 2000. Brain lesions and transmission of experimental equine herpesvirus type 9 in pigs. Vet. Pathol. 37:476–79
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71.  Kodama A, Yanai T, Kubo M, El‐Habashi N, Kasem S et al. 2011. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) may not become infected with equine herpesvirus 9. J. Med. Primatol. 40:18–20
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72.  Kodama A, Yanai T, Yomemaru K, Sakai H, Masegi T et al. 2007. Acute neuropathogenicity with experimental infection of equine herpesvirus 9 in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). J. Med. Primatol. 36:335–42
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73.  Wohlsein P, Lehmbecker A, Spitzbarth I, Algermissen D, Baumgärtner W et al. 2011. Fatal epizootic equine herpesvirus 1 infections in new and unnatural hosts. Vet. Microbiol. 149:456–60
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74.  Fischer-Tenhagen C, Hamblin C, Quandt S, Frölich K 2000. Serosurvey for selected infectious disease agents in free-ranging black and white rhinoceros in Africa. J. Wildl. Dis. 36:316–23
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75.  Yanai T, Sakai T, Fukushi H, Hirai K, Narita M et al. 1998. Neuropathological study of gazelle herpesvirus 1 (equine herpesvirus 9) infection in Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni). J. Comp. Pathol. 119:159–68
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76.  Donovan T, Schrenzel M, Tucker T, Pessier A, Bicknese B et al. 2009. Meningoencephalitis in a polar bear caused by equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9). Vet. Pathol. 46:1138–43
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77.  House JA, Gregg DA, Lubroth J, Dubovi EJ, Torres A 1991. Experimental equine herpesvirus-l infection in llamas (Lama glama). J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 3:137–43
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78.  Kennedy MA, Ramsay E, Diderrich V, Richman L, Allen G, Potgieter LN 1996. Encephalitis associated with a variant of equine herpesvirus 1 in a Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsoni). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 27:533–38
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79.  Abdelgawad A, Azab W, Damiani AM, Baumgartner K, Will H et al. 2014. Zebra-borne equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in non-African captive mammals. Vet. Microbiol. 169:102–6
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80.  Kasem S, Yamada S, Kiupel M, Woodruff M, Ohya K, Fukushi H 2008. Equine herpesvirus type 9 in giraffe with encephalitis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:1948
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81.  Dayaram A, Franz M, Schattschneider A, Damiani AM, Bischofberger S et al. 2017. Long term stability and infectivity of herpesviruses in water. Sci. Rep. 7:46559
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82.  Powers C, Früh K 2008. Rhesus CMV: an emerging animal model for human CMV. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 197:109–15
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83.  McGeoch DJ, Cook S, Dolan A, Jamieson FE, Telford EA 1995. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary timescale for the family of mammalian herpesviruses. J. Mol. Biol. 247:443–58
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84.  Davison AJ, Dolan A, Akter P, Addison C, Dargan DJ et al. 2003. The human cytomegalovirus genome revisited: comparison with the chimpanzee cytomegalovirus genome. J. Gen. Virol. 84:17–28
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85.  Hansen SG, Strelow LI, Franchi DC, Anders DG, Wong SW 2003. Complete sequence and genomic analysis of rhesus cytomegalovirus. J. Virol. 77:6620–36
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86.  Richman LK, Montali RJ, Garber RL, Kennedy MA, Lehnhardt J et al. 1999. Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. Science 283:1171–76
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87.  Foley NM, Springer MS, Teeling EC 2016. Mammal madness: Is the mammal tree of life not yet resolved?. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:20150140
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88.  Svartman M, Stanyon R 2012. The chromosomes of Afrotheria and their bearing on mammalian genome evolution. Cytogenet. Genome Res. 137:144–53
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89.  Davison AJ, Eberle R, Ehlers B, Hayward GS, McGeoch DJ et al. 2009. The order Herpesvirales. Arch. . Virol 154:171–77
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90.  Latimer E, Zong JC, Heaggans SY, Richman LK, Hayward GS 2011. Detection and evaluation of novel herpesviruses in routine and pathological samples from Asian and African elephants: identification of two new probosciviruses (EEHV5 and EEHV6) and two new gammaherpesviruses (EGHV3B and EGHV5). Vet. Microbiol. 147:28–41
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91.  Wellehan JFX, Johnson AJ, Childress AL, Harr KE, Isaza R 2008. Six novel gammaherpesviruses of Afrotheria provide insight into the early divergence of the Gammaherpesvirinae. Vet. Microbiol. 127:249–57
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92.  Long SY, Latimer EM, Hayward GS 2016. Review of elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses and acute hemorrhagic disease. ILAR J 56:283–96
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93.  Hardman K, Dastjerdi A, Gurrala R, Routh A, Banks M et al. 2012. Detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus type 1 in asymptomatic elephants using TaqMan real-time PCR. Vet. Rec. 170:205
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94.  Stanton JJ, Nofs SA, Zachariah A, Kalaivannan N, Ling PD 2014. Detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus infection among healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in South India. J. Wildl. Dis. 50:279–87
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95.  Stanton JJ, Zong JC, Latimer E, Tan J, Herron A et al. 2010. Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. Am. J. Vet. Res. 71:925–33
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96.  Zong JC, Heaggans SY, Long SY, Latimer EM, Nofs SA et al. 2015. Detection of quiescent infections with multiple elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs), including EEHV2, EEHV3, EEHV6, and EEHV7, within lymphoid lung nodules or lung and spleen tissue samples from five asymptomatic adult African elephants. J. Virol. 90:3028–43
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97.  Zachariah A, Zong JC, Long SY, Latimer EM, Heaggans SY et al. 2013. Fatal herpesvirus hemorrhagic disease in wild and orphan Asian elephants in southern India. J. Wildl. Dis. 49:381–93
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98.  Bouchard B, Xaymountry B, Thongtip N, Lertwatcharasarakul P, Wajjwalku W 2014. First reported case of elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus infection in Laos. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 45:704–7
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99.  Azab W, Damiani AM, Ochs A, Osterrieder N 2018. Subclinical infection of a young captive Asian elephant with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1. Arch. Virol. 163:495–500
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100.  Bronson E, McClure M, Sohl J, Wiedner E, Cox S et al. 2017. Epidemiologic evaluation of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 3b infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 48:335–43
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101.  Ling PD, Long SY, Zong JC, Heaggans SY, Qin X, Hayward GS 2016. Comparison of the gene coding contents and other unusual features of the GC-rich and AT-rich branch probosciviruses. mSphere 1:e00091–16
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102.  Mandl JN, Ahmed R, Barreiro LB, Daszak P, Epstein JH et al. 2015. Reservoir host immune responses to emerging zoonotic viruses. Cell 160:20–35
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103.  Wibbelt G, Kurth A, Yasmum N, Bannert M, Nagel S et al. 2007. Discovery of herpesviruses in bats. J. Gen. Virol. 88:2651
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104.  Watanabe S, Maeda K, Suzuki K, Ueda N, Iha K et al. 2010. Novel betaherpesvirus in bats. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16:986
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105.  Darai G, Flügel R, Matz B, Delius H 1981. DNA of tupaia herpesviruses. Herpesvirus DNA Y Becker 345–61 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106.  Pozo F, Juste J, Vázquez-Morón S, Aznar-López C, Ibáñez C et al. 2016. Identification of novel betaherpesviruses in Iberian bats reveals parallel evolution. PLOS ONE 11:e0169153
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043227
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-virology-092917-043227
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error