1932

Abstract

Heat is an environmental and occupational hazard. The prevention of deaths in the community caused by extreme high temperatures (heat waves) is now an issue of public health concern. The risk of heat-related mortality increases with natural aging, but persons with particular social and/or physical vulnerability are also at risk. Important differences in vulnerability exist between populations, depending on climate, culture, infrastructure (housing), and other factors. Public health measures include health promotion and heat wave warning systems, but the effectiveness of acute measures in response to heat waves has not yet been formally evaluated. Climate change will increase the frequency and the intensity of heat waves, and a range of measures, including improvements to housing, management of chronic diseases, and institutional care of the elderly and the vulnerable, will need to be developed to reduce health impacts.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090843
2008-04-21
2024-05-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/pu/29/1/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090843.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090843&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abenheim L. 1.  2005. Lessons from the heat wave epidemic in France (Summer 2003). See Ref. 45 pp.161–66
  2. Armstrong B. 2.  2003. Fixed factors that modify the effects of time-varying factors: applying the case only approach. Epidemiology 14:467–72 [Google Scholar]
  3. Armstrong B. 3.  2006. Models for the relationship between ambient temperature and daily mortality. Epidemiology 17:624–31 [Google Scholar]
  4. Basu R, Dominici F, Samet JM. 4.  2005. Temperature and mortality among the elderly in the United States: a comparison of epidemiological methods. Epidemiology 16:58–66 [Google Scholar]
  5. Belmin J, Auffray J-C, Berbezier C, Boirin P, Mercier S et al.5.  2007. Level of dependency: a simple marker associated with mortality during the 2003 heatwave among French dependent elderly people living in the community or in institutions. Age Ageing 36:298–303 [Google Scholar]
  6. Borrell C, Marí-Dell'Olmo M, Rodríguez-Sans M, Garcia-Olalla P, Caylà JA et al.6.  2006. Socio-economic position and excess mortality during the heat wave of 2003 in Barcelona. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 21:633–40 [Google Scholar]
  7. Braga ALF, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. 7.  2001. The time course of weather-related deaths. Epidemiology 12:662–67 [Google Scholar]
  8. Braga ALF, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. 8.  2002. The effect of weather on respiratory and cardiovascular deaths in 12 US cities. Environ. Health Perspect. 110:859–63 [Google Scholar]
  9. Burse RL. 9.  1979. Sex differences in human thermoregulatory response to heat and cold stress. Hum. Factors 21:687–99 [Google Scholar]
  10. Cajoto VI, Peromingo JA, Vicdeo GV, Leira JS, Frojan S. 10.  2005. Health impact of 2003 heat wave at Hospital de Riveira (A Coruña). An. Med. Int. 22:15–20 [Google Scholar]
  11. Canoui-Poitrine F, Cadot E, Spira A. 11.  Groupe Rég. Canicule 2006. Excess deaths during the August 2003 heatwave in Paris, France. Rev. Epidemiol. Sante Publique 54:127–35 [Google Scholar]
  12. Carson C, Hajat S, Armstrong B, Wilkinson P. 12.  2006. Declining vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in London over the twentieth century. Am. J. Epidemiol. 164:77–84 [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. Cent. Dis. Control (CDC) 2006. Heat-related deaths—United States, 1999–2003. MMWR 55:769–98 [Google Scholar]
  14. Curriero FC, Heiner KS, Samet JM, Zeger SL, Strug L, Patz JA. 14.  2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155:80–87 [Google Scholar]
  15. Delarozière JC, Sanmarco JL. 15.  2004. Excess mortality in people over 65 years old during summer heat waves in Marseille. Comparison before and after preventive campaign. Presse Med. 33:13–16 [Google Scholar]
  16. Dematte JE, O'Mara K, Buescher J, Whitney CG, Forsythe S et al.16.  1998. Near-fatal heat stroke during the 1995 heat wave in Chicago. Ann. Intern. Med. 129:173–81 [Google Scholar]
  17. Dixit SN, Bushara KO, Brooks BR. 17.  1997. Epidemic heat stroke in a midwest community: risk factors, neurological complications and sequelae. Wis. Med. J. 96:39–41 [Google Scholar]
  18. Donaldson GC, Keatinge WR, Nayha S. 18.  2003. Changes in summer temperature and heat-related mortality since 1971 in North Carolina, South Finland, and Southeast England. Environ. Res. 91:1–7 [Google Scholar]
  19. Ellis F. 19.  1976. Heat wave deaths and drugs affecting temperature regulation. Br. Med. J. 2:474 [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. Emerg. Manag. Aust. (EMA) 2002. EMA Disaster Events Data Tracking System (EMATrack) http://www.ema.gov.au/
  21. Empereur-Bissonnet P, Salines G, Bérat B, Caillère N, Josseran L. 21.  2006. Heatwave in France, July 2006: 112 excess deaths so far attributed to the heat. Eurosurveillance 11:E060803.3 [Google Scholar]
  22. Farrington CP, Whitaker HJ. 22.  2006. Semiparametric analysis of case series data. Appl. Stat. 55:553–94 [Google Scholar]
  23. Flynn A, McGreevy C, Mulkerrin EC. 23.  2005. Why do older patients die in a heatwave?. QJM 98:227–29 [Google Scholar]
  24. Fouillet A, Rey G, Laurent F, Pavillon G, Bellec S et al.24.  2006. Excess mortality related to the August 2003 heat wave in France.. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 80:16–24 [Google Scholar]
  25. Garcia AC, Nogueira PJ, Falcao JM. 25.  1999. Onda de calor de Junho de 1981 em Portugal: efeitos na mortalidade. Rev. Port. Saude Pública 1:67–77 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gouveia N, Hajat S, Armstrong B. 26.  2003. Socio-economic differentials in the temperature-mortality relationship in São Paulo, Brazil.. Int. J. Epidemiol. 32:390–97 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gremy I, Lefranc A, Pepin P. 27.  2004. Consequences sanitaire de la canicule d'aout 2003 en Ile-de-France [Impact of the August 2003 heat wave: sanitary consequences in Ile-de-France]. Rev. Epidemiol. Sante Publique 52:93–98 [Google Scholar]
  28. Grundy E. 28.  2006. Ageing and vulnerable elderly people: European perspectives. Ageing Soc. 26:105–34 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hajat S, Armstrong B, Baccini M, Biggeri A, Bisanti L et al.29.  2006. Impact of high temperatures on mortality: Is there an added “heat wave” effect?. Epidemiology 17:632–38 [Google Scholar]
  30. Hajat S, Armstrong B, Gouveia N, Wilkinson P. 30.  2005. Mortality displacement of heat-related deaths: a comparison of Delhi, São Paulo and London. Epidemiology 16:613–20 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hajat S, Kovats RS, Lachowycz K. 31.  2007. Heat-related and cold-related deaths in England and Wales: Who is at risk?. Occup. Environ. Med. 64:93–100 [Google Scholar]
  32. Havenith G. 32.  2005. Temperature, heat balance, and climatic stress. See Ref. 45, pp. 70–80
  33. Hémon D, Jougla E. 33.  2004. La canicule du mois d'aout 2003 en France. Rev. Epidemiol. Sante Publique 52:3–5 [Google Scholar]
  34. Holstein J, Canoui-Poitrine F, Neumann A, Lepage E, Spira A. 34.  2005. Were less disabled patients the most affected by 2003 heatwave in nursing homes in Paris, France?. J. Public Health 27:359–65 [Google Scholar]
  35. 35. Intergov. Panel Clim. Change (IPCC) 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  36. Johnson H, Kovats RS, McGregor GR, Stedman JR, Gibbs M et al.36.  2005. The impact of the 2003 heatwave on mortality and hospital admissions in England. Health Stat. Q. 2005:6–11 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kaiser R, Le Tertre A, Schwartz J, Gotway C, Daley R, Rubin CH. 37.  2007. The effect of the 1995 heatwave in Chicago on all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Am. J. Public Health 97:S158–62 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kosatsky T, Litvak E, Analitis A, Katsouyanni K, Menne B, Penteli X. 38.  2007.. The independent and synergistic short-term effects of temperature and air pollution on health: review of the evidence. In Preparedness and Response to Heat-Waves in Europe: From Evidence to Actioned. B Menne, F Matthies Copenhagen: World Health Org In press [Google Scholar]
  39. Katsouyanni K, Trichopoulos D, Zavitsanos X, Touloumi G. 39.  1988. The 1987 Athens heatwave. Lancet 2:573 [Google Scholar]
  40. Katsouyanni K, Zmirou D, Spix C, Sunyer J, Schouten JP et al.40.  1995. Short-term effects of air pollution on health: a European approach using epidemiological time-series data. The APHEA project: background, objectives, design. Eur. Respir. J. 8:1030–38 [Google Scholar]
  41. Keatinge WR, Donaldson GC, Cordioli E, Martinelli M, Kunst AE et al.41.  2000. Heat-related mortality in warm and cold regions of Europe: an observational study. Br. Med. J. 321:670–73 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kilbourne EM. 42.  1997. Heat waves and hot environments. In The Public Health Consequences of Disastersed. E Noji pp.245–69 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  43. Kilbourne EM. 43.  1992. Illness due to thermal extremes. In Public Health and Preventative Medicineed. JM Last, RB Wallace pp.491–501 Norwalk, CT: Appleton Lang [Google Scholar]
  44. Kilbourne EM, Choi K, Jones TS, Thacker SB. 44.  1982. Risk factors for heatstroke. A case-control study. JAMA 247:3332–36 [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.  Kirch W, Menne B, Bertollini R. eds. 2005. Extreme Weather Events and Public Health Responses Berlin: Springer-Verlag
  46. Klinenberg E. 46.  2002. Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  47. Koppe C, Jendritzky G, Kovats RS, Menne B. 47.  2003. Heatwaves: Impacts and Responses Copenhagen: WHO
  48. Kosatsky T. 48.  2005. The 2003 European heat waves. Eurosurveillance 10:148–49 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kosatsky T, King N, Henry B. 49.  2005. How Toronto and Montreal (Canada) respond to heat. See Ref. 45 pp.167–71
  50. Kovats RS, Ebi KL. 50.  2006. Heatwaves and public health in Europe. Eur. J. Public Health 16:592–99 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kovats RS, Hajat S, Wilkinson P. 51.  2004. Contrasting patterns of mortality and hospital admissions during heatwaves in London, UK. Occup. Environ. Med. 61:893–98 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kovats RS, Jendritzky G. 52.  2005. Heat waves and human health. In Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies for Human Healthed. B Menne, KL Ebi pp.63–98 Darmstadt: Steinkopff Verlag [Google Scholar]
  53. Kunkel KE, Changnon SA, Reinke BC, Arritt RW. 53.  1996. The July 1995 heatwave in the midwest: a climatic perspective of critical weather factors. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77:1507–18 [Google Scholar]
  54. Lecomte D, de Penanster D. 54.  2004. People living in Paris, dead during the August 2003 heatwave and examined in Medicolegal Institute. Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 188:459–69 [Google Scholar]
  55. Leonardi G, Hajat S, Kovats RS, Smith GE, Cooper D, Gerard E. 55.  2006. Syndromic surveillance use to detect the early effects of heat-waves: an analysis of NHS Direct data in England. Prev. Med. 51:194–201 [Google Scholar]
  56. Le Tertre A, Lefranc A, Eilstein D, Declercq C, Medina S et al.56.  2006. Impact of 2003 heat wave on all cause mortality in 9 French cities. Epidemiology 17:75–79 [Google Scholar]
  57. Levy D, Lumley T, Sheppard L, Kaufman J, Checkoway H. 57.  2001. Referent selection in case-crossover analyses of acute health effects of air pollution. Epidemiology 12:186–92 [Google Scholar]
  58. Lumley T, Levy D. 58.  2000. Bias in the case-crossover design: implications for studies of air pollution. Environmetrics 11:689–704 [Google Scholar]
  59. Luterbacher J, Dietrich D, Xoplaki E, Grosjean M, Wanner H. 59.  2004. European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends and extremes since 1500. Microb. Ecol. 303:1499–503 [Google Scholar]
  60. MacFarlane A, Waller RE. 60.  1976. Short-term increases in mortality during heatwaves. Nature 264:434–36 [Google Scholar]
  61. Martínez-Navarro F, Simón-Soria F, López-Abente G. 61.  2004. Valoracion del impacto de la ola de calor del verano de 2003 sobre la mortalidad. Evaluation of the impact of the heat wave in the summer of 2003 on mortality. Gac-Sanit. 18:250–58 [Google Scholar]
  62. McMichael A, Wilkinson P, Kovats RS, Pattenden S, Hajat S et al.62.  2007. International study of temperature, heat and urban mortality: the ‘Isothurm’ Project. Int. J. Epidemiol Manuscript submitted [Google Scholar]
  63. Michelon T, Magne P, Simon-Delaville F. 63.  2005. Lessons of the 2003 heatwave in France and action taken to limit the effects of future heat waves. See Ref. 45 pp.131–40
  64. Michelozzi P, de Donato F, Bisanti L, Russo A, Cadum E et al.64.  2005. The impact of the summer 2003 heatwaves on mortality in four Italian cities.. Eurosurveillance 10:161–65 [Google Scholar]
  65. Michelozzi P, DeSario M, Accetta G, DeDonato F, Kirchmayer U et al.65.  2006. Temperature and summer mortality: geographical and temporal variations in four Italian cities.. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 60:417–23 [Google Scholar]
  66. Michelozzi P, Kirchmayer U, Katsouyanni K, Biggeri A, McGregor GR et al.66.  2007. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design. Environ. Health In press, doi:10.1186/1476-069X-6-12 [Google Scholar]
  67. Mirchandani HG, McDonald G, Hood IC, Fonseca C. 67.  1996. Heat-related deaths in Philadelphia—1993. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 17:106–8 [Google Scholar]
  68. Naughton MP, Henderson A, Mirabelli M, Kaiser R, Wilhelm JL et al.68.  2002. Heat related mortality during a 1999 heatwave in Chicago. Am. J. Prev. Med. 22:221–27 [Google Scholar]
  69. O'Connor M, Cardinal M-E, Shaykewich J, Kosatsky T. 69.  2007. Heat Health Warning Workshop Rep., Oct. 5–6, 2006, Montréal, Québec, Can Agence de la sante et de services sociaux de Montréal [Google Scholar]
  70. Oke TR. 70.  1995. Boundary Layer Climates London: Methuen
  71. Oke TR. 71.  1973. City size and the urban heat island. Atmos. Environ. 7:769–79 [Google Scholar]
  72. O'Neill M. 72.  2003. Air conditioning and heat-related health effects. Appl. Environ. Sci. Public Health 1:9–12 [Google Scholar]
  73. O'Neill M, Hajat S, Zanobetti A, Ramirez AM, Schwartz J. 73.  2005. Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of temperature and daily mortality. Int. J. Biometeorol. 50:121–29 [Google Scholar]
  74. Paixao E, Nogueira PJ. 74.  2002. Estudio de onda de la calor deo Julho de 1991 em Portugal: efeitos na mortalidade Lisbon: Obs. Nac. Saudé (ONSA)
  75. Palecki MA, Changnon SA, Kunkel KE. 75.  2001. The nature and impacts of the July 1999 heatwave in the midwestern United States: learning from the lessons of 1995. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82:1353–67 [Google Scholar]
  76. Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohou C, Pitsavos C. 76.  2004. Climatological variations in daily hospital admissions for acute coronary syndromes. Int. J. Cardiol. 94:229–33 [Google Scholar]
  77. Parsons KC. 77.  2003. Human Thermal Environments: The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance London: Taylor & Francis
  78. Pascal L, Nicolau J, Ledrans M. 78.  2005. Evaluation de l'Impact de la Vague de Chaleur de l'Été sur la Morbidité Hospitalière Infantile. Rapport d'étude Paris: Inst. Veille Sanitaire
  79. Quayle R, Doehring F. 79.  1981. Heat stress: a comparison of indices.. Weatherwise 34:120–24 [Google Scholar]
  80. Roaf S, Crichton D, Nicol F. 80.  2005. Adapting Buildings and Cities to Climate Change London: Archit. Press
  81. Samet JM, Dominici F, Zeger SL, Schwartz J, Dockery DW. 81.  2000. The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part I: Methods and methodologic issues. Res. Rep. Health Eff. Inst. Rep. 94:5–14 [Google Scholar]
  82. Schwartz J. 82.  2005. Who is sensitive to extremes of temperature? A case-only analysis. Epidemiology 16:67–72 [Google Scholar]
  83. Schwartz J, Samet JM, Patz JA. 83.  2004. The effects of temperature and humidity on hospital admissions for heart disease. Epidemiology 15:755–61 [Google Scholar]
  84. Semenza JC, McCullough JE, Flanders WD, McGeehin MA, Lumpkin JR. 84.  1999. Excess hospital admissions during July 1995 heat wave in Chicago. Am. J. Prev. Med. 16:269–77 [Google Scholar]
  85. Semenza JC, Rubin CH, Falter KH, Selanikio JD, Flanders WD et al.85.  1996. Heat-related deaths during the July 1995 heat wave in Chicago. N. Engl. J. Med. 335:84–90 [Google Scholar]
  86. 86. Sénat 2004. La France et les Francais face a la canicule: les lecons d'une crise. Rapport d'information no. 195 (2003–2004) de Mme Letard, MM Flandre, S Lepeltier, fait au nom de la mission commune d'information du Senat, depose le 3 Fevrier 2004 Paris, Fr.:
  87. Sheridan S. 87.  2003. Heat, mortality and level of urbanisation. Clim. Res. 24:255–65 [Google Scholar]
  88. Smoyer-Tomic KE, Rainham DGC. 88.  2001. Beating the heat: development and evaluation of a Canadian Hot Weather Health Response plan. Environ. Health Perspect. 109:1241–47 [Google Scholar]
  89. Stafoggia M, Forastiere F, Agostini D, Biggeri A, Bisanti L et al.89.  2006. Vulnerability to heat-related mortality: a multi-city population based case-crossover analysis.. Epidemiology 17:315–23 [Google Scholar]
  90. Steadman RG. 90.  1984. A universal scale of apparent temperature. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23:1674–87 [Google Scholar]
  91. Stott PA, Stone DA, Allen MR. 91.  2004. Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature 432:610–14 [Google Scholar]
  92. Sullivan-Bolyai JZ, Lumish RM, Smith EW, Howell JT, Bregman DJ et al.92.  1979. Hyperpyrexia due to air-conditioning failure in a nursing home. Public Health Rep. 94:466–70 [Google Scholar]
  93. Thomas ND, Soliman H. 93.  2002. Preventable tragedies—heat disaster and the elderly. J. Gerontol. Soc. Work 38:53–66 [Google Scholar]
  94. Vandentorren S, Bretin P, Zeghnoun A, Mandereau-Bruno L, Croisier A et al.94.  2006. August 2003 heat wave in France: risk factors for death of elderly people living at home. Eur. J. Public Health 16:583–91 [Google Scholar]
  95. Vandentorren S, Suzan F, Medina S, Pascal M, Maulpoix A et al.95.  2004. Mortality in 13 French cities during the August 2003 heat wave. Am. J. Public Health 94:1518–20 [Google Scholar]
  96. Vanhems P, Gambotti L, Fabry J. 96.  2003. Excess rate of in-hospital death in Lyons, France, during the August 2003 heat wave. N. Engl J. Med. 348:2077–78 [Google Scholar]
  97. Wallace RF, Kriebel D, Punnett L, Wegmann DH, Amoroso PJ. 97.  2007. Prior heat illness hospitalization and risk of early death. Environ. Res. 104:290–95 [Google Scholar]
  98. Watkins R, Palmer J, Kolkotroni M, Littlefair P. 98.  2002. The London Heat Island—surface and air temperature measurements in a park and street gorges. ASHRAE Trans. 108:419–27 [Google Scholar]
  99. Welty LJ, Zeger S. 99.  2005. Are the acute effects of particulate matter on mortality in the National Morbidity, Mortality and Air Pollution Study the result of inadequate control for weather and season? A sensitivity analysis using flexible distributed lag models. Am. J. Epidemiol. 162:80–88 [Google Scholar]
  100. Whitman S, Good G, Donoghue ER, Benbow N, Shou W, Mou S. 100.  1997. Mortality in Chicago attributed to the July 1995 heat wave. Am. J. Public Health 87:1515–18 [Google Scholar]
  101. Zeger S, Irizarry R, Peng RD. 101.  2006. On time series analysis of public health and biomedical data.. Annu. Rev. Public Health 27:57–79 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090843
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090843
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error