Morphological and molecular analyses resolve many aspects of vascular plant phylogeny, though others remain uncertain. Vascular plants are nested within bryophytes; lycopsids and zosterophylls are one branch of crown-group vascular plants, and euphyllophytes (, sphenopsids, ferns, seed plants) are the other. In Filicales, Osmundaceae are basal; water ferns and Polypodiaceae sensu lato are both monophyletic. Seed plants are nested within progymnosperms, and coniferophytes are nested within platyspermic seed ferns. Morphology indicates that angiosperms and Gnetales are related, but detailed scenarios depend on uncertain relationships of fossils; molecular data are inconsistent but indicate that both groups are monophyletic. , Nymphaeales, , and Illiciales appear basal in angiosperms. Groups with tricolpate pollen form a clade (eudicots), with ranunculids and lower hamamelids basal. Most eudicots belong to the rosid and asterid lines, with higher hamamelids in the rosid line and dilleniids scattered in both. Alismids, Arales, and are basal in monocots; palms are linked with Commelinidae.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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