Despite elaborate characterization of the risk factors, bladder cancer is still a major epidemiological problem whose incidence continues to rise each year. Urothelial carcinoma is now recognized as a disease of alterations in several cellular processes. The more prevalent, less aggressive, recurrent, noninvasive tumors are characterized by constitutive activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The less common but more aggressive invasive tumors, which have a higher mortality rate, are characterized by alterations in the p53 and retinoblastoma pathways. Several diagnostic tests have attempted to identify these molecular alterations in tumor cells exfoliated in the urine, whereas prognostic tests have tried to identify aberrations so as to predict tumor behavior and identify therapeutic targets. The future of bladder cancer patient management will rely on the use of molecular tests to reliably diagnose the presence of disease, predict individual tumor behavior, and suggest potential targeted therapeutics.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error