1932

Abstract

The use of two or more languages is common in most of the world. Yet, until recently, bilingualism was considered to be a complicating factor for language processing, cognition, and the brain. The past 20 years have witnessed an upsurge of research on bilingualism to examine language acquisition and processing, their cognitive and neural bases, and the consequences that bilingualism holds for cognition and the brain over the life span. Contrary to the view that bilingualism complicates the language system, this new research demonstrates that all of the languages that are known and used become part of the same language system. The interactions that arise when two languages are in play have consequences for the mind and the brain and, indeed, for language processing itself, but those consequences are not additive. Thus, bilingualism helps reveal the fundamental architecture and mechanisms of language processing that are otherwise hidden in monolingual speakers.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124937
2015-01-14
2024-04-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/linguistics/1/1/annurev-linguist-030514-124937.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124937&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abutalebi J, Cappa SF, Perani D. 2005. What can functional neuroimaging tell us about the bilingual brain? See Kroll & De Groot 2005, pp. 497– 515
  2. Abutalebi J, Della Rosa PA, Green DW, Hernandez M, Scifo P et al. 2012. Bilingualism tunes the anterior cingulate cortex for conflict monitoring. Cereb. Cortex 22:2076–86 [Google Scholar]
  3. Abutalebi J, Green D. 2007. Bilingual language production: the neurocognition of language representation and control. J. Neurolinguist. 20:242–75 [Google Scholar]
  4. Alarcón I. 2011. Spanish gender agreement under complete and incomplete acquisition: early and late bilinguals’ linguistic behavior within the noun phrase. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 14:332–50 [Google Scholar]
  5. Alladi S, Bak TH, Duggirala V, Surampudi B, Shailaja M et al. 2013. Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology 81:1938–44 [Google Scholar]
  6. Allopenna PD, Magnuson JS, Tanenhaus MK. 1998. Tracking the time course of spoken word recognition: evidence for continuous mapping models. J. Mem. Lang. 38:419–39 [Google Scholar]
  7. Ameel E, Storms G, Malt BC, Sloman SA. 2005. How bilinguals solve the naming problem. J. Mem. Lang. 53:60–80 [Google Scholar]
  8. Andersen R. 1983. Transfer to somewhere. See Gass & Selinker 1983, pp. 177–201
  9. Baus C, Costa A, Carreiras M. 2013. On the effects of second language immersion on first language production. Acta Psychol. 142:402–9 [Google Scholar]
  10. Beck M-L. 1998. L2 acquisition and obligatory head movement: English-speaking learners of German and the local impairment hypothesis. Stud. Second Lang. Acquis. 20:311–48 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Freedman M. 2007. Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsychologia 45:459–64 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Green DW, Gollan TH. 2009. Bilingual minds. Psychol. Sci. Public Interest 10:89–129 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Luk G. 2012. Bilingualism: consequences for mind and brain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 16:240–50 [Google Scholar]
  14. Blumenfeld HK, Marian V. 2011. Bilingualism influences inhibitory control in auditory comprehension. Cognition 118:245–57 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bruhn de Garavito J, White L. 2002. The second language acquisition of Spanish DPs: the status of grammatical features. The Acquisition of Spanish Morphosyntax: The L1/L2 Connection Pérez-Leroux AT, Liceras JM. 153–78 Dordrecht, Neth.: Kluwer [Google Scholar]
  16. Bybee JL. 1994. A view of phonology from a cognitive and functional perspective. Cogn. Linguist. 5:285–305 [Google Scholar]
  17. Carreiras M, Clifton C. 1999. Another word on parsing relative clauses: eyetracking evidence from Spanish and English. Mem. Cogn. 27:826–33 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chang C. 2013. A novelty effect in phonetic drift of the native language. J. Phon. 41:520–33 [Google Scholar]
  19. Christoffels IK, Firk C, Schiller NO. 2007. Bilingual language control: an event-related brain potential study. Brain Res. 1147:192–208 [Google Scholar]
  20. Clahsen H, Felser C. 2006. Grammatical processing in language learning. Appl. Psycholinguist. 27:3–42 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cook V. 2003. Effects of the Second Language on the First Clevedon, UK: Multiling. Matters
  22. Costa A, Caramazza A, Sebastián-Gallés N. 2000. The cognate facilitation effect: implications for models of lexical access. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 26:1283–96 [Google Scholar]
  23. Costa A, Hernández M, Costa-Faidella J, Sebastián-Gallés N. 2009. On the bilingual advantage in conflict processing: Now you see it, now you donʼt. Cognition 113:135–49 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cuetos F, Mitchell DC, Corley M. 1996. Parsing in different languages. Language Processing in Spanish Carreiras M, García-Albea J, Sebastían-Gallés N. 145–87 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  25. Dijkstra T. 2005. Bilingual word recognition and lexical access. See Kroll & De Groot 2005, pp. 179– 201
  26. Dussias PE. 2003. Syntactic ambiguity resolution in second language learners: some effects of bilinguality on L1 and L2 processing strategies. Stud. Second Lang. Acquis. 25:529–57 [Google Scholar]
  27. Dussias PE, Perrotti L, Brown M, Morales L. 2014. Re-learning to parse a first language: the role of experience in sentence comprehension. Presented at Annu. CUNY Conf. Hum. Sentence Process., 27th, Columbus, OH
  28. Dussias PE, Sagarra N. 2007. The effect of exposure on syntactic parsing in Spanish–English bilinguals. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 10:101–16 [Google Scholar]
  29. Eddington D. 2002. Spanish gender assignment in an analogical framework. J. Quant. Linguist. 9:49–75 [Google Scholar]
  30. Eubank L. 1993. On the transfer of parametric values in L2 development. Lang. Acquis. 3:183–208 [Google Scholar]
  31. Félix-Brasdefer JC, Koike DA. 2012. Pragmatic Variation in First and Second Language Contexts: Methodological Issues Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins
  32. Fernández EM. 2003. Bilingual Sentence Processing: Relative Clause Attachment in English and Spanish Amsterdam: Benjamins
  33. Flege J, Eefting W. 1987. Cross-language switching in stop consonant production and perception by Dutch speakers of English. Speech Commun. 6:185–202 [Google Scholar]
  34. Flege JE, Davidian R. 1984. Transfer and developmental processes in adult foreign language speech production. Appl. Psycholinguist. 5:332–47 [Google Scholar]
  35. Flege JE. 1987. The production of “new” and “similar” phones in a foreign language: evidence for the effect of equivalence classification. J. Phon. 15:47–65 [Google Scholar]
  36. Flege JE. 2007. Language contact in bilingualism: phonetic system interactions. Laboratory Phonology 9 Cole J, Hualde JI. 353–82 Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  37. Foucart A, Frenck-Mestre C. 2011. Grammatical gender processing in L2: electrophysiological evidence of the effect of L1–L2 syntactic similarity. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 14:379–99 [Google Scholar]
  38. Foucart A, Frenck-Mestre C. 2012. Can late L2 learners acquire new grammatical features? Evidence from ERPs and eye-tracking. J. Mem. Lang. 66:226–48 [Google Scholar]
  39. Franceschina F. 2001. Against an L2 morphological deficit as an explanation for the differences between native and non-native grammars. EUROSLA Yearbook vol. 1 Foster-Cohen SH, Nizegorodcew A. 143–58 Amsterdam: Benjamins [Google Scholar]
  40. Franceschina F. 2005. Fossilized Second Language Grammars: The Acquisition of Grammatical Gender Amsterdam: Benjamins
  41. Frazier L, Fodor JD. 1978. The sausage machine: a new two-stage parsing model. Cognition 6:291–325 [Google Scholar]
  42. Frenck-Mestre C. 2002. An on-line look at sentence processing in a second language. Bilingual Sentence Processing Herrida RR, Altarriba J. 217–36 Amsterdam: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  43. Gass S, Selinker L. 1983. Language Transfer in Language Learning Rowley, MA: Newbury House
  44. Gennari SP, MacDonald MC. 2009. Linking production and comprehension processes: the case of relative clauses. Cognition 111:1–23 [Google Scholar]
  45. Gillon Dowens M, Vergara M, Barber H, Carreiras M. 2010. Morphosyntactic processing in late second-language learners. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 22:1870–87 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gold BT, Kim C, Johnson NF, Kriscio RJ, Smith CD. 2013. Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging. J. Neurosci. 33:387–96 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gollan TH, Montoya RI, Cera CM, Sandoval TC. 2008. More use almost always means a smaller frequency effect: aging, bilingualism, and the weaker links hypothesis. J. Mem. Lang. 58:787–814 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gollan TH, Sandoval T, Salmon DP. 2011. Cross-language intrusion errors in aging bilinguals reveal the link between executive control and language selection. Psychol. Sci. 22:1155–64 [Google Scholar]
  49. Green DW, Abutalebi J. 2013. Language control in bilinguals: the adaptive control hypothesis. J. Cogn. Psychol. 25:515–30 [Google Scholar]
  50. Green DW, Wei L. 2014. A control process model of code-switching. Lang. Cogn. Neurosci. 29:499–511 [Google Scholar]
  51. Grosjean F. 1989. Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person. Brain Lang. 36:3–15 [Google Scholar]
  52. Grüter T, Lew-Williams C, Fernald A. 2012. Grammatical gender in L2: a production or a real-time processing problem?. Second Lang. Res. 28:191–215 [Google Scholar]
  53. Guo T, Liu H, Misra M, Kroll JF. 2011. Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese–English bilinguals. NeuroImage 56:2300–9 [Google Scholar]
  54. Hahne A, Friederici AD. 2001. Processing a second language: late learners’ comprehension mechanisms as revealed by event-related brain potentials. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 4:123–41 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hancin-Bhatt B. 1994. Segmental transfer: a natural consequence of a dynamic system. Second Lang. Res. 10:242–70 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hartsuiker RJ, Pickering MJ, Veltkamp E. 2004. Is syntax separate or shared between languages? Cross-linguistic syntactic priming in Spanish/English bilinguals. Psychol. Sci. 15:409–14 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hatzidaki A, Branigan HP, Pickering MJ. 2011. Co-activation of syntax in bilingual language production. Cogn. Psychol. 62:123–50 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hawkins R, Chan Y-HC. 1997. The partial availability of Universal Grammar in second language acquisition: the ‘failed functional features hypothesis’. Second Lang. Res. 13:187–226 [Google Scholar]
  59. Hernández AE, Li P. 2007. Age of acquisition: its neural and computational mechanisms. Psychol. Bull. 133:638–50 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hernández AE, Li P, MacWhinney B. 2005. The emergence of competing modules in bilingualism. Trends Cogn. Sci. 9:220–55 [Google Scholar]
  61. Hopp H. 2010. Ultimate attainment in L2 inflectional morphology: performance similarities between non-native and native speakers. Lingua 120:901–31 [Google Scholar]
  62. Hopp H. 2013. Grammatical gender in adult L2 acquisition: relations between lexical and syntactic variability. Second Lang. Res. 29:33–56 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hoshino N, Kroll JF. 2008. Cognate effects in picture naming: Does cross-language activation survive a change of script?. Cognition 106:501–11 [Google Scholar]
  64. Ivanova I, Costa A. 2008. Does bilingualism hamper lexical access in speech production?. Acta Psychol. 127:277–88 [Google Scholar]
  65. Jake JL, Myers-Scotton CM, Gross S. 2002. Making a minimalist approach to codeswitching work: adding the Matrix Language. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 5:69–91 [Google Scholar]
  66. Keating GD. 2009. Sensitivity to violations of gender agreement in native and nonnative Spanish: an eye-movement investigation. Lang. Learn. 59:503–35 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kimball J. 1973. Seven principles of surface structure parsing in natural language. Cognition 2:15–47 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kotz SA. 2009. A critical review of ERP and fMRI evidence on L2 syntactic processing. Brain Lang. 109:68–74 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kovács AM, Mehler J. 2009. Cognitive gains in 7-month-old bilingual infants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:6556–60 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kroll JF, Bialystok E. 2013. Understanding the consequences of bilingualism for language processing and cognition. J. Cogn. Psychol. 25:497–514 [Google Scholar]
  71. Kroll JF, Bobb SC, Hoshino N. 2014. Two languages in mind: bilingualism as a tool to investigate language, cognition, and the brain. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 23:159 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kroll JF, Bobb SC, Misra MM, Guo T. 2008. Language selection in bilingual speech: evidence for inhibitory processes. Acta Psychol. 128:416–30 [Google Scholar]
  73. Kroll JF, Bobb SC, Wodniecka Z. 2006. Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 9:119–35 [Google Scholar]
  74. Kroll JF, De Groot AMB. 2005. Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  75. Kroll JF, Dussias PE. 2013. The comprehension of words and sentences in two languages. The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism Bhatia T, Ritchie W. 216–43 Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd ed. [Google Scholar]
  76. Kroll JF, Dussias PE, Bogulski CA, Valdés-Kroff J. 2012. Juggling two languages in one mind: what bilinguals tell us about language processing and its consequences for cognition. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation vol. 56 Ross B. 229–62 San Diego: Academic [Google Scholar]
  77. Kroll JF, Gollan TH. 2014. Speech planning in two languages: what bilinguals tell us about language production. The Oxford Handbook of Language Production Ferreira V, Goldrick M, Miozzo M. 165–81 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  78. Kroll JF, Gullifer J, Rossi E. 2013. The multilingual lexicon: the cognitive and neural basis of lexical comprehension and production in two languages. Annu. Rev. Appl. Linguist. 33:102–27 [Google Scholar]
  79. Kroll JF, Tokowicz N. 2005. Models of bilingual representation and processing Groot Kroll & De. 531–53
  80. Lagrou E, Hartsuiker RJ, Duyck W. 2011. Knowledge of a second language influences auditory word recognition in the native language. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 37:952–65 [Google Scholar]
  81. Lambert RD, Freed BF. 1982. The Loss of Language Skills Rowley, MA: Newbury House
  82. Lardiere D. 1998a. Case and tense in the ‘fossilized’ steady state. Second Lang. Res. 14:1–26 [Google Scholar]
  83. Lardiere D. 1998b. Dissociating syntax from morphology in a divergent end-state grammar. Second Lang. Res. 14:359–75 [Google Scholar]
  84. Lew-Williams C, Fernald A. 2007. Young children learning Spanish make rapid use of grammatical gender in spoken word recognition. Psychol. Sci. 18:193–98 [Google Scholar]
  85. Libben MR, Titone DA. 2009. Bilingual lexical access in context: evidence from eye movements during reading. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 35:381–90 [Google Scholar]
  86. Linck JA, Kroll JF, Sunderman G. 2009. Losing access to the native language while immersed in a second language: evidence for the role of inhibition in second language learning. Psychol. Sci. 20:1507–15 [Google Scholar]
  87. Luk G, Bialystok E. 2013. Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: interaction between language proficiency and usage. J. Cogn. Psychol. 25:605–21 [Google Scholar]
  88. MacDonald MC. 1994. Probabilistic constraints and syntactic ambiguity resolution. Lang. Cogn. Process. 9:157–201 [Google Scholar]
  89. MacDonald MC, Seidenberg MS. 2006. Constraint satisfaction accounts of lexical and sentence comprehension. Handbook of Psycholinguistics Traxler MJ, Gernsbacher MA. 581–611 London: Elsevier, 2nd ed. [Google Scholar]
  90. MacWhinney B. 2005. A unified model of language acquisition. See Kroll & De Groot 2005, pp. 49–67
  91. Malt BC, Sloman SA. 2003. Linguistic diversity and object naming by non-native speakers of English. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 6:47–67 [Google Scholar]
  92. Marian V, Spivey M. 2003. Competing activation in bilingual language processing: within- and between-language competition. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 6:97–115 [Google Scholar]
  93. McDonald J. 2006. Beyond the critical period: processing-based explanations for poor grammaticality judgment performance by late second language learners. J. Mem. Lang. 55:381–401 [Google Scholar]
  94. Meuter RFI, Allport A. 1999. Bilingual language switching in naming: asymmetrical costs of language selection. J. Mem. Lang. 40:25–40 [Google Scholar]
  95. Miccio AW, Hammer CS, Rodríguez BL. 2009. Code-switching and language disorders in young bilingual children. Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching Toribio J, Bullock B. 241–52 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  96. Misra M, Guo T, Bobb SC, Kroll JF. 2012. When bilinguals choose a single word to speak: electrophysiological evidence for inhibition of the native language. J. Mem. Lang. 67:224–37 [Google Scholar]
  97. Morales J, Calvo A, Bialystok E. 2013a. Working memory development in monolingual and bilingual children. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 114:187–202 [Google Scholar]
  98. Morales J, Gómez-Ariza CJ, Bajo MT. 2013b. Dual mechanisms of cognitive control in bilinguals and monolinguals. J. Cogn. Psychol. 25:531–46 [Google Scholar]
  99. Morford JP, Wilkinson E, Villwock A, Piñar P, Kroll JF. 2011. When deaf signers read English: Do written words activate their sign translations?. Cognition 118:286–92 [Google Scholar]
  100. Otheguy R, Lapidus N. 2003. An adaptive approach to noun gender in New York contact Spanish. A Romance Perspective on Language Knowledge and Language Use: Selected Papers from the 31st Linguistic Symposium on the Romance Languages Nuñez-Cedeño R, López L, Cameron R. 209–29 Amsterdam: Benjamins [Google Scholar]
  101. Pienemann M, Di Base B, Kawaguchi S, Håkansson G. 2005. Processing constraints on L1 transfer. See Kroll & De Groot 2005, pp. 128–53
  102. Pliatsikas C, Marinis T. 2013. Processing empty categories in a second language: when naturalistic exposure fills the (intermediate) gap. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 16:167–82 [Google Scholar]
  103. Poplack S. 1980. “Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español”: toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18:581–618 [Google Scholar]
  104. Prévost P, White L. 2000. Missing surface inflection or impairment in second language? Evidence from tense and agreement. Second Lang. Res. 16:103–33 [Google Scholar]
  105. Runnqvist E, Gollan TH, Costa A, Ferreira VS. 2013. A disadvantage in bilingual sentence production modulated by syntactic frequency and similarity across languages. Cognition 129:256–63 [Google Scholar]
  106. Rutherford W. 1983. Language typology and language transfer. See Gass & Selinker 1983, pp. 358–70
  107. Sabourin L, Stowe LA, de Haan GJ. 2006. Transfer effects in learning a second language grammatical gender system. Second Lang. Res. 22:1–29 [Google Scholar]
  108. Sabourin L, Stowe LA. 2008. Second language processing: When are first and second languages processed similarly?. Second Lang. Res. 24:397–430 [Google Scholar]
  109. Schmid MS, Köpke B, Keijzer M, Weilemar L. 2004. First Language Attrition: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Methodological Issues Amsterdam: Benjamins
  110. Schwartz AI, Kroll JF. 2006. Bilingual lexical activation in sentence context. J. Mem. Lang. 55:197–212 [Google Scholar]
  111. Schwartz BD, Sprouse R. 1994. Word order and nominative case in non-native language acquisition: a longitudinal study of (L1 Turkish) German interlanguage. Language Acquisition Studies in Generative Grammar Hoekstra T, Schwartz BD. 317–68 Amsterdam: Benjamins [Google Scholar]
  112. Schwartz BD, Sprouse R. 1996. L2 cognitive states and the full transfer/full access model. Second Lang. Res. 12:40–72 [Google Scholar]
  113. Schweizer TA, Ware J, Fischer CE, Craik FIM, Bialystok E. 2012. Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex 48:991–96 [Google Scholar]
  114. Sebastián-Gallés N, Albareda-Castellot B, Weikum WM, Werker JF. 2012. A bilingual advantage in visual language discrimination in infancy. Psychol. Sci. 23:994–99 [Google Scholar]
  115. Seliger HW, Vago RM. 1991. First Language Attrition Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  116. Staub A. 2010. Eye movements and processing difficulty in object relative clauses. Cognition 116:71–86 [Google Scholar]
  117. Steinhauer K, White EJ, Drury JE. 2009. Temporal dynamics of late second language acquisition: evidence from event-related brain potentials. Second Lang. Res. 25:13–41 [Google Scholar]
  118. Sundara M, Polka L, Genesee F. 2006. Language experience facilitates discrimination of /d–ð/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English. Cognition 100:186–99 [Google Scholar]
  119. Thierry G, Wu YJ. 2007. Brain potentials reveal unconscious translation during foreign language comprehension. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:12530–35 [Google Scholar]
  120. Traxler MJ, Morris RK, Seely RE. 2002. Processing subject and object relative clauses: evidence from eye movements. J. Mem. Lang. 47::69–90 [Google Scholar]
  121. Trueswell JC, Sekerina I, Hill NM, Logrip ML. 1999. The kindergarten-path effect: studying on-line sentence processing in young children. Cognition 73:89–134 [Google Scholar]
  122. Valdés Kroff J. 2012. Using eye-tracking to study auditory comprehension in code-switching: evidence for the link between comprehension and production. PhD thesis, Pa. State Univ., University Park. 193 pp.
  123. Van Assche E, Duyck W, Gollan TH. 2013. Whole-language and item-specific control in bilingual language production. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 9:1781–92 [Google Scholar]
  124. Van Hell JG, Dijkstra T. 2002. Foreign language knowledge can influence native language performance in exclusively native contexts. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 9:780–89 [Google Scholar]
  125. Wattendorf E, Festman J, Westermann B, Keil U, Zappatore D et al. 2014. Early bilingualism influences early and subsequently later acquired languages in cortical regions representing control functions. Int. J. Biling. 18:48–66 [Google Scholar]
  126. Wells JB, Christiansen MH, Race DS, Acheson DJ, MacDonald MC. 2009. Experience and sentence processing: statistical learning and relative clause comprehension. Cogn. Psychol. 58:250–71 [Google Scholar]
  127. Witzel J, Witzel N, Nicol J. 2012. Deeper than shallow: evidence for structure-based parsing biases in L2 sentence processing. Appl. Psycholinguist. 33:419–56 [Google Scholar]
  128. Zobl H. 1982. A direction for contrastive analysis: the comparative study of developmental sequences. TESOL Q. 16:183–96 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124937
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error