Nonimmune glomerulopathies are an area of significant research. This review discusses the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with particular attention to the role of the podocyte in the initiation of glomerulosclerosis and the contribution to glomerulosclerosis from capillary hypertension and soluble factors such as transforming growth factor beta, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and angiotensin. The effects of these factors on endothelial and mesangial cells are also discussed. In addition, we review our current understanding of the slit diaphragm (a specialized cell junction found in the kidney), slit diaphragm–associated proteins (including nephrin, podocin, α-actinin-4, CD2-associated protein, and transient receptor potential channel 6), and the role of these proteins in glomerular disease. We also discuss the most recent research on the pathogenesis of collapsing glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy, Denys-Drash, diabetic nephropathy, Alport syndrome, and other diseases related to the interaction between the podocyte and the glomerular basement membrane.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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