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Abstract

The process of mitophagy, in which mitochondria are selectively turned over at the autophagolysosome, plays a central role in both eliminating dysfunctional mitochondria and reducing mitochondrial mass as an adaptive response to key physiological stresses, such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and DNA damage. Defects in mitophagy have been linked to altered mitochondrial metabolism, production of excess reactive oxygen species and ferroptosis, heightened inflammasome activation, altered cell fate decisions, and senescence, among other cellular consequences. Consequently, functional mitophagy contributes to proper tissue differentiation and repair and metabolic homeostasis, limiting inflammatory responses and modulating tumor progression and metastasis. This review examines the major pathways that control mitophagy, including PINK1-dependent mitophagy and BNIP3/NIX-dependent mitophagy. It also discusses the cellular signaling mechanisms used to sense mitochondrial dysfunction to activate mitophagy and how defective mitophagy results in deregulated tumor cell growth and cancer.

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2020-03-04
2024-06-21
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