The repertoire of herpesvirus receptors consists of nonintegrin and integrin molecules. Integrins interact with the conserved glycoproteins gH/gL or gB. This interaction is a conserved biology across the family, likely directed to promote virus entry and endocytosis. Herpesviruses exploit this interaction to execute a range of critical functions that include () relocation of nonintegrin receptors (e.g., herpes simplex virus nectin1 and Kaposi's sarcoma–associated herpesvirus EphA2), or association with nonintegrin receptors (i.e., human cytomegalovirus EGFR), to dictate species-specific entry pathways; () activation of multiple signaling pathways (e.g., Ca2+ release, c-Src, FAK, MAPK, and PI3K); and () association with Rho GTPases, tyrosine kinase receptors, Toll-like receptors, which result in cytoskeletal remodeling, differential cell type targeting, and innate responses. In turn, integrins can be modulated by viral proteins (e.g., Epstein-Barr virus LMPs) to favor spread of transformed cells. We propose that herpesviruses evolved a multipartite entry system to allow interaction with multiple receptors, including integrins, required for their sophisticated life cycle.

Keyword(s): EBVHCMVHSVintegrinsKSHVsignal transduction

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