Language emergence describes moments in historical time when nonlinguistic systems become linguistic. Because language can be invented de novo in the manual modality, this offers insight into the emergence of language in ways that the oral modality cannot. Here we focus on homesign, gestures developed by deaf individuals who cannot acquire spoken language and have not been exposed to sign language. We contrast homesign with () gestures that hearing individuals produce when they speak, as these cospeech gestures are a potential source of input to homesigners, and () established sign languages, as these codified systems display the linguistic structure that homesign has the potential to assume. We find that the manual modality takes on linguistic properties, even in the hands of a child not exposed to a language model. But it grows into full-blown language only with the support of a community that transmits the system to the next generation.*

Keyword(s): gesturehomesignsign languages

Associated Article

There are media items related to this article:
Language Emergence: Visual Abstract

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abner N. 2012. There once was a verb: the predicative core of possessive and nominalization structures in American Sign Language PhD thesis, Dep. Linguist., Univ. Calif., Los Angeles. 175 pp [Google Scholar]
  2. Abner N, Flaherty M, Stangl K, Brentari D, Goldin-Meadow S. 2015. Emergent lexical categories: nouns and verbs in homesign and Nicaraguan Sign Language Presented at Formal and Experimental Approaches to Sign Language Theory (FEAST), Barcelona, Spain, May 4–6 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson SR. 1976. On the notion of subject in ergative languages. Subject and Topic C Li, pp. 1–24 New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson SR. 2004. Doctor Dolittle's Delusion: Animals and the Uniqueness of Human Language New Haven: Yale Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  5. Applebaum L, Coppola M, Goldin-Meadow S. 2014. Prosody in a communication system developed without a language model. Sign Lang. Linguist. 17:181–212 [Google Scholar]
  6. Balog H, Brentari D. 2008. The relationship between early gestures and intonation. First Lang 28:141–63 [Google Scholar]
  7. Battison R. 1978. Lexical Borrowing in American Sign Language Silver Spring, MD: Linstok [Google Scholar]
  8. Benedicto E, Brentari D. 2004. Where did all the arguments go? Argument-changing properties of classifiers in ASL. Nat. Lang. Linguist. Theory 22:1–68 [Google Scholar]
  9. Brentari D. 1998. A Prosodic Model of Sign Language Phonology Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  10. Brentari D. 2010. Sign Languages: A Cambridge Language Survey Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  11. Brentari D, Coppola M, Mazzoni L, Goldin-Meadow S. 2012a. When does a system become phonological? Handshape production in gesturers, signers, and homesigners. Nat. Lang. Linguist. Theory 30:1–31 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brentari D, Di Renzo A, Keane J, Volterra V. 2015a. Cognitive, cultural, and linguistic sources of a handshape distinction expressing agentivity. TopiCS 7:95–123 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brentari D, Coppola M, Cho PW, Senghas A. 2016. Handshape complexity as a precursor to phonology: variation, emergence, and acquisition. Lang. Acquis.In press [Google Scholar]
  14. Brentari D, Coppola M. 2013. What sign language creation teaches us about language. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Cogn. Sci. 4:201–11 [Google Scholar]
  15. Brentari D, Coppola M, Jung A, Goldin-Meadow S. 2013. Acquiring word class distinctions in American Sign Language: evidence from handshape. Lang. Learn. Dev. 9:130–50 [Google Scholar]
  16. Brentari D, Eccarius P. 2010. Handshape contrast in sign languages. Sign Languages D Brentari 284–311 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Brentari D, Falk J, Wolford G. 2015b. The acquisition of American Sign Language prosody. Phonol. Anal. 91:144–68 [Google Scholar]
  18. Brentari D, González C, Seidl A, Wilbur R. 2011. Sensitivity to visual prosodic cues in signers and nonsigners. Lang. Speech 54:49–72 [Google Scholar]
  19. Brentari D, Nadolske M, Wolford G. 2012b. Can experience with gesture influence the prosody of a sign language? ASL prosodic cues in bimodal bilinguals. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 15:402–12 [Google Scholar]
  20. Butcher C, Mylander C, Goldin-Meadow S. 1991. Displaced communication in a self-styled gesture system: pointing at the non-present. Cogn. Dev. 6:315–42 [Google Scholar]
  21. Capirci O, Iverson JM, Pizzuto E, Volterra V. 1996. Communicative gestures during the transition to two-word speech. J. Child Lang. 23:645–673 [Google Scholar]
  22. Cartmill E, Hunsicker D, Goldin-Meadow S. 2014. Pointing and naming are not redundant: Children use gesture to modify nouns before they modify nouns in speech. Dev. Psychol. 50:1660–66 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chomsky N. 1956. Three models for the description of language. IRE Trans. Inf. Theory 2:113–24 [Google Scholar]
  24. Chomsky N. 1957. Syntactic Structures The Hague/Paris: Mouton [Google Scholar]
  25. Clark EV. 2009. First Language Acquisition Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  26. Cooperrider K. 2014. Body-directed gestures: pointing to the self and beyond. J. Pragmat. 71:1–16 [Google Scholar]
  27. Coppola M, Brentari D. 2014. From iconic handshapes to grammatical contrasts: longitudinal evidence from a child homesigner. Front. Psychol. Lang. Sci. 5:830 [Google Scholar]
  28. Coppola M, Newport E. 2005. Grammatical subjects in homesign: abstract linguistic structure in adult primary gesture systems without linguistic input. PNAS 102:19249–53 [Google Scholar]
  29. Coppola M, Senghas A. 2010. Deixis in an emerging sign language. Sign Languages: A Cambridge Language Survey D Brentari 543–69 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  30. Davis J. 2006. A historical linguistic account of sign language among North American Indian groups. Multilingualism and Sign Languages: From the Great Plains to Australia; Sociolinguistics of the Deaf Community C Lucas 123–35 Washington, DC: Gallaudet Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  31. de Vos C. 2012. Sign-spatiality in Kata Kolok: how a village sign language of Bali inscribes its signing space PhD thesis, Radboud Univ., Nijmegen, Neth [Google Scholar]
  32. de Vos C, Pfau R. 2015. Sign language typology: the contribution of rural sign languages. Annu. Rev. Linguist. 1:265–88 [Google Scholar]
  33. DeGraff M. 1999. Language Creation and Language Change: Creolization, Diachrony and Development Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  34. DeGraff M. 2001. On the origin of Creoles: a Cartesian critique of Neo-Darwinian linguistics. Linguist. Typol. 5.2/5.3:213–310 [Google Scholar]
  35. DePaolis R, Vihman M, Kunnari S. 2008. Prosody in production at the onset of word use: a cross-linguistic study. J. Phon. 36:406–22 [Google Scholar]
  36. Dixon RMW. 1994. Ergativity Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  37. Duncan S. 2005. Gesture in signing: a case study from Taiwan Sign Language. Lang. Linguist. 6:279–318 [Google Scholar]
  38. Du Bois J. 1987. The discourse basis of ergativity. Language 63:805–55 [Google Scholar]
  39. Feldman H, Goldin-Meadow S, Gleitman L. 1978. Beyond Herodotus: the creation of language by linguistically deprived deaf children. Action, Symbol, and Gesture: The Emergence of Language A Lock 351–414 New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  40. Fenlon J, Denmark T, Campbell R, Woll B. 2007. Seeing sentence boundaries. Sign Lang. Linguist. 10:177–200 [Google Scholar]
  41. Fenlon J, Schembri A, Rentelis R, Cormier K. 2013. Variation in handshape and orientation in British Sign Language: the case of the ‘1’ hand configuration. Lang. Commun. 33:69–91 [Google Scholar]
  42. Fischer S, Dong Q. 2010. Variation in East Asian sign language structures. Sign Languages: A Cambridge Language Survey D Brentari 502–21 Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  43. Flaherty M. 2014. The emergence of argument structural devices in Nicaraguan Sign Language PhD thesis, Dep. Psychol., Univ. Chicago. 125 pp [Google Scholar]
  44. Frishberg N. 1975. Arbitrariness and iconicity. Language 51:696–719 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fusellier-Souza I. 2006. Emergence and development of signed languages: from a semiogenetic point of view. Sign Lang. Stud. 7:30–56 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gershkoff-Stowe L, Goldin-Meadow S. 2002. Is there a natural order for expressing semantic relations. Cogn. Psychol. 45:375–412 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gibson E, Piantadosi ST, Brink K, Bergen L, Lim E, Saxe R. 2013. A noisy-channel account of crosslinguistic word order variation. Psychol. Sci. 24:1079–88 [Google Scholar]
  48. Goldin-Meadow S. 1982. The resilience of recursion: a study of a communication system developed without a conventional language model. Language Acquisition: The State of the Art E Wanner, LR Gleitman 51–77 NewYork: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  49. Goldin-Meadow S. 2003a. Hearing Gestures: How Our Hands Help Us Think Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  50. Goldin-Meadow S. 2003b. The Resilience of Language: What Gesture Creation in Deaf Children Can Tell Us About How All Children Learn Language New York: Psychology [Google Scholar]
  51. Goldin-Meadow S. 2003c. Thought before language: Do we think ergative?. Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Thought D Gentner, S Goldin-Meadow 493–522 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  52. Goldin-Meadow S. 2005. What language creation in the manual modality tells us about the foundations of language. Linguist. Rev. 22:199–225 [Google Scholar]
  53. Goldin-Meadow S. 2010. Widening the lens on language learning: language in deaf children and adults in Nicaragua. Hum. Dev. 53:235–312 [Google Scholar]
  54. Goldin-Meadow S. 2014. How gesture helps children learn language. Language in Interaction: Studies in Honor of Eve V. Clark I Arnon, M Tice, C Kurumada, B Estigarribia 157–71 Amsterdam: Benjamins [Google Scholar]
  55. Goldin-Meadow S. 2015. The impact of time on predicate forms in the manual modality: signers, homesigners, and silent gesturers. Top. Cogn. Sci. 7:169–84 [Google Scholar]
  56. Goldin-Meadow S, Brentari D. 2016. Gesture, sign and language: the coming of age of sign language and gesture studies. Brain Behav. Sci. 39: In press. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X15001247 [Google Scholar]
  57. Goldin-Meadow S, Brentari D, Coppola M, Horton L, Senghas A. 2015a. Watching language grow in the manual modality: nominals, predicates, and handshapes. Cognition 136:381–95 [Google Scholar]
  58. Goldin-Meadow S, Butcher C, Mylander C, Dodge M. 1994. Nouns and verbs in a self-styled gesture system: What's in a name. Cogn. Psychol. 27:259–319 [Google Scholar]
  59. Goldin-Meadow S, Feldman H. 1977. The development of language-like communication without a language model. Science 197:401–3 [Google Scholar]
  60. Goldin-Meadow S, McNeill D, Singleton J. 1996. Silence is liberating: removing the handcuffs on grammatical expression in the manual modality. Psychol. Rev. 103:34–55 [Google Scholar]
  61. Goldin-Meadow S, Morford M. 1985. Gesture in early child language: studies of deaf and hearing children. Merrill-Palmer Q 31:145–76 [Google Scholar]
  62. Goldin-Meadow S, Mylander C. 1983. Gestural communication in deaf children: the non-effects of parental input on language development. Science 221:372–74 [Google Scholar]
  63. Goldin-Meadow S, Mylander C. 1984. Gestural communication in deaf children: the effects and non-effects of parental input on early language development. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. 49:1–121 [Google Scholar]
  64. Goldin-Meadow S, Mylander C. 1998. Spontaneous sign systems created by deaf children in two cultures. Nature 391:279–81 [Google Scholar]
  65. Goldin-Meadow S, Mylander C, Butcher C. 1995. The resilience of combinatorial structure at the word level: morphology in self-styled gesture systems. Cognition 56:195–262 [Google Scholar]
  66. Goldin-Meadow S, Mylander C, Franklin A. 2007. How children make language out of gesture: morphological structure in gesture systems developed by American and Chinese deaf children. Cogn. Psychol. 55:87–135 [Google Scholar]
  67. Goldin-Meadow S, Namboodiripad S, Mylander C, Ozyurek A, Sancar B. 2015b. The resilience of structure built around the predicate: homesign gesture systems in Turkish and American deaf children. J. Cogn. Dev. 16:55–88 [Google Scholar]
  68. Goldin-Meadow S, Shield A, Lenzen D, Herzig M, Padden C. 2012. The gestures ASL signers use tell us when they are ready to learn math. Cognition 123:448–53 [Google Scholar]
  69. Goldin-Meadow S, So W-C, Ozyurek A, Mylander C. 2008. The natural order of events: how speakers of different languages represent events nonverbally. PNAS 105:9163–68 [Google Scholar]
  70. Goldin-Meadow S, Yang C. 2016. Statistical evidence that a child can create a combinatorial linguistic system without linguistic input: implications for language evolution. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. In press [Google Scholar]
  71. Groce NE. 1985. Everyone Here Spoke Sign Language: Hereditary Deafness on Martha's Vineyard Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  72. Hall ML, Ferreira VS, Mayberry RI. 2013. Investigating constituent order change with elicited pantomime: a functional account of SVO emergence. Cogn. Sci. 38:943–72 [Google Scholar]
  73. Hockett CF. 1960. The origin of speech. Sci. Am. 203:88–96 [Google Scholar]
  74. Hunsicker D. 2012. Complex nominal constituent development in Nicaraguan homesign PhD thesis, Dep. Psychol., Univ. Chicago. 116 pp [Google Scholar]
  75. Hunsicker D, Goldin-Meadow S. 2012. Hierarchical structure in a self-created communication system: building nominal constituents in homesign. Language 88:732–63 [Google Scholar]
  76. Hunsicker D, Goldin-Meadow S. 2013. How handshape type can distinguish between nouns and verbs in homesign. Gesture 13:354–76 [Google Scholar]
  77. Kegl J, Senghas A, Coppola M. 1999. Creation through contact: sign language emergence and sign language change in Nicaragua. Language Creation and Language Change: Creolization, Diachrony, and Development M DeGraff 179–237 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  78. Kendon A. 1980. Gesture and speech: two aspects of the process of utterance. Nonverbal Communication and Language MR Key, pp. 207–27 The Hague: Mouton [Google Scholar]
  79. Kendon A, Cook M. 1969. Consistency of gaze patterns in social interaction. Br. J. Psychol. 60:481–94 [Google Scholar]
  80. Klima E, Bellugi U. 1979. The Signs of Language Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  81. Krahmer E, Swerts M. 2005. How children and adults produce and perceive uncertainty in audiovisual speech. Lang. Speech 48:29–54 [Google Scholar]
  82. Krahmer E, Swerts M. 2007. The effects of visual beats on prosodic prominence: acoustic analyses, auditory perception and visual perception. J. Mem. Lang. 57:396–414 [Google Scholar]
  83. Ladd R. 2014. Simultaneous Structure in Phonology Oxford, UK/New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  84. Langus A, Nespor M. 2010. Cognitive systems struggling for word order. Cogn. Psychol. 60:291–318 [Google Scholar]
  85. Liddell S. 2003. Grammar, Gesture, and Meaning in American Sign Language Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  86. Lightfoot D. 1999. The Development of Language: Acquisition, Change and Evolution Oxford, UK: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  87. Lindblom B. 1992. Phonological units as adaptive emergents of lexical development. Phonological Development: Models, Research, Implications CA Ferguson, L Menn, C Stoel-Gammon 131–63 Timonium, MD: York [Google Scholar]
  88. Lindblom B, MacNeilage P, Studdert-Kennedy M. 1984. Self-organizing processes and the explanation of language universals. Explanations for Language Universals B Butterworth, B Comrie, Ö Dahl 181–203 Berlin: de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  89. Locke J. 1993. The Child's Path to Spoken Language Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  90. Lucas C, Valli C. 1992. Linguistics of American Sign Language: A Resource Text for ASL Users Washington, DC: Gallaudet Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  91. MacWhinney B. 1978. Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development, vol. 43: The Acquisition of Morphophonology Oxford, UK: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  92. Mazzoni L. 2009. Classificatori e Impersonamento nella Lingua dei Segni Italiana Pisa: Plus [Google Scholar]
  93. McNeill D. 1992. Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal About Thought Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  94. McNeill D. 2000. Language and Gesture Cambridge, UK/NewYork: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  95. McNeill D. 2005. Gesture and Thought Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  96. Meir I. 2002. Across-modality perspective on verb agreement. Nat. Lang. Linguist. Theory 20:413–50 [Google Scholar]
  97. Meir I, Padden CA, Aronoff M, Sandler W. 2007. The body as subject. J. Linguist. 43:531–63 [Google Scholar]
  98. Meir I, Lifshitz A, Ilkbasaran D, Padden C. 2010a. The interaction of animacy and word order in human languages: a study of strategies in a novel communication task. Proceedings of the 8th Evolution of Language Conference ADM Smith, M Schouwstra, B de Boer, K Smith 455–56 Singapore: World Sci. [Google Scholar]
  99. Meir I, Sandler W, Padden C, Aronoff M. 2010b. Emerging sign languages. Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language, and Education M Marschark, P Spencer 2267–80 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  100. Meir I, Padden CA, Aronoff M, Sandler W. 2013. Competing iconicities in the structure of language. Cogn. Linguist. 24:309–43 [Google Scholar]
  101. Mylander C, Goldin-Meadow S. 1991. Home sign systems in deaf children: the development of morphology without a conventional language model. Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, vol. 2: Psychology P Siple, SD Fischer 41–63 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  102. Nespor M, Sandler W. 1999. Prosody in Israeli Sign Language. Lang. Speech 42:143–76 [Google Scholar]
  103. Newport EL. 1999. Reduced input in the acquisition of signed languages: contributions to the study of creolization. Language Creation and Language Change: Creolization, Diachrony, and Development M DeGraff 161–78 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  104. Özçalışkan S, Lucero C, Goldin-Meadow S. 2016. Does language shape silent gesture. Cognition 148:10–18 [Google Scholar]
  105. Padden C. 1988. Interaction of Morphology and Syntax in American Sign Language New York: Garland Press [Google Scholar]
  106. Padden C, Meir I, Aronoff M, Sandler W. 2010. The grammar of space in two new sign languages. Sign Languages: A Cambridge Survey D Brentari 573–95 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  107. Petitto LA. 1987. On the autonomy of language and gesture: evidence from the acquisition of personal pronouns in American Sign Language. Cognition 27:1–52 [Google Scholar]
  108. Petitto LA, Holowkab S, Sergioc L, Levy B, Ostry D. 2004. Baby hands that move to the rhythm of language: hearing babies acquiring sign languages babble silently on the hands. Cognition 93:43–73 [Google Scholar]
  109. Petitto LA, Marentette PF. 1991. Babbling in the manual mode: evidence for the ontogeny of language. Science 251:1483–96 [Google Scholar]
  110. Polich L. 2005. The Emergence of the Deaf Community in Nicaragua: “With Sign Language You Can Learn So Much.” Washington, DC: Gallaudet Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  111. Ravid D, Schiff R. 2009. Morphophonological categories of noun plurals in Hebrew. Linguistics 47:45–63 [Google Scholar]
  112. Richie R, Yang C, Coppola M. 2014. Modeling the emergence of lexicons in homesign systems. Top. Cogn. Sci. 6:183–195 [Google Scholar]
  113. Sandler W, Aronoff M, Meir I, Padden C. 2011a. The gradual emergence of phonological form in a new language. Nat. Lang. Linguist. Theory 29:503–43 [Google Scholar]
  114. Sandler W, Lillo-Martin D. 2006. Sign Language and Linguistic Universals Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  115. Sandler W, Meir I, Dachkovsky S, Padden C, Aronoff M. 2011b. The emergence of complexity in prosody and syntax. Lingua 121:2014–33 [Google Scholar]
  116. Sandler W, Meir I, Padden C, Aronoff M. 2005. The emergence of grammar in a new sign language. PNAS 102:2661–65 [Google Scholar]
  117. Sandler W. 2012. Visual prosody. Handbook of Sign Language Linguistics R Pfau, M Steinbach, B Woll 55–77 Berlin: Mouton [Google Scholar]
  118. Schembri A, Jones C, Burnham D. 2005. Comparing action gestures and classifier verbs of motion: evidence from Australian Sign Language, Taiwan Sign Language, and nonsigners’ gestures without speech. J. Deaf Stud. Deaf Educ. 10:272–90 [Google Scholar]
  119. Schick B. 1987. The acquisition of classifier predicates in American Sign Language PhD thesis, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN [Google Scholar]
  120. Schlenker P. 2015. Visible meaning: sign language and the foundations of semantics Unpubl. ms. http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/002447 [Google Scholar]
  121. Senghas A, Coppola M. 2001. Children creating language: how Nicaraguan Sign Language acquired a spatial grammar. Psychol. Sci. 12:323–28 [Google Scholar]
  122. Senghas A. 2003. Inter-generational influence and ontogenetic development in the emergence of spatial grammar in Nicaraguan Sign Language. Cogn. Dev. 18:511–31 [Google Scholar]
  123. Singleton JL, Morford JP, Goldin-Meadow S. 1993. Once is not enough: standards of well-formedness in manual communication created over three different timespans. Language 69:683–715 [Google Scholar]
  124. So C, Coppola M, Licciardello V, Goldin-Meadow S. 2005. The seeds of spatial grammar in the manual modality. Cogn. Sci. 29:1029–43 [Google Scholar]
  125. Stokoe WC Jr. 1960. Sign Language Structure: An Outline of the Visual Communication Systems of the American Deaf Buffalo, NY: Univ. Buffalo [Google Scholar]
  126. Stokoe WC Jr., Casterline D, Croneberg C. 1965. A Dictionary of American Sign Language on Linguistic Principles Silver Spring, MD: Linstok [Google Scholar]
  127. Strickland B, Geraci C, Chemla E, Schlenker P, Kelepir M, Pfau R. 2015. Event representations constrain the structure of language: sign language as a window into universally accessible linguistic biases. PNAS 112:5968–73 [Google Scholar]
  128. Supalla T. 1982. Structure and acquisition of verbs of motion in American Sign Language PhD thesis, Dep. Psychol., Univ. Calif., San Diego. 135 pp [Google Scholar]
  129. Supalla T, Clarke P. 2015. Sign Language Archeology Washington, DC: Gallaudet Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  130. Tomasello M. 2008. Origins of Human Communication Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  131. Volterra V. 1983. Gestures, signs and words at two years, or when does communication become language?. Language in Sign J Kyle, B Woll 109–15 London: Croom Helm [Google Scholar]
  132. Volterra V. 1987. From single communicative signal to linguistic combinations in hearing and deaf children. Symbolisme et connaissance [Symbolism and Knowledge] J Montangero, A Tryphon, S Dionet 89–106 Geneva: Fond. Arch. Jean Piaget [Google Scholar]
  133. Volterra V, Iverson JM. 1995. When do modality factors affect the course of language acquisition?. Language, Gesture, and Space K Emmorey, J Reilly 371–90 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  134. Wedel A. 2004. Self-organization and categorical behavior in phonology PhD thesis, Dep. Psychol., Univ. Calif., San Diego. 248 pp [Google Scholar]
  135. Zwitserlood I. 2003. Classifying Hand Configurations in Nederlandse Gebarentaal [Sign Language of the Netherlands].. Utrecht, Neth.: LOT
  136. Zwitserlood I. 2012. Classifiers. Handbook of Sign Language Linguistics R Pfau, M Steinbach, B Woll 158–86 Berlin: Mouton [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error