1932

Abstract

Bilingualism was once thought to result in cognitive disadvantages, but research in recent decades has demonstrated that experience with two (or more) languages confers a bilingual advantage in executive functions and may delay the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. However, conflicting evidence has emerged leading to questions concerning the robustness of the bilingual advantage for both executive functions and dementia incidence. Some investigators have failed to find evidence of a bilingual advantage; others have suggested that bilingual advantages may be entirely spurious, while proponents of the advantage case have continued to defend it. A heated debate has ensued, and the field has now reached an impasse. This review critically examines evidence for and against the bilingual advantage in executive functions, cognitive aging, and brain plasticity, before outlining how future research could shed light on this debate and advance knowledge of how experience with multiple languages affects cognition and the brain.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011718-011820
2019-01-14
2024-04-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/linguistics/5/1/annurev-linguistics-011718-011820.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011718-011820&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abutalebi J 2008. Neural aspects of second language representation and language control. Acta Psychol 128:466–78
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abutalebi J, Della Rosa PA, Ding G, Weekes B, Costa A, Green DW 2013. Language proficiency modulates the engagement of cognitive control areas in multilinguals. Cortex 49:905–11
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Abutalebi J, Della Rosa PA, Tettamanti M, Green DW, Cappa SF 2009. Bilingual aphasia and language control: a follow-up fMRI and intrinsic connectivity study. Brain Lang 109:141–56
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Abutalebi J, Green DW 2007. Bilingual language production: the neurocognition of language representation and control. J. Neurolinguistics 20:242–75
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Abutalebi J, Green DW 2016. Neuroimaging of language control in bilinguals: neural adaptation and reserve. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 19:689–98
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Abutalebi J, Guidi L, Borsa V, Canini M, Della Rosa PA et al. 2015. Bilingualism provides a neural reserve for aging populations. Neuropsychologia 69:201–10
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Abutalebi J, Della Rosa PA, Green DW, Hernandez M, Scifo P et al. 2012. Bilingualism tunes the anterior cingulate cortex for conflict monitoring. Cereb. Cortex 22:2076–86
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Adesope OO, Lavin T, Thompson T, Ungerleider C 2010. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive correlates of bilingualism. Rev. Educ. Res. 80:207–45
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Adi-Japha E, Berberich-Artzi J, Libnawi A 2010. Cognitive flexibility in drawings of bilingual children. Child Dev 81:1356–66
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Alladi S, Bak TH, Duggirala V, Surampudi B, Shailaja M et al. 2013. Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology 81:1938–44
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Alladi S, Bak TH, Mekala S, Rajan A, Chaudhuri JR et al. 2015. Impact of bilingualism on cognitive outcome after stroke. Stroke 47:258–61
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Alladi S, Bak TH, Shailaja M, Gollahalli D, Rajan A et al. 2017. Bilingualism delays the onset of behavioral but not aphasic forms of frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychologia 99:207–12
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Antón E, Duñabeitia JA, Estévez A, Hernández JA, Castillo A et al. 2014. Is there a bilingual advantage in the ANT task? Evidence from children. Front. Psychol. 5:398
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Antoniou M, Best CT, Tyler MD, Kroos C 2010. Language context elicits native-like stop voicing in early bilinguals’ productions in both L1 and L2. J. Phon. 38:640–53
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Antoniou M, Best CT, Tyler MD, Kroos C 2011. Inter-language interference in VOT production by L2-dominant bilinguals: asymmetries in phonetic code-switching. J. Phon. 39:558–70
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Antoniou M, Gunasekera GM, Wong PCM 2013. Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: a hypothesis for future research. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 37:2689–98
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Antoniou M, Liang E, Ettlinger M, Wong PCM 2015. The bilingual advantage in phonetic learning. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 18:683–695
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Antoniou M, Wright SM 2017. Uncovering the mechanisms responsible for why language learning may promote healthy cognitive aging. Front. Psychol. 8:2217
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Atkinson A 2016. Does bilingualism delay the development of dementia. J. Eur. Psychol. Stud. 7:43–50
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bak TH 2015. Beyond a simple “yes” and “no.”. Cortex 73:332–33
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bak TH 2016. The impact of bilingualism on cognitive ageing and dementia: finding a path through a forest of confounding variables. Linguist. Approaches Biling. 6:205–26
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Bak TH, Alladi S 2016. Bilingualism, dementia and the tale of many variables: why we need to move beyond the Western World. Commentary on Lawton et al. 2015 and Fuller-Thomson 2015. Cortex 74:315–17
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bak TH, Nissan JJ, Allerhand MM, Deary IJ 2014. Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging. Ann. Neurol. 75:959–63
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Barac R, Bialystok E, Castro DC, Sanchez M 2014. The cognitive development of young dual language learners: a critical review. Early Child. Res. Q. 29:699–714
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Baum S, Titone D 2014. Moving toward a neuroplasticity view of bilingualism, executive control, and aging. Appl. Psycholinguist. 35:857–94
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Bayliss DM, Jarrold C, Gunn DM, Baddeley AD 2003. The complexities of complex span: explaining individual differences in working memory in children and adults. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 132:71–92
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Bialystok E 1999. Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind. Child Dev 70:636–44
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Bialystok E 2006. Effect of bilingualism and computer video game experience on the Simon task. Can. J. Exp. Psychol. 60:68–79
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Bialystok E 2009. Bilingualism: the good, the bad, and the indifferent. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 12:3–11
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Bialystok E 2017. The bilingual adaptation: how minds accommodate experience. Psychol. Bull. 143:233–62
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Bialystok E, Abutalebi J, Bak TH, Burke DM, Kroll JF 2016. Aging in two languages: implications for public health. Ageing Res. Rev. 27:56–60
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Freedman M 2007. Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsychologia 45:459–64
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Klein R, Viswanathan M 2004. Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task. Psychol. Aging 19:290–303
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Bialystok E, Craik F, Luk G 2008. Cognitive control and lexical access in younger and older bilinguals. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 34:859–73
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Luk G 2012. Bilingualism: consequences for mind and brain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 16:240–50
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Ryan J 2006. Executive control in a modified antisaccade task: effects of aging and bilingualism. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 32:1341–54
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Bialystok E, Kroll JF, Green DW, MacWhinney B, Craik FIM 2015. Publication bias and the validity of evidence: What's the connection. Psychol. Sci. 26:944–46
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Bialystok E, Martin MM 2004. Attention and inhibition in bilingual children: evidence from the dimensional change card sort task. Dev. Sci. 7:325–39
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Bialystok E, Martin MM, Viswanathan M 2005. Bilingualism across the lifespan: the rise and fall of inhibitory control. Int. J. Biling. 9:103–19
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Bialystok E, Poarch G, Luo L, Craik FIM 2014. Effects of bilingualism and aging on executive function and working memory. Psychol. Aging 29:696–705
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Bialystok E, Sullivan MD 2017. Studies in Bilingualism, vol. 53: Growing Old with Two Languages: Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive Aging Amsterdam: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Brito N, Barr R 2012. Influence of bilingualism on memory generalization during infancy. Dev. Sci. 15:812–16
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Byers-Heinlein K 2014. Bilingual advantages, bilingual delays: sometimes an illusion. Appl. Psycholinguist. 35:902–5
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Calvo A, Bialystok E 2014. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning. Cognition 130:278–88
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Calvo N, García AM, Manoiloff L, Ibáñez A 2016. Bilingualism and cognitive reserve: a critical overview and a plea for methodological innovations. Front. Aging Neurosci. 7:249
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Carlson SM, Meltzoff AN 2008. Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Dev. Sci. 11:282–98
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Chertkow H, Whitehead V, Phillips N, Wolfson C, Atherton J, Bergman H 2010. Multilingualism (but not always bilingualism) delays the onset of Alzheimer disease: evidence from a bilingual community. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord. 24:118–25
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Clare L, Whitaker CJ, Craik FIM, Bialystok E, Martyr A et al. 2016. Bilingualism, executive control, and age at diagnosis among people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease in Wales. J. Neuropsychol. 10:163–85
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Costa A, Hernández M, Costa-Faidella J, Sebastián-Gallés N 2009. On the bilingual advantage in conflict processing: Now you see it, now you don't. Cognition 113:135–49
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Costa A, Hernández M, Sebastián-Gallés N 2008. Bilingualism aids conflict resolution: evidence from the ANT task. Cognition 106:59–86
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Costa A, Sebastián-Gallés N 2014. How does the bilingual experience sculpt the brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15:336–45
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Craik FIM, Bialystok E, Freedman M 2010. Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease: bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve. Neurology 75:1726–29
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Crinion J, Turner R, Grogan A, Hanakawa T, Noppeney U et al. 2006. Language control in the bilingual brain. Science 312:1537–40
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Cummins J 1978. Bilingualism and the development of metalinguistic awareness. J. Cross-Cult. Psychol. 9:131–49
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Darcy NT 1953. A review of the literature on the effects of bilingualism upon the measurement of intelligence. J. Genet. Psychol. 82:21–57
    [Google Scholar]
  56. de Bruin A, Treccani B, Della Sala S 2015. Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: an example of publication bias. Psychol. Sci. 26:99–107
    [Google Scholar]
  57. De Cat C, Gusnanto A, Serratrice L 2018. Identifying a threshold for the executive function advantage in bilingual children. Stud. Second Lang. Acquis. 40:119–51
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Della Rosa PA, Videsott G, Borsa VM, Canini M, Weekes BS et al. 2013. A neural interactive location for multilingual talent. Cortex 49:605–8
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Dempster FN 1992. The rise and fall of the inhibitory mechanism: toward a unified theory of cognitive development and aging. Dev. Rev. 12:45–75
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Diamond A 2013. Executive functions. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 64:135–68
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Diamond A, Lee K 2011. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science 333:959–64
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Diamond J 2010. The benefits of multilingualism. Science 330:332–33
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Duñabeitia JA, Carreiras M 2015. The bilingual advantage: acta est fabula. Cortex 73:371–72
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Duñabeitia JA, Hernández JA, Antón E, Macizo P, Estévez A et al. 2014. The inhibitory advantage in bilingual children revisited: myth or reality. Exp. Psychol. 61:234–51
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Estanga A, Ecay-Torres M, Ibañez A, Izagirre A, Villanua J et al. 2017. Beneficial effect of bilingualism on Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and cognition. Neurobiol. Aging 50:144–51
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Freedman M, Alladi S, Chertkow H, Bialystok E, Craik FIM et al. 2014. Delaying onset of dementia: Are two languages enough. Behav. Neurol. 2014:808137
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Fuller-Thomson E 2015. Emerging evidence contradicts the hypothesis that bilingualism delays dementia onset. A commentary on “Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans” by Lawton et al. 2015. Cortex 66:170–72
    [Google Scholar]
  68. García-Pentón L, Fernández García Y, Costello B, Duñabeitia JA, Carreiras M 2016. The neuroanatomy of bilingualism: how to turn a hazy view into the full picture. Lang. Cogn. Neurosci. 31:303–27
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Gasquoine PG, Weimer AA, Lawton DM 2016. A reply to Bak et al. Cortex 74:318–19
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Gathercole V, Thomas E, Kennedy I, Prys C, Young N et al. 2014. Does language dominance affect cognitive performance in bilinguals? Lifespan evidence from preschoolers through older adults on card sorting, Simon, and metalinguistic tasks. Front. Psychol. 5:11
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Gold BT 2015. Lifelong bilingualism and neural reserve against Alzheimer's disease: a review of findings and potential mechanisms. Behav. Brain Res. 281:9–15
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Gold BT 2017. Bilingualism, cognitive reserve and Alzheimer's disease: a review of findings. See Bialystok & Sullivan 2017 185–203
  73. Gold BT, Kim C, Johnson NF, Kryscio RJ, Smith CD 2013. Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging. J. Neurosci. 33:387–96
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Goldsmith SF, Morton JB 2018. Time to disengage from the bilingual advantage hypothesis. Cognition 170:328–29
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Gollan TH, Salmon DP, Montoya RI, Galasko DR 2011. Degree of bilingualism predicts age of diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in low-education but not in highly educated Hispanics. Neuropsychologia 49:3826–30
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Goodenough FL 1926. Racial differences in the intelligence of school children. J. Exp. Psychol. 9:388–97
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Goral M, Campanelli L, Spiro A 2015. Language dominance and inhibition abilities in bilingual older adults. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 18:79–89
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Grant A, Dennis NA, Li P 2014. Cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and memory in the aging bilingual brain. Front. Psychol. 5:1401
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Green DW, Abutalebi J 2013. Language control in bilinguals: the adaptive control hypothesis. J. Cogn. Psychol. 25:515–30
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Green DW, Abutalebi J 2016. Language control and the neuroanatomy of bilingualism: in praise of variety. Lang. Cogn. Neurosci. 31:340–44
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Grundy JG, Chung-Fat-Yim A, Friesen DC, Mak L, Bialystok E 2017. Sequential congruency effects reveal differences in disengagement of attention for monolingual and bilingual young adults. Cognition 163:42–55
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Grundy JG, Timmer K 2016. Bilingualism and working memory capacity: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Second Lang. Res. 33:325–40
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Guzmán-Vélez E, Tranel D 2015. Does bilingualism contribute to cognitive reserve? Cognitive and neural perspectives. Neuropsychology 29:139–50
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Hernández M, Martin CD, Barceló F, Costa A 2013. Where is the bilingual advantage in task-switching. J. Mem. Lang. 69:257–76
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Hilchey MD, Klein RM 2011. Are there bilingual advantages on nonlinguistic interference tasks? Implications for the plasticity of executive control processes. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 18:625–58
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Hosoda C, Tanaka K, Nariai T, Honda M, Hanakawa T 2013. Dynamic neural network reorganization associated with second language vocabulary acquisition: a multimodal imaging study. J. Neurosci. 33:13663
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Kalashnikova M, Mattock K 2014. Maturation of executive functioning skills in early sequential bilingualism. Int. J. Biling. Educ. Biling. 17:111–23
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Kapa LL, Colombo J 2013. Attentional control in early and later bilingual children. Cogn. Dev. 28:233–46
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Kavé G, Eyal N, Shorek A, Cohen-Mansfield J 2008. Multilingualism and cognitive state in the oldest old. Psychol. Aging 23:70–78
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Kousaie S, Phillips NA 2012. Conflict monitoring and resolution: Are two languages better than one? Evidence from reaction time and event-related brain potentials. Brain Res 1446:71–90
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Kovács ÁM, Mehler J 2009. Cognitive gains in 7-month-old bilingual infants. PNAS 106:6556–60
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Kowoll ME, Degen C, Gorenc L, Küntzelmann A, Fellhauer I et al. 2016. Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve? Evidence from cerebral glucose metabolism in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Front. Psychiatry 7:62
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Krizman J, Skoe E, Kraus N 2015. Bilingual enhancements have no socioeconomic boundaries. Dev. Sci. 19:881–91
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Kroll JF, Bialystok E 2013. Understanding the consequences of bilingualism for language processing and cognition. J. Cogn. Psychol. 25:497–514
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Lawton DM, Gasquoine PG, Weimer AA 2015. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans. Cortex 66:141–45
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Lee H, Kim KH 2011. Can speaking more languages enhance your creativity? Relationship between bilingualism and creative potential among Korean American students with multicultural link. Personal. Individ. Differ. 50:1186–90
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Lehtonen M, Soveri A, Laine A, Järvenpää J, de Bruin A, Antfolk J 2018. Is bilingualism associated with enhanced executive functioning in adults? A meta-analytic review. Psychol. Bull. 144:394–425
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Li P, Legault J, Litcofsky KA 2014. Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: anatomical changes in the human brain. Cortex 58:301–24
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Luk G 2015. Who are the bilinguals (and monolinguals). Biling. Lang. Cogn. 18:35–36
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Luk G, Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Grady CL 2011. Lifelong bilingualism maintains white matter integrity in older adults. J. Neurosci. 31:16808–13
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Luo L, Craik FIM, Moreno S, Bialystok E 2013. Bilingualism interacts with domain in a working memory task: evidence from aging. Psychol. Aging 28:28–34
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Mårtensson J, Eriksson J, Bodammer NC, Lindgren M, Johansson M et al. 2012. Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning. NeuroImage 63:240–44
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Martin-Rhee MM, Bialystok E 2008. The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 11:81–93
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Mechelli A, Crinion JT, Noppeney U, O'Doherty J, Ashburner J et al. 2004. Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature 431:757
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM, Johnston P, Schreiner C, Miller SL, Tallal P 1996. Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training. Science 271:77–81
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Morales J, Calvo A, Bialystok E 2013. Working memory development in monolingual and bilingual children. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 114:187–202
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Morton JB 2014. Sunny review casts a foreboding shadow over status quo bilingual advantage research. Appl. Psycholinguist. 35:929–31
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Morton JB 2015. Still waiting for real answers. Cortex 73:352–53
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Morton JB, Harper SN 2007. What did Simon say? Revisiting the bilingual advantage. Dev. Sci. 10:719–26
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Mukadam N, Sommerlad A, Livingston G 2017. The relationship of bilingualism compared to monolingualism to the risk of cognitive decline or dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Alzheimer's Dis. 58:45–54
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Musacchia G, Sams M, Skoe E, Kraus N 2007. Musicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music. PNAS 104:15894–98
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Ossher L, Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Murphy KJ, Troyer AK 2013. The effect of bilingualism on amnestic mild cognitive impairment. J. Gerontol. B 68:8–12
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Paap KR, Greenberg ZI 2013. There is no coherent evidence for a bilingual advantage in executive processing. Cogn. Psychol. 66:232–58
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Paap KR, Johnson HA, Sawi O 2014. Are bilingual advantages dependent upon specific tasks or specific bilingual experiences. J. Cogn. Psychol. 26:615–39
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Paap KR, Johnson HA, Sawi O 2015.a Bilingual advantages in executive functioning either do not exist or are restricted to very specific and undetermined circumstances. Cortex 69:265–78
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Paap KR, Johnson HA, Sawi O 2016. Should the search for bilingual advantages in executive functioning continue. Cortex 74:305–14
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Paap KR, Liu Y 2014. Conflict resolution in sentence processing is the same for bilinguals and monolinguals: the role of confirmation bias in testing for bilingual advantages. J. Neurolinguistics 27:50–74
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Paap KR, Myuz HA, Anders RT, Bockelman MF, Mikulinsky R, Sawi OM 2017. No compelling evidence for a bilingual advantage in switching or that frequent language switching reduces switch cost. J. Cogn. Psychol. 29:89–112
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Paap KR, Sawi O 2014. Bilingual advantages in executive functioning: problems in convergent validity, discriminant validity, and the identification of the theoretical constructs. Front. Psychol. 5:962
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Paap KR, Sawi OM, Dalibar C, Darrow J, Johnson HA 2015.b Beyond panglossian optimism: Larger N2 amplitudes probably signal a bilingual disadvantage in conflict monitoring. AIMS Neurosci 2:1–6
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Park DC, Lautenschlager G, Hedden T, Davidson NS, Smith AD, Smith PK 2002. Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span. Psychol. Aging 17:299–320
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Park DC, Lodi-Smith J, Drew L, Haber S, Hebrank A et al. 2014. The impact of sustained engagement on cognitive function in older adults: the Synapse Project. Psychol. Sci. 25:103–12
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Peal E, Lambert WE 1962. The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychol. Monogr. Gen. Appl. 76:1–23
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Perani D, Abutalebi J 2015. Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 28:618–25
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Perani D, Farsad M, Ballarini T, Lubian F, Malpetti M et al. 2017. The impact of bilingualism on brain reserve and metabolic connectivity in Alzheimer's dementia. PNAS 114:1690–95
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Perquin M, Vaillant M, Schuller A-M, Pastore J, Dartigues J-F et al. 2013. Lifelong exposure to multilingualism: new evidence to support cognitive reserve hypothesis. PLOS ONE 8:e62030
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Pliatsikas C, Johnstone T, Marinis T 2014. Grey matter volume in the cerebellum is related to the processing of grammatical rules in a second language: a structural voxel-based morphometry study. Cerebellum 13:55–63
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Poarch GJ, van Hell JG 2012. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 113:535–51
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Prior A, Gollan TH 2013. The elusive link between language control and executive control: a case of limited transfer. J. Cogn. Psychol. 25:622–45
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Prior A, MacWhinney B 2010. A bilingual advantage in task switching. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 13:253–62
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Saer DJ 1923. The effect of bilingualism on intelligence. Br. J. Psychol. 14:25–38
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Salvatierra JL, Rosselli M 2010. The effect of bilingualism and age on inhibitory control. Int. J. Biling. 15:26–37
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Sanders AE, Hall CB, Katz MJ, Lipton RB 2012. Non-native language use and risk of incident dementia in the elderly. J. Alzheimer's Dis. 29:99–108
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Schlegel AA, Rudelson JJ, Tse PU 2012. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 24:1664–70
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Schweizer TA, Ware J, Fischer CE, Craik FIM, Bialystok E 2012. Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease. Cortex 48:991–96
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Selkoe DJ 2012. Preventing Alzheimer's disease. Science 337:1488–92
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Smith F 1923. Bilingualism and mental development. Br. J. Psychol. 13:271–82
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Stein M, Federspiel A, Koenig T, Wirth M, Strik W et al. 2012. Structural plasticity in the language system related to increased second language proficiency. Cortex 48:458–65
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Surrain S, Luk G 2017. Describing bilinguals: a systematic review of labels and descriptions used in the literature between 2005–2015. Biling. Lang. Cogn. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728917000682
    [Crossref]
  140. Titone D, Gullifer J, Subramaniapillai S, Rajah N, Baum S 2017. History-inspired reflections on the bilingual advantages hypothesis. See Bialystok & Sullivan 2017 265–95
  141. Treffers-Daller J 2019. What defines language dominance in bilinguals. Annu. Rev. Linguist. 5:375–93
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Tse C-S, Altarriba J 2014. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks. Front. Psychol. 5:954
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Valian V 2015. Bilingualism and cognition. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 18:3–24
    [Google Scholar]
  144. von Bastian CC, Souza AS, Gade M 2016. No evidence for bilingual cognitive advantages: a test of four hypotheses. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 145:246–58
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Wilson RS, Boyle PA, Yang J, James BD, Bennett DA 2015. Early life instruction in foreign language and music and incidence of mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology 29:292–302
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Woumans E, Santens P, Sieben A, Versijpt J, Stevens M, Duyck W 2015. Bilingualism delays clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 18:568–74
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Woumans E, Versijpt J, Sieben A, Santens P, Duyck W 2017. Bilingualism and cognitive decline: a story of pride and prejudice. J. Alzheimer's Dis. 60:1237–39
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Yang S, Yang H 2016. Bilingual effects on deployment of the attention system in linguistically and culturally homogeneous children and adults. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 146:121–36
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Yeung CM, St. John PD, Menec V, Tyas SL 2014. Is bilingualism associated with a lower risk of dementia in community-living older adults? Cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord. 28:326–32
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Yoshida H, Tran DN, Benitez V, Kuwabara M 2011. Inhibition and adjective learning in bilingual and monolingual children. Front. Psychol. 2:210
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Yoshioka JG 1929. A study of bilingualism. J. Genet. Psychol. 36:473–79
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Zahodne LB, Schofield PW, Farrell MT, Stern Y, Manly JJ 2014. Bilingualism does not alter cognitive decline or dementia risk among Spanish-speaking immigrants. Neuropsychology 28:238–46
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Zou L, Ding G, Abutalebi J, Shu H, Peng D 2012. Structural plasticity of the left caudate in bimodal bilinguals. Cortex 48:1197–206
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011718-011820
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error