Infection with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and respiratory papillomas. Two prophylactic vaccines (a bivalent and a quadrivalent vaccine) are now licensed and currently in use in a number of countries. Both vaccines prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which together cause ∼70% of cervical cancers, and clinical trials have demonstrated 90%–100% efficacy in preventing precancerous cervical lesions attributable to HPV-16 and HPV-18. One vaccine also prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause 90% of genital warts. A growing literature describes psychosocial, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors that influence HPV vaccination acceptability. This review summarizes the current literature and presents an integrated perspective, taking into account these diverse influences. The resulting integrated framework can be used as a heuristic tool for organizing factors at multiple levels to guide intervention development and future research.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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