▪ Abstract 

Clinical trials show that hormone therapy (HT) is an effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness. HT improves other symptoms including sleep and quality of life in women who have menopause symptoms. In the Women's Health Initiative controlled clinical trials, both estrogen therapy (ET) and estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) reduced fracture risk, neither reduced the risk of heart disease, and both increased the risk of stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and dementia. EPT, but not ET, increased breast cancer risk and reduced colon cancer risk. Differences between EPT and ET may reflect chance, baseline differences between the EPT and ET cohorts, or a progestin effect. Studies of younger women and lower HT doses with intermediate endpoints are beginning.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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