1932

Abstract

Neanderthal language abilities cannot be directly observed, but indirect evidence is available in their anatomy, archeology, and DNA. Neanderthal anatomy shows possible speech adaptations, and their archeology contains enough indicators of behavioral modernity, including symbols and ornaments, to conclude that their minds could handle symbolic communication. Neanderthal DNA, finally, indicates both that they possessed some of the language-relevant genes found in modern humans and that they could and did have children with modern humans. From the consilience of evidence from anatomy, archeology, and DNA, one can conclude that some language abilities, if not necessarily full modern syntactic language, were present in Neanderthals.

Keyword(s): languageNeanderthal
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124945
2015-01-14
2024-04-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/linguistics/1/1/annurev-linguist-030514-124945.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124945&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Alemseged Z, Spoor F, Kimbel WH, Bobe R, Geraads D et al. 2006. A juvenile early hominin skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 443:296–301 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ambrose SH. 2010. Coevolution of composite-tool technology, constructive memory, and language. Curr. Anthropol. 51:S135–47 [Google Scholar]
  3. Arbib MA. 2012. How the Brain Got Language: The Mirror System Hypothesis New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  4. Arensburg B, Tillier AM, Vandermeersch B, Duday H, Schepartz LA, Rak Y. 1989. A Middle Palaeolithic human hyoid bone. Nature 338:758–60 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ayub Q, Yngvadottir B, Chen Y, Xue Y, Hu M et al. 2013. FOXP2 targets show evidence of positive selection in European populations. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 92:696–706 [Google Scholar]
  6. Balzeau A, Gilissen E. 2010. Endocranial shape asymmetries in Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla assessed via skull based landmark analysis. J. Hum. Evol. 59:54–69 [Google Scholar]
  7. Barceló-Coblijn L, Benítez-Burraco A. 2013. Disentangling the Neanderthal net: a comment on Johansson (2013). Biolinguistics 7:199–216 [Google Scholar]
  8. Barceló-Coblijn L. 2011. A biolinguistic approach to vocalizations of H. neanderthalensis and the genus Homo. Biolinguistics 5:286–334 [Google Scholar]
  9. Barker G, Barton H, Bird M, Daly P, Datan I et al. 2007. The “human revolution” in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity and behavior of anatomically modern humans at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo). J. Hum. Evol. 52:243–61 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bastir M, Rosas A, String C, Cuétara JM, Kruszynski R et al. 2010. Effects of brain and facial size on basicranial form in human and primate evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 58:424–31 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bednarik RG. 2007. Antiquity and authorship of Chauvet rock art. Rock Art Res. 24:1–21 [Google Scholar]
  12. Berwick RC, Chomsky N. 2011. The biolinguistic program: the current state of its development. The Biolinguistic Enterprise: New Perspectives on the Evolution and Nature of the Human Language Faculty Sciullo AM Di, Boeckx C. 65–99 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  13. Bickerton D. 2009. Adam’s Tongue New York: Hill & Wang
  14. Boë L-J, Badin P. 2013. Anatomy and control of the developing human vocal tract: a response to Lieberman. J. Phon. 41:379–92 [Google Scholar]
  15. Boë L-J, Heim JL, Honda K, Maeda S, Badin P, Abry C. 2007. The vocal tract of newborn humans and Neanderthals: acoustic capabilities and consequences for the debate on the origin of language. A reply to Lieberman (2007a). J. Phon. 35:564–81 [Google Scholar]
  16. Boeckx C. 2011. The nature of merge: consequences for language, mind and biology. Of Minds and Language: A Dialogue with Noam Chomsky in the Basque Country Piattelli-Palmarini M, Uriagereka J, Salaburu P. 44–57 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Boeckx C. 2012. Homo combinans. Presented at 9th Int. Conf. Evol. Lang. (EVOLANG9), Kyoto, Jpn., March 13–16
  18. Boeckx C. 2013. Lexicon, syntax, and grammar: biolinguistic concerns. Presented at 19th Int. Congr. Linguist., Geneva, July 21–27
  19. Botha R, Knight C. 2009. The Cradle of Language Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  20. Botha R. 2009. Theoretical underpinnings of inferences about language evolution: the syntax used at Blombos Cave. See Botha & Knight 2009, pp. 93–111
  21. Bouzouggar A, Barton N, Vanhaeren M, d’Errico F, Collcutt S et al. 2007. 82,000-year-old shell beads from North Africa and implications for the origins of modern human behavior. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9964–69 [Google Scholar]
  22. Britton K, Grimes V, Niven L, Steele TE, McPherron SP et al. 2011. Strontium isotope evidence for migration in late Pleistocene Rangifer: implications for Neanderthal hunting strategies at the Middle Palaeolithic site of Jonzac, France. J. Hum. Evol. 61:176–85 [Google Scholar]
  23. Brown KS, Marean CW, Herries AIR, Jacobs Z, Trebolo C et al. 2009. Fire as an engineering tool of early modern humans. Science 325:859–62 [Google Scholar]
  24. Brown P, Sutikna N, Morwood MJ, Soejono RP, Jatmiko E et al. 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431:1055–61 [Google Scholar]
  25. Brumm A, Moore MW. 2005. Symbolic revolutions and the Australian archeological record. Camb. Archaeol. J. 15:157–75 [Google Scholar]
  26. Bruner E. 2007. Cranial shape and size variation in human evolution: structural and functional perspectives. Child’s Nerv. Syst. 23:1357–65 [Google Scholar]
  27. Bruner E. 2008. Comparing endocranial form and shape differences in modern humans and Neandertals: a geometric approach. Paleoanthropology 2008:93–106 [Google Scholar]
  28. Camps M, Uriagereka J. 2006. The Gordian knot of linguistic fossils. The Biolinguistic Turn: Issues on Language and Biology Rosselló J, Martín J. 34–65 Barcelona: Publ. Univ. Barcelona [Google Scholar]
  29. Cantalupo C, Hopkins WD. 2001. Asymmetric Broca’s area in great apes. Nature 414:505 [Google Scholar]
  30. Cârciumaru M, Ion R-M, Niţu E-C, Ştefănescu R. 2012. New evidence of adhesive as hafting material on Middle and Upper Palaeolithic artefacts from Gura Cheii–Râsnov Cave (Romania). J. Archaeol. Sci 39:1942–50 [Google Scholar]
  31. Cartmill M. 2010. The human (r)evolution(s). Evol. Anthropol. 19:89–91 [Google Scholar]
  32. Chomsky N. 2010. Some simple evo devo theses: How true might they be for language? See Larson et al. 2010, pp. 45–62
  33. Collins SA. 2000. Men’s voices and women’s choices. Anim. Behav. 60:773–80 [Google Scholar]
  34. Conard NJ. 2009. A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany. Nature 459:248–52 [Google Scholar]
  35. Conard NJ, Richter J. 2011. Neanderthal Lifeways, Subsistence and Technology: One Hundred Fifty Years of Neanderthal Study Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
  36. Coolidge FL, Wynn T. 2005. Working memory, its executive functions, and the emergence of modern thinking. Camb. Archaeol. J. 15:5–26 [Google Scholar]
  37. Corballis MC. 2002. From Hand to Mouth: The Origins of Language Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  38. Cortés-Sánchez M, Morales-Muñiz A, Simón-Vallejo MD, Lozano-Francisco MC, Vera-Peláez JL et al. 2011. Earliest known use of marine resources by Neanderthals. PLOS ONE 6:e24026 [Google Scholar]
  39. Coupé C, Hombert J-M. 2005. Les premières traversées maritimes: une fenêtre sur les cultures et les langues de la préhistoire. Aux Origines des langues et du langage Hombert J-M. 118–61 Paris: Fayard [Google Scholar]
  40. D’Anastasio R, Wrie S, Tuniz C, Mancini L, Cesana DT et al. 2013. Micro-biomechanics of the Kebara 2 hyoid and its implications for speech in Neanderthals. PLOS ONE 8:e82261 [Google Scholar]
  41. d’Errico F, Backwell L, Villa P, Degano I, Lucejko JJ et al. 2012. Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109:13214–19 [Google Scholar]
  42. d’Errico F, Henshilwood C, Lawson G, Vanhaeren M, Tillier A-M et al. 2003. Archaeological evidence for the emergence of language, symbolism, and music—an alternative multidisciplinary perspective. J. World Prehist. 17:1–70 [Google Scholar]
  43. d’Errico F, Stringer CB. 2011. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures?. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 366:1060–69 [Google Scholar]
  44. d’Errico F, Vanhaeren M, Henshilwood C, Lawson G, Maureille B et al. 2009. From the origin of language to the diversification of languages: What can archaeology and palaeoanthropology say?. Becoming Eloquent: Advances in the Emergence of Language, Human Cognition, and Modern Cultures d’Errico F, Hombert J-M. 13–68 Amsterdam: Benjamins [Google Scholar]
  45. Dayet L, d’Errico F, Garcia-Moreno R. 2014. Searching for consistencies in Châtelperronian pigment use. J. Archaeol. Sci. 44:180–93 [Google Scholar]
  46. Deacon TW. 1997. The Symbolic Species New York: Norton
  47. Dediu D, Levinson SC. 2013. On the antiquity of language: the reinterpretation of Neandertal linguistic capacities and its consequences. Front. Psychol. 4:1–17 [Google Scholar]
  48. DeGusta D, Gilbert H, Turner SP. 1999. Hypoglossal canal size and hominid speech. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1800–4 [Google Scholar]
  49. Diller KC, Cann RL. 2009. Evidence against a genetic-based revolution in language 50,000 years ago. See Botha & Knight 2009, pp. 135–49
  50. Ding Q, Hu Y, Xu S, Wang J, Jin L. 2014. Neanderthal introgression at chromosome 3p21.31 was under positive natural selection in East Asians. Mol. Biol. Evol. 31:683–95 [Google Scholar]
  51. Dogandžić T, McPherron SP. 2013. Demography and the demise of the Neandertals: a comment on “Tenfold population increase in Western Europe at the Neanderthal-to-modern human transition.”. J. Hum. Evol. 64:311–13 [Google Scholar]
  52. Faith JT. 2011. Ungulate biogeography, statistical methods, and the proficiency of Middle Stone Age hunters. J. Hum. Evol. 60:315–17 [Google Scholar]
  53. Feinberg DR. 2005. Manipulations of fundamental and formant frequencies influence the attractiveness of human male voices. Anim. Behav. 69:561–68 [Google Scholar]
  54. Feinberg DR, Jones BC, Little AC, Burt DM, Perrett DI. 2008. Are human faces and voices ornaments signaling common underlying cues to mate value?. Evol. Anthropol. 17:112–18 [Google Scholar]
  55. Ferentinos G, Gkioni M, Geraga M, Papatheodorou G. 2012. Early seafaring activity in the southern Ionian Islands, Mediterranean Sea. J. Archaeol. Sci 39:2167–76 [Google Scholar]
  56. Fisher SE, Marcus GF. 2006. The eloquent ape: genes, brains and the evolution of language. Nat. Rev. Genet 7:9–20 [Google Scholar]
  57. Fisher SE, Ridley M. 2013. Culture, genes, and the human revolution. Science 340:929–30 [Google Scholar]
  58. Fitch WT, Giedd J. 1999. Morphology and development of the human vocal tract: a study using magnetic resonance imaging. J. Acoust. Soc. Am 106:1511–22 [Google Scholar]
  59. Fitch WT. 2005. The evolution of language: a comparative review. Biol. Philos 20:193–230 [Google Scholar]
  60. Fitch WT. 2009. Fossil cues to the evolution of speech. See Botha & Knight 2009, pp. 112–34
  61. Fonseca RP, Scherer LC, de Oliveira CR, de Mattos Pimenta Parente MA. 2009. Hemispheric specialization for communicative processing: neuroimaging data on the role of the right hemisphere. Psychol. Neurosci 2:25–33 [Google Scholar]
  62. Frayer DW, Fiore I, Lalueza-Fox C, Radovcić J, Bondioli L. 2010. Right handed Neandertals: Vindija and beyond. J. Anthropol. Sci 88:113–27 [Google Scholar]
  63. Fujita K. 2009. A prospect for evolutionary adequacy: merge and the evolution and development of human language. Biolinguistics 3:128–53 [Google Scholar]
  64. Gannon PJ, Holloway RL, Broadfield DC, Braun AR. 1998. Asymmetry of chimpanzee planum temporale: humanlike pattern of Wernicke’s brain language area homolog. Science 279:220–22 [Google Scholar]
  65. Gardner A. 2013. Darwinism, not mutationism, explains the design of organisms. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 111:97–98 [Google Scholar]
  66. Gargett RH. 1999. Middle Palaeolithic burial is not a dead issue: the view from Qafzeh, Saint-Cesaire, Kebara, Amud, and Dederiyeh. J. Hum. Evol. 37:27–90 [Google Scholar]
  67. Granat J, Boë L-J, Badin P, Pochic D, Heim J-L, Peyre E, Benoît R. 2007. Prediction of the ability of reconstituted vocal tracts of fossils to produce speech. Presented at 16th Int. Congr. Phon. Sci., Saarbrücken, Ger., August 6–10. http://www.icphs2007.de/conference/Papers/1707/1707.pdf
  68. Green RE, Krause J, Briggs AW, Maricic T, Stenzel U et al. 2010. A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science 328:710–22 [Google Scholar]
  69. Gunz P, Neubauer S, Golovanova L, Doronichev V, Maureille B, Hublin JJ. 2012. A uniquely human pattern of endocranial development. Insights from a new cranial reconstruction of the Neanderthal newborn from Mezmaiskaya. J. Hum. Evol. 62:300–13 [Google Scholar]
  70. Hardy BL, Moncel M-H, Daujeard C, Fernandes P, Béarez P et al. 2013. Impossible Neanderthals? Making string, throwing projectiles and catching small game during Marine Isotope Stage 4. Quat. Sci. Rev. 82:23–40 [Google Scholar]
  71. Harvati K, Harrison T. 2008. Neanderthals Revisited: New Approaches and Perspectives Dordrecht, Neth: Springer. Rev. ed.
  72. Hauser MD, Chomsky N, Fitch WT. 2002. The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?. Science 298:1565–66 [Google Scholar]
  73. Henry AG, Brooks AS, Piperno DR. 2011. Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq, Spy I and II, Belgium). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:486–91 [Google Scholar]
  74. Henry DO, Hietala HJ, Rosen AM, Demidekno YE, Usik VI, Armagan TL. 2004. Human behavioral organization in the Middle Paleolithic: Were Neanderthals different?. Am. Anthropol. 106:17–31 [Google Scholar]
  75. Henshilwood CS, Marean CW. 2003. The origin of modern human behavior. Critique of the models and their test implications. Curr. Anthropol. 44:627–51 [Google Scholar]
  76. Hérisson D, Locht J-L, Auguste P, Tuffreau A. 2013. Néandertal et le feu au Paléolithique moyen ancien. Tour d’horizon des traces de son utilisation dans le Nord de la France. Anthropologie 117:541–78 [Google Scholar]
  77. Hodgson JA, Disotell TR. 2008. No evidence of a Neanderthal contribution to modern human diversity. Genome Biol. 9:206 [Google Scholar]
  78. Holliday TW. 2003. Species concepts, reticulation, and human evolution. Curr. Anthropol. 44:653–73 [Google Scholar]
  79. Hopkins WD, Phillips KA, Bania A, Calcutt SE, Gardner M et al. 2011. Hand preferences for coordinated bimanual actions in 777 great apes: implications for the evolution of handedness in Hominins. J. Hum. Evol. 60:605–11 [Google Scholar]
  80. Hopkinson T. 2013. “Man the symboller”: a contemporary origins myth. Archaeol. Dialogues 20:215–41 [Google Scholar]
  81. Houghton P. 1993. Neandertal supralaryngeal vocal tract. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 90:139–46 [Google Scholar]
  82. Hublin JJ, Talamo S, Julien M, David F, Connet N et al. 2012. Radiocarbon dates from the Grotte du Renne and Saint-Césaire support a Neandertal origin for the Châtelperronian. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109:18743–48 [Google Scholar]
  83. Hublin JJ. 2014. Paleoanthropology: Homo erectus and the limits of a paleontological species. Curr. Biol. 24:R82–84 [Google Scholar]
  84. Humle T, Matsuzawa T. 2009. Laterality in hand use across four tool-use behaviors among the wild chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, West Africa. Am. J. Primatol. 71:40–48 [Google Scholar]
  85. Iordansky NN. 2006. The problem of the evolutionary saltations. Zh. Obshchei Biol. 67:256–67 [Google Scholar]
  86. Jackendoff R. 2010. Your theory of language evolution depends on your theory of language. See Larson et al. 2010, pp. 63–72
  87. Jackendoff R, Wittenberg E. 2014. What can you say without syntax? A hierarchy of grammatical complexity. Measuring Grammatical Complexity Newmeyer FJ, Preston LB. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press In press [Google Scholar]
  88. Jerison HJ. 1973. Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence New York: Academic
  89. Johansson S. 2005. Origins of Language—Constraints on Hypotheses Amsterdam: Benjamins
  90. Johansson S. 2013a. Biolinguistics or physicolinguistics? Is the Third Factor helpful or harmful in explaining language?. Biolinguistics 7:249–75 [Google Scholar]
  91. Johansson S. 2013b. Neanderthals between Man and Beast. Biolinguistics 7:217–27 [Google Scholar]
  92. Johansson S. 2013c. The talking Neanderthals: What do fossils, genetics and archeology say?. Biolinguistics 7:35–74 [Google Scholar]
  93. Johansson S. 2014. Did language evolve incommunicado? Presented at 10th Int. Conf. Evol. Lang. (EVOLANG X), Vienna, April 14–17
  94. Jones BC, Feinberg DR, DeBruine LM, Little AC, Vukovic J. 2008. Integrating cues of social interest and voice pitch in men’s preferences for women’s voices. Biol. Lett. 4:192–94 [Google Scholar]
  95. Jungers WL, Pokempner AA, Kay RF, Cartmill M. 2003. Hypoglossal canal size in living hominoids and the evolution of human speech. Hum. Biol. 75:473–84 [Google Scholar]
  96. Kay RF, Cartmill M, Balow M. 1998. The hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behavior. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:5417–19 [Google Scholar]
  97. Kinsella AR. 2009. Language Evolution and Syntactic Theory New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  98. Klein RG. 1999. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  99. Klein RG. 2000. Archeology and the evolution of human behavior. Evol. Anthropol. 9:17–36 [Google Scholar]
  100. Knecht S, Dräger B, Deppe M, Bobe L, Lohmann H et al. 2000. Handedness and hemispheric language dominance in healthy humans. Brain 123:2512–18 [Google Scholar]
  101. Koller J, Baumer U, Mania D. 2001. High-tech in the Middle Palaeolithic: Neandertal-manufactured pitch identified. Eur. J. Archaeol. 4:385–97 [Google Scholar]
  102. Konopka G, Friedrich T, Davis-Turak J, Winden K, Oldham MC et al. 2012. Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brain. Neuron 75:601–17 [Google Scholar]
  103. Krause J, Orlando L, Serre D, Viola B, Prüfer K et al. 2007. Neanderthals in Central Asia and Siberia. Nature 449:902–4 [Google Scholar]
  104. Lai CSL, Fisher SE, Hurst JA, Vargha-Khadem F, Monaco AP. 2001. A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature 413:519–23 [Google Scholar]
  105. Lalueza-Fox C. 2009. The Neanderthal genome project and beyond. Contrib. Sci. 5:169–75 [Google Scholar]
  106. Langley MC, Clarkson C, Ulm S. 2008. Behavioral complexity in Eurasian Neanderthal populations: a chronological examination of the archaeological evidence. Camb. Archaeol. J. 18:289–307 [Google Scholar]
  107. Larson RK, Déprez V, Yamakido H. 2010. The Evolution of Human Language: Biolinguistic Perspectives Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  108. Levinson SC. 2012. The original sin of cognitive science. Top. Cogn. Sci. 4:396–403 [Google Scholar]
  109. Lieberman DE. 2008. Speculations about the selective basis for modern human craniofacial form. Evol. Anthropol. 17:55–68 [Google Scholar]
  110. Lieberman P, Crelin ES. 1971. On the speech of Neanderthal man. Linguist. Inq. 2:203–22 [Google Scholar]
  111. Lieberman P. 2007a. Current views on Neanderthal speech capabilities: a reply to Boë et al. (2002). J. Phon. 35:552–63 [Google Scholar]
  112. Lieberman P. 2007b. The evolution of human speech: its anatomical and neural bases. Curr. Anthropol. 48:39–66 [Google Scholar]
  113. Lieberman P. 2012. Vocal tract anatomy and the neural bases of talking. J. Phon. 40:608–22 [Google Scholar]
  114. Llorente M, Riba D, Palou L, Carrasco L, Mosquera M et al. 2011. Population-level right-handedness for a coordinated bimanual task in naturalistic housed chimpanzees: replication and extension in 114 animals from Zambia and Spain. Am. J. Primatol. 73:281–90 [Google Scholar]
  115. Lobina DJ. 2012. All tied in knots. Biolinguistics 6:70–78 [Google Scholar]
  116. Lohse K, Frantz LAF. 2014. Neandertal admixture in Eurasia confirmed by maximum likelihood analysis of three genomes. Genetics 196:1241–51 [Google Scholar]
  117. MacLarnon A, Hewitt G. 2004. Increased breathing control: another factor in the evolution of language. Evol. Anthropol. 13:181–97 [Google Scholar]
  118. MacLarnon AM, Hewitt G. 1999. The evolution of human speech: the role of enhanced breathing control. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 109:341–63 [Google Scholar]
  119. Maricic T, Günther T, Georgiev O, Gehre S, Curlin M et al. 2013. A recent evolutionary change affects a regulatory element in the human FOXP2 gene. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30:844–52 [Google Scholar]
  120. Martínez I, Arsuaga J-L, Quam R, Carretero JM, Gracia A, Rodríguez L. 2008. Human hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). J. Hum. Evol. 54:118–24 [Google Scholar]
  121. Martínez I, Rosa M, Arsuaga J-L, Jarabo P, Quam R et al. 2004. Auditory capacities in Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:9976–81 [Google Scholar]
  122. Martínez I, Rosa M, Quam R, Jarabo P, Lorenzo C et al. 2013. Communicative capacities in Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain. Quat. Int. 295:94–101 [Google Scholar]
  123. Mazza PPA, Martini F, Sala B, Magi M, Perla Colombini M et al. 2006. A new Palaeolithic discovery: tar-hafted stone tools in a European Mid-Pleistocene bone-bearing bed. J. Archaeol. Sci. 33:1310–18 [Google Scholar]
  124. McBrearty S, Brooks A. 2000. The revolution that wasn’t: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. J. Hum. Evol. 39:453–563 [Google Scholar]
  125. Mellars P, French JC. 2011. Tenfold population increase in Western Europe at the Neanderthal-to-modern human transition. Science 333:623–27 [Google Scholar]
  126. Mellars P. 2004. Neanderthals and the modern human colonization of Europe. Nature 432:461–65 [Google Scholar]
  127. Mellars P. 2005. The impossible coincidence: a single-species model for the origins of modern human behavior in Europe. Evol. Anthropol. 14:12–27 [Google Scholar]
  128. Mendez FL, Krahn T, Schrack B, Krahn A-M, Veeramah KR et al. 2013. An African American paternal lineage adds an extremely ancient root to the human Y chromosome phylogenetic tree. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 92:454–49 [Google Scholar]
  129. Meyer M, Fu Q, Aximu-Oetri A, Glocke I, Nickel B et al. 2014. A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos. Nature 505:403–6 [Google Scholar]
  130. Meyer M, Kircher M, Gansauge M-T, Li H, Racimo F et al. 2012. A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual. Science 338:222–26 [Google Scholar]
  131. Millar CD, Lambert DM. 2013. Towards a million-year-old genome. Nature 499:34–35 [Google Scholar]
  132. Mithen S. 2005. The Singing Neanderthals London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
  133. Morin E, Laroulandie V. 2012. Presumed symbolic use of diurnal raptors by Neanderthals. PLOS ONE 7:e32856 [Google Scholar]
  134. Morwood MJ, O’Sullivan PB, Aziz F, Raza A. 1998. Fission-track ages of stone tools and fossils on the east Indonesian island of Flores. Nature 392:173–76 [Google Scholar]
  135. Norton CJ, Jin JJH. 2009. The evolution of modern human behavior in East Asia: current perspectives. Evol. Anthropol. 18:247–60 [Google Scholar]
  136. Ovchinnikov IV. 2013. Hominin evolution and gene flow in the Pleistocene Africa. Anthropol. Anz. 70:221–27 [Google Scholar]
  137. Palmer AR. 2002. Chimpanzee right-handedness reconsidered: evaluating the evidence with funnel plots. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 118:191–99 [Google Scholar]
  138. Pennisi E. 2013. More genomes from Denisova cave show mixing of early human groups. Science 340:799 [Google Scholar]
  139. Peresani M, Fiore I, Gala M, Romandini M, Tagliacozzo A. 2011. Late Neandertals and the intentional removal of feathers as evidenced from bird bone taphonomy at Fumane Cave 44 ky B.P., Italy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:3888–93 [Google Scholar]
  140. Piattelli-Palmarini M. 2010. What is language, that it may have evolved, and what is evolution, that it may apply to language. See Larson et al. 2010, pp. 148–62
  141. Pike AWG, Hoffmann DL, Garcia-Diez M, Pettitt PB, Alcolea J et al. 2012. U-series dating of Paleolithic art in 11 caves in Spain. Science 336:1409–13 [Google Scholar]
  142. Poeppel D, Embick D. 2005. Defining the relation between linguistics and neuroscience. Twenty-First Century Psycholinguistics: Four Cornerstones Cutler A. 103–18 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  143. Prüfer K, Racimo F, Patterson N, Jay F, Sankaraman S et al. 2013. The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai mountains. Nature 505:43–49 [Google Scholar]
  144. Quam R, Rak Y. 2008. Auditory ossicles from southwest Asian Mousterian sites. J. Hum. Evol. 54:414–33 [Google Scholar]
  145. Reich D, Green RE, Kircher M, Krause J, Patterson N et al. 2010. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature 468:1053–60 [Google Scholar]
  146. Rendu W, Beauval C, Crevecoeur I, Bayle P, Balzeau A et al. 2014. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111:81–86 [Google Scholar]
  147. Richards MP, Trinkaus E. 2009. Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:16034–39 [Google Scholar]
  148. Riel-Salvatore J, Ludeke I, Negrino F, Holt BM. 2013. A spatial analysis of the Late Mousterian levels of Riparo Bombrini (Balzi Rossi, Italy). Can. J. Archaeol. 37:70–92 [Google Scholar]
  149. Roebroeks W, Verpoorte A. 2009. A “language-free” explanation for differences between the European Middle and Upper Paleolithic record. See Botha & Knight 2009, pp. 150–66
  150. Roebroeks W, Villa P. 2011. On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:5209–14 [Google Scholar]
  151. Schepartz LA. 1993. Language and modern human origins. Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 36:91–126 [Google Scholar]
  152. Shahack-Gross R, Berna F, Karkansas P, Lemorini C, Gopher A, Barkai R. 2014. Evidence for the repeated use of a central hearth at Middle Pleistocene (300 ky ago) Qesem Cave, Israel. J. Archaeol. Sci. 44:12–21 [Google Scholar]
  153. Shapiro B, Hofreiler M. 2014. A paleogenomic perspective on evolution and gene function: new insights from ancient DNA. Science 343:6169 [Google Scholar]
  154. Skoglund P, Northoff BH, Shunkov MV, Derevianko AP, Pääbo S. 2014. Separating endogenous ancient DNA from modern day contamination in a Siberian Neandertal. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111:2229–34 [Google Scholar]
  155. Somel M, Liu X, Khaitovich P. 2013. Human brain evolution: transcripts, metabolites and their regulators. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14:112–27 [Google Scholar]
  156. Sorensen A, Roebroeks W, van Gijn A. 2014. Fire production in the deep past? The expedient strike-a-light model. J. Archaeol. Sci. 42:476–86 [Google Scholar]
  157. Soressi M, McPherron SP, Lenoir M, Dogandžić T, Goldberg P et al. 2013. Neandertals made the first specialized bone tools in Europe. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:14186–90 [Google Scholar]
  158. Spikins P. 2009. Autism, the integrations of “difference” and the origins of modern human behaviour. Camb. Archaeol. J. 19:179–201 [Google Scholar]
  159. Spiteri E, Konopka G, Coppola G, Bomar J, Oldham M et al. 2007. Identification of the transcriptional targets of FOXP2, a gene linked to speech and language, in developing human brain. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81:1144–57 [Google Scholar]
  160. Steele J, Uomini N. 2009. Can the archaeology of manual specialization tell us anything about language evolution? A survey of the state of play. Camb. Archaeol. J. 19:97–110 [Google Scholar]
  161. Stiner MC, Gopher A, Barkai R. 2011. Hearth-side socioeconomics, hunting and paleoecology during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave, Israel. J. Hum. Evol. 60:213–33 [Google Scholar]
  162. Stowe LA, Haverkort M, Zwarts S. 2005. Rethinking the neurological basis of language. Lingua 115:997–1042 [Google Scholar]
  163. Stromswold K. 2001. The heritability of language: a review and metaanalysis of twin, adoption, and linkage studies. Language 77:647–723 [Google Scholar]
  164. Stromswold K. 2010. Genetics and the evolution of language: what genetic studies reveal about the evolution of language. See Larson et al. 2010, pp. 176–90
  165. Tallerman M, Gibson KR. 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Language Evolution Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  166. Trinkaus E, Shipman P. 1993. The Neandertals London: Pimlico
  167. Uomini NT. 2009. The prehistory of handedness: archaeological data and comparative ethology. J. Hum. Evol. 57:411–19 [Google Scholar]
  168. Vernot B, Akey JM. 2014. Resurrecting surviving Neandertal lineages from modern human genomes. Science 343:1017–21 [Google Scholar]
  169. Waddell PJ. 2013. Happy New Year Homo erectus? More evidence for interbreeding with archaics predating the modern human/Neanderthal split. arXiv:1312.7749 [q-bio.PE]
  170. Wales N. 2012. Modeling Neanderthal clothing using ethnographic analogues. J. Hum. Evol. 63:781–95 [Google Scholar]
  171. Wall JD, Kim SK. 2007. Inconsistencies in Neanderthal genomic DNA sequences. PLOS Genet. 3:e175 [Google Scholar]
  172. Weissengruber GE, Forstenpointner G, Peters G, Kübber-Heiss A, Fitch WT. 2002. Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus). J. Anat. 201:195–209 [Google Scholar]
  173. West-Eberhard MJ. 2003. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  174. Wilkins J, Schoville BJ, Brown KS, Chazan M. 2012. Evidence for early hafted hunting technology. Science 338:942–46 [Google Scholar]
  175. Zilhão J, Angelucci DE, Badal-García E, d’Errico F, Daniel F et al. 2010. Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:1023–28 [Google Scholar]
  176. Zilhão J. 2007. The emergence of ornaments and art: an archaeological perspective on the origins of “behavioral modernity.”. J. Archaeol. Res. 15:1–54 [Google Scholar]
  177. Zilhão J. 2012. Personal ornaments and symbolism among the Neanderthals. Dev. Quat. Sci. 16:35–49 [Google Scholar]
  178. Zuidema WH. 2005.The major transitions in the evolution of language. PhD thesis, Univ. Edinburgh. 177 pp.
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124945
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error