1932

Abstract

All languages instantiate a consonant/vowel contrast. This contrast has processing consequences at different levels of spoken-language recognition throughout the lifespan. In adulthood, lexical processing is more strongly associated with consonant than with vowel processing; this has been demonstrated across 13 languages from seven language families and in a variety of auditory lexical-level tasks (deciding whether a spoken input is a word, spotting a real word embedded in a minimal context, reconstructing a word minimally altered into a pseudoword, learning new words or the “words” of a made-up language), as well as in written-word tasks involving phonological processing. In infancy, a consonant advantage in word learning and recognition is found to emerge during development in some languages, though possibly not in others, revealing that the stronger lexicon–consonant association found in adulthood is learned. Current research is evaluating the relative contribution of the early acquisition of the acoustic/phonetic and lexical properties of the native language in the emergence of this association.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011718-011919
2019-01-14
2024-04-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/linguistics/5/1/annurev-linguistics-011718-011919.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011718-011919&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abboub N, Nazzi T, Gervain J 2016. Prosodic grouping at birth. Brain Lang 162:46–59
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alexeeva S, Frolova A, Slioussar N 2017. Data from Russian help to determine in which languages the Possible Word Constraint applies. J. Psycholinguist. Res. 46:629–40
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andrews S 1996. Lexical retrieval and selection processes: effects of transposed-letter confusability. J. Mem. Lang. 35:775–800
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Benavides-Varela S, Hochmann J, Macagno F, Nespor M, Mehler J 2012. Newborn's brain activity signals the origin of word memories. PNAS 109:17908–13
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bergelson E, Swingley D 2012. At 6–9 months, human infants know the meanings of many common nouns. PNAS 109:3253–58
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bertoncini J, Bijeljac-Babic R, Jusczyk PW, Kennedy LJ, Mehler J 1988. An investigation of young infants’ perceptual representations of speech sounds. J. Exp. Psychol. 117:21–33
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bishop J, Toda K 2012. Syllabification, sonority, and segmentation: evidence from word-spotting. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society1–15 Chicago: Chicago Linguist. Soc.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bonatti LL, Peña M, Nespor M, Mehler J 2005. Linguistic constraints on statistical computations: the role of consonants and vowels in continuous speech processing. Psychol. Sci. 16:451–59
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bonatti LL, Peña M, Nespor M, Mehler J 2007. On consonants, vowels, chickens, and eggs. Psychol. Sci. 18:924–25
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bond ZS, Garnes S 1980. Misperceptions of fluent speech. Perception and Production of Fluent Speech RA Cole 115–32 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bouchon C, Floccia C, Fux T, Adda-Decker M, Nazzi T 2015. Call me Alix, not Elix: Vowels are more important than consonants in own-name recognition at 5 months. Dev. Sci. 18:587–98
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Caramazza A, Chialant D, Capasso D, Miceli G 2000. Separable processing of consonants and vowels. Nature 403:428–30
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Carreiras M, Duñabeitia JA, Molinaro N 2009. Consonants and vowels contribute differently to visual word recognition: ERPs of relative position priming. Cereb. Cortex 19:2659–70
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Carreiras M, Price CJ 2008. Brain activation for consonants and vowels. Cereb. Cortex 18:1727–35
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cheour-Luhtanen M, Alho K, Kujala T, Sainio K, Reinikainen K et al. 1995. Mismatch negativity indicates vowel discrimination in newborns. Hear. Res. 82:53–58
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Choi J, Broersma M, Cutler A 2017. Early phonology revealed by international adoptees’ birth language retention. PNAS 114:7307–12
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cole RA, Yan Y, Mak B, Fanty M, Bailey T 1996. The contribution of consonants versus vowels to word recognition in fluent speech. Proceedings of the IEEE International Congress on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing853–56 Piscataway, NJ: IEEE
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Costa A, Cutler A, Sebastián-Gallés N 1998. Effects of phoneme repertoire on phoneme decision. Percept. Psychophys. 60:1022–31
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Creel SC, Aslin RN, Tanenhaus MK 2006. Acquiring an artificial lexicon: segment type and order information in early lexical entries. J. Mem. Lang. 54:1–19
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Curtin S, Fennell C, Escudero P 2009. Weighting of vowel cues explains patterns of word–object associative learning. Dev. Sci. 12:725–31
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cutler A, Chen H-C 1997. Lexical tone in Cantonese spoken-word processing. Percept. Psychophys. 59:165–79
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cutler A, Demuth K, McQueen JM 2002.a Universality versus language-specificity in listening to running speech. Psychol. Sci. 13:258–62
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cutler A, McQueen JM, Jansonius M, Bayerl S 2002.b The lexical statistics of competitor activation in spoken-word recognition. Proceedings of the 9th Australian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology40–45 Canberra: Australas. Speech Sci. Technol. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cutler A, van Ooijen B, Norris D 1999. Vowels, consonants, and lexical activation. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 32053–56 San Francisco: Univ. Calif.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cutler A, Otake T 1994. Mora or phoneme? Further evidence for language-specific listening. J. Mem. Lang. 33:824–44
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cutler A, Otake T 2002. Rhythmic categories in spoken-word recognition. J. Mem. Lang. 46:296–322
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cutler A, Otake T, McQueen JM 2009. Vowel devoicing and the perception of spoken Japanese words. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125:1693–703
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cutler A, Sebastián-Gallés N, Soler-Vilageliu O, van Ooijen B 2000. Constraints of vowels and consonants on lexical selection: cross-linguistic comparisons. Mem. Cogn. 28:746–55
    [Google Scholar]
  29. DeCasper AJ, Fifer WP 1980. Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers’ voice. Science 208:1174–76
    [Google Scholar]
  30. DeCasper AJ, Spence MJ 1986. Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns’ perception of speech sounds. Infant Behav. Dev. 9:133–50
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Delle Luche C, Floccia C, Granjon L, Nazzi T 2017. Infants’ first words are not phonetically specified: own name recognition in 5-month-old British-English babies. Infancy 22:362–88
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Delle Luche C, Poltrock S, Goslin J, New B, Floccia C, Nazzi T 2014. Differential processing of consonants and vowels in the auditory modality: a cross-linguistic study. J. Mem. Lang. 72:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Dumay N, Frauenfelder UH, Content A 2002. The role of the syllable in lexical segmentation in French: word-spotting data. Brain Lang 81:144–61
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Eimas PD, Siqueland ER, Jusczyk P, Vigorito J 1971. Speech perception in infants. Science 171:303–6
    [Google Scholar]
  35. El Aissati A, McQueen JM, Cutler A 2012. Finding words in a language that allows words without vowels. Cognition 124:79–84
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Escudero P, Best CT, Kitamura C, Mulak KE 2014. Magnitude of phonetic distinction predicts success at early word learning in native and non-native accents. Front. Psychol. 5:1059
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Escudero P, Mulak KE, Vlach HA 2016. Cross-situational learning of minimal word pairs. Cogn. Sci. 40:455–65
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Feldman NH, Myers EB, White KS, Griffiths TL, Morgan JL 2013. Word-level information influences phonetic learning in adults and infants. Cognition 127:427–38
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Floccia C, Nazzi T, Luche CD, Poltrock S, Goslin J 2014. English-learning one- to two-year-olds do not show a consonant bias in word learning. J. Child Lang. 41:1085–114
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Fogerty D, Humes LE 2012. The role of vowel and consonant fundamental frequency, envelope, and temporal fine structure cues to the intelligibility of words and sentences. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131:1490–501
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gomez DM, Mok P, Ordin M, Mehler J, Nespor M 2018. Statistical speech segmentation in tone languages: the role of lexical tones. Lang. Speech 61:84–96
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Granier-Deferre C, Ribeiro A, Jacquet A-Y, Bassereau S 2011. Near-term fetuses process temporal features of speech. Dev. Sci. 14:336–52
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Groome LJ, Mooney DM, Holland SB, Bentz LS, Atterbury JL 1997. The heart rate deceleratory response in low-risk human fetuses: effect of stimulus intensity on response topography. Dev. Psychobiol. 30:106–13
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Guevara Erra R, Gervain J 2016. The efficient coding of speech: cross-linguistic differences. PLOS ONE 11:e0148861
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hallé P, de Boysson-Bardies B 1996. The format of representation of recognized words in infants’ early receptive lexicon. Infant Behav. Dev. 19:463–81
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hanuliková A, McQueen JM, Mitterer H 2010. Possible words and fixed stress in the segmentation of Slovak speech. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 63:555–79
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Hanuliková A, Mitterer H, McQueen JM 2011. Effects of first and second language on segmentation of non-native speech. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 14:506–21
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Havy M, Nazzi T 2009. Better processing of consonantal over vocalic information in word learning at 16 months of age. Infancy 14:439–56
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Havy M, Serres J, Nazzi T 2014. A consonant/vowel asymmetry in word-form processing: evidence in childhood and in adulthood. Lang. Speech 57:254–81
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hochmann JR, Benavides-Varela S, Flo A, Nespor M, Mehler J 2017. Bias for vocalic over consonantal information in 6-month-olds. Infancy 23:136–51
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hochmann JR, Benavides-Varela S, Nespor M, Mehler J 2011. Consonants and vowels: different roles in early language acquisition. Dev. Sci. 14:1445–58
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Höhle B, Weissenborn J 2003. German-learning infants’ ability to detect unstressed closed-class elements in continuous speech. Dev. Sci. 6:122–27
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Højen A, Nazzi T 2016. Vowel bias in Danish word-learning: Processing biases are language-specific. Dev. Sci. 19:41–49
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Johnson EK 2016. Constructing a proto-lexicon: an integrative view of infant language development. Annu. Rev. Linguist. 2:391–412
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Johnson EK, Jusczyk PW, Cutler A, Norris D 2003. Lexical viability constraints on speech segmentation by infants. Cogn. Psychol. 46:65–97
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Johnson K, Ladefoged P, Lindau M 1993. Individual differences in vowel production. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94:701–14
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Jusczyk PW, Aslin RN 1995. Infants’ detection of the sound patterns of words in fluent speech. Cogn. Psychol. 29:1–23
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Jusczyk PW, Goodman MB, Baumann A 1999.a Nine-month-olds’ attention to sound similarities in syllables. J. Mem. Lang. 40:62–82
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Jusczyk PW, Houston DM, Newsome M 1999.b The beginning of word segmentation in English-learning infants. Cogn. Psychol. 39:159–207
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Kearns RK, Norris D, Cutler A 2002. Syllable processing in English. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing1657–60 Baixas, Fr.: Int. Speech Commun. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Keidel JL, Jenison RL, Kluender KR, Seidenberg MS 2007. Does grammar constrain statistical learning. Psychol. Sci. 18:922–23
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kewley-Port DT, Burkle TZ, Lee JH 2007. Contribution of consonant versus vowel information to sentence intelligibility for young normal-hearing and elderly hearing-impaired listeners. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122:2365–75
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kisilevsky BS, Hains SMJ, Lee K, Xie X, Huang H et al. 2003. Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition. Psychol. Sci. 14:220–24
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kolinsky R, Lidji P, Peretz I, Besson M, Morais J 2009. Processing interactions between phonology and melody: Vowels sing but consonants speak. Cognition 112:1–20
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Kooijman V, Junge C, Johnson EK, Hagoort P, Cutler A 2013. Predictive brain signals of linguistic development. Front. Psychol. 4:25
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Kuhl PK, Williams KA, Lacerda F, Stevens KN, Lindblom B 1992. Linguistic experience alters phonetic perception in infants by 6 months of age. Science 255:606–8
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Ladefoged P, Disner SF 2012. Vowels and Consonants Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. , 3rd ed..
  68. Lecanuet J-P, Granier-Deferre C, DeCasper AJ, Maugeais R, Andrieu AJ, Busnel M-C 1987. Perception et discrimination foetales de stimuli langagiers; mise en évidence à partir de la réactivité cardiaque, résultats préliminaires.. C. R. Acad. Sci. 305:161–64
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Lee H-W, Rayner K, Pollatsek A 2002. The processing of consonants and vowels in reading: evidence from the fast priming paradigm. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 9:766–72
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Low EL, Grabe E, Nolan F 2000. Quantitative characterization of speech rhythm: syllable-timing in Singapore English. Lang. Speech 43:377–401
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Lupker SJ, Perea M, Davis CJ 2008. Transposed-letter effects: consonants, vowels and letter frequency. Lang. Cogn. Process. 23:93–116
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Maddieson I 1984. Patterns of Sounds Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  73. Mani N, Plunkett K 2007. Phonological specificity of vowels and consonants in early lexical representations. J. Mem. Lang. 57:252–72
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Mani N, Plunkett K 2010. Twelve-month-olds know their cups from their keps and tups. Infancy 15:445–70
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Marks EA, Moates DR, Bond ZS, Vazquez L 2002. Vowel mutability: the case of monolingual Spanish listeners and bilingual Spanish–English listeners. Southwest J. Linguist. 21:73–99
    [Google Scholar]
  76. McCarthy JJ, Prince AS 1995. Prosodic morphology. Handbook of Phonology J Goldsmith 318–66 Oxford, UK: Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  77. McQueen JM, Cutler A 1998. Spotting (different kinds of) words in (different kinds of) context. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 62791–94 Canberra: Australas. Speech Sci. Technol. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. McQueen JM, Otake T, Cutler A 2001. Rhythmic cues and possible-word constraints in Japanese speech segmentation. J. Mem. Lang. 45:103–32
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Mehler J, Bertoncini J, Barriere M, Jassik-Gerschenfeld D 1978. Infant recognition of mother's voice. Perception 7:491–97
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Mehler J, Peña M, Nespor M, Bonatti LL 2006. The “soul” of language does not use statistics: reflections on vowels and consonants. Cortex 42:846–54
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Mintz TH, Walker RL, Welday A, Kidd C 2018. Infants’ sensitivity to vowel harmony and its role in segmenting speech. Cognition 171:95–107
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Moates DR, Bond ZS, Stockmal V 2002. Phoneme frequency in spoken word reconstruction. Laboratory Phonology VII C Gussenhoven, N Warner 141–69 The Hague: Mouton
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Moates DR, Marks EA 2012. Vowel mutability in print in English and Spanish. Ment. Lexicon 7:326–50
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Monaghan P, Shillcock RC 2003. Connectionist modelling of the separable processing of consonants and vowels. Brain Lang 86:83–98
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Moon C, Lagercrantz H, Kuhl PK 2013. Language experienced in utero affects vowel perception after birth: a two-country study. Acta Paediatr 102:156–60
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Mueller JL, Bahlmann J, Friederici AD 2008. The role of pause cues in language learning: the emergence of event-related potentials related to sequence processing. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 20:892–905
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Mulak KE, Bonn CD, Chládková K, Aslin RN, Escudero P 2017. Indexical and linguistic processing by 12-month-olds: discrimination of speaker, accent and vowel differences. PLOS ONE 12:e0176762
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Nazzi T 2005. Use of phonetic specificity during the acquisition of new words: differences between consonants and vowels. Cognition 98:13–30
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Nazzi T, Bertoncini J 2009. Phonetic specificity in early lexical acquisition: new evidence from consonants in coda positions. Lang. Speech 52:463–80
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Nazzi T, Bertoncini J, Mehler J 1998.a Language discrimination by newborns: towards an understanding of the role of rhythm. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 24:756–66
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Nazzi T, Floccia C, Bertoncini J 1998.b Discrimination of pitch contours by neonates. Infant Behav. Dev. 21:779–84
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Nazzi T, Floccia C, Moquet B, Butler J 2009. Bias for consonantal information over vocalic information in 30-month-olds: cross-linguistic evidence from French and English. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 102:522–37
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Nazzi T, New B 2007. Beyond stop consonants: consonantal specificity in early lexical acquisition. Cogn. Dev. 22:271–79
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Nazzi T, Polka L 2018. The consonant bias in word learning is not determined by position within the word: evidence from vowel-initial words. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 174:103–11
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Nespor M, Peña M, Mehler J 2003. On the different roles of vowels and consonants in speech processing and language acquisition. Lingue Linguaggio 2:203–30
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Nettle D 1994. A behavioural correlate of phonological structure. Lang. Speech 37:425–29
    [Google Scholar]
  97. New B, Araújo V, Nazzi T 2008. Differential processing of consonants and vowels in lexical access through reading. Psychol. Sci. 19:1223–27
    [Google Scholar]
  98. New B, Nazzi T 2014. The time course of consonant and vowel processing during word recognition. Lang. Cogn. Neurosci. 29:147–57
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Newman RS, Sawusch JR, Wunnenberg T 2011. Cues and cue interactions in segmenting words in fluent speech. J. Mem. Lang. 64:460–76
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Newport EL, Aslin RN 2004. Learning at a distance: I. Statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies. Cogn. Psychol. 48:127–62
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Nishibayashi L-L, Goyet L, Nazzi T 2015. Early speech segmentation in French-learning infants: monosyllabic words versus embedded syllables. Lang. Speech 58:334–50
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Nishibayashi L-L, Nazzi T 2016. Vowels, then consonants: early bias switch in recognizing segmented word forms. Cognition 155:188–203
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Nooteboom SG, Doodeman GJN 1980. Production and perception of vowel length in spoken sentences. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67:276–87
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Norris D, McQueen JM, Cutler A, Butterfield S 1997. The Possible-Word Constraint in the segmentation of continuous speech. Cogn. Psychol. 34:191–243
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Norris D, McQueen JM, Cutler A, Butterfield S, Kearns R 2001. Language-universal constraints on speech segmentation. Lang. Cogn. Process. 16:637–60
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Onnis L, Monaghan P, Christiansen MH, Chater N 2004. Variability is the spice of learning, and a crucial ingredient for detecting and generalizing in nonadjacent dependencies. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society K Forbus, D Gentner, T Regier 1047–52 Austin, TX: Cogn. Sci. Soc.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Onnis L, Monaghan P, Richmond K, Chater N 2005. Phonology impacts segmentation in speech processing. J. Mem. Lang. 53:225–37
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Ortega-Llebaria M, Bosch L 2015. Cues to dialectal discrimination in early infancy: a look at prosodic, rhythmic and segmental properties. The Phonetics–Phonology Interface: Representations and Methodologies J Romero, M Riera 55–71 Amsterdam: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Owren MJ, Cardillo GC 2006. The relative roles of vowels and consonants in discriminating talker identity versus word meaning. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119:1727–39
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Parikh G, Loizou P 2005. The influence of noise on vowel and consonant cues. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118:3874–88
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Pater J, Stager C, Werker JF 2004. The perceptual acquisition of phonological contrasts. Language 80:384–402
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Peña M, Bonatti LL, Nespor M, Mehler J 2002. Signal-driven computations in speech processing. Science 298:604–7
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Perea M, Acha J 2009. Does letter position coding depend on consonant/vowel status? Evidence with the masked priming technique. Acta Psychol 130:127–37
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Perea M, Carreiras M 2008. Do orthotactics and phonology constrain the transposed-letter effect. Lang. Cogn. Process. 23:69–92
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Perruchet P, Peereman R, Tyler MD 2006. Do we need algebraic-like computations? A reply to Bonatti, Peña, Nespor, and Mehler 2006. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 135:322–26
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Perruchet P, Tyler MD, Galland N, Peereman R 2004. Learning non-adjacent dependencies: no need for algebraic-like computations. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 133:573–83
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Pisoni DB 1973. Auditory and phonetic memory codes in the discrimination of consonants and vowels. Percept. Psychophys. 13:253–60
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Polka L, Nazzi T 2018. Interacting processes and developmental biases allow learners to crack the “what” code and the “who” code in spoken language. Appl. Psycholinguist. 39757–61
  119. Polka L, Werker JF 1994. Developmental changes in perception of non-native vowel contrasts. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 20:421–35
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Poltrock S, Chen H, Kwok C, Cheung H, Nazzi T 2018. Adult learning of words in a nonnative language: consonants, vowels, and tones. Front. Psychol. 91211
  121. Poltrock S, Nazzi T 2015. Consonant/vowel asymmetry in early word form recognition. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 131:135–48
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Pons F, Toro JM 2010. Structural generalizations over consonants and vowels in 11-month-old infants. Cognition 116:361–67
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Ramus F, Nespor M, Mehler J 1999. Correlates of linguistic rhythm in the speech signal. Cognition 73:265–92
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Repp BH 1984. Categorical perception: issues, methods, findings. Speech and Language, vol. 10: Advances in Basic Research and Practice NJ Lass 243–335 New York: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Ridouane R 2008. Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber. Phonology 25:321–59
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Saffran JR, Aslin RN, Newport EL 1996. Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science 274:1926–28
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sansavini A, Bertoncini J, Giovanelli G 1997. Newborns discriminate the rhythm of multisyllabic stressed words. Dev. Psychol. 33:3–11
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Schubert T, Kinoshita S, Norris D 2018. What causes the greater perceived similarity of consonant-transposed nonwords. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 71:642–56
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Seidenberg MS, MacDonald MC, Saffran JR 2002. Does grammar start where statistics stop. Science 298:553–54
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Shahidullah S, Hepper PG 1994. Frequency discrimination by the fetus. Early Hum. Dev. 36:13–26
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Shankweiler D, Studdert-Kennedy M 1967. Identification of consonants and vowels presented to left and right ears. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 19:59–63
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Sharp DJ, Scott SK, Cutler A, Wise RJS 2005. Lexical retrieval constrained by sound structure: the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Brain Lang 92:309–19
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Soto-Faraco S, Sebastián-Gallés N, Cutler A 2001. Segmental and suprasegmental mismatch in lexical access. J. Mem. Lang. 45:412–32
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Stager CL, Werker JF 1997. Infants listen for more phonetic detail in speech perception than in word-learning tasks. Nature 388:381–82
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Swingley D 2005. 11-month-olds’ knowledge of how familiar words sound. Dev. Sci. 8:432–43
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Swingley D 2009. Contributions of infant word learning to language development. Philos. Trans. B 364:3617–32
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Swinney DA, Prather P 1980. Phoneme identification in a phoneme-monitoring experiment: the variable role of uncertainty about vowel contexts. Percept. Psychophys. 27:104–10
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Swoboda P, Morse PA, Leavitt LA 1976. Continuous vowel discrimination in normal and at-risk infants. Child Dev 47:459–65
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Taft M, Chen H-C 1992. Judging homophony in Chinese: the influence of tones. Language Processing in Chinese H-C Chen, OJL Tzeng 151–72 Amsterdam: North-Holland
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Tincoff R, Jusczyk PW 1999. Some beginnings of word comprehension in 6-month-olds. Psychol. Sci. 10:172–75
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Tincoff R, Jusczyk PW 2012. Six-month-olds comprehend words that refer to parts of the body. Infancy 17:432–44
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Toro JM, Nespor M, Mehler J, Bonatti L 2008. Finding words and rules in a speech stream: functional differences between vowels and consonants. Psychol. Sci. 19:137–44
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Tsang KK, Hoosain R 1979. Segmental phonemes and tonal phonemes in comprehension of Cantonese. Psychologia 22:222–24
    [Google Scholar]
  144. van Ooijen B 1996. Vowel mutability and lexical selection in English: evidence from a word reconstruction task. Mem. Cogn. 24:573–83
    [Google Scholar]
  145. van Ooijen B, Cutler A, Norris D 1991. Detection times for vowels versus consonants. Proceedings of EUROSPEECH 91 31451–54 Baixas, Fr.: Int. Speech Commun. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Vihman MM 2017. Learning words and learning sounds: advances in language development. Br. J. Psychol. 108:1–27
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Von Holzen K, Nishibayashi L-L, Nazzi T 2018. Word segmentation abilities: an ERP study. Brain Sci 8:24
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Werker JF, Tees RC 1984. Cross-language speech perception: evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behav. Dev. 7:49–63
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Werker JF, Yeung HH 2005. Infant speech perception bootstraps word learning. Trends Cogn. Sci. 9:519–27
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Werner LA, Marean GC, Halpin CF, Spetner NB, Gillenwater JM 1992. Infant auditory temporal acuity: gap detection. Child Dev 63:260–72
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Wewalaarachchi TD, Wong LH, Singh L 2017. Vowels, consonants, and lexical tones: sensitivity to phonological variation in monolingual Mandarin and bilingual English–Mandarin toddlers. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 159:16–33
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Wiener S, Turnbull R 2016. Constraints of tones, vowels, and consonants on lexical selection in Mandarin Chinese. Lang. Speech 59:59–82
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Wood CC, Day RS 1975. Failure of selective attention to phonetic segments in consonant–vowel syllables. Percept. Psychophys. 17:346–50
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Ye Y, Connine CM 1999. Processing spoken Chinese: the role of tone information. Lang. Cogn. Process. 14:609–30
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Yeung HH, Nazzi T 2014. Infants can generalize phonetic contrasts learned from ostensive and referential labels. Cognition 132:151–63
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Yip MCW 2004.a Possible-word constraints in Cantonese speech segmentation. J. Psycholinguist. Res. 33:165–73
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Yip MCW 2004.b Interference effects of possible-word constraints (PWC) in Cantonese speech segmentation. Psychologia 47:169–77
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Zesiger P, Jöhr J 2011. Les représentations phonologiques des mots chez le jeune enfant [Phonological representations of words in the young child]. Enfance 3:293–309
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Zwitserlood P 1996. Form priming. Lang. Cogn. Process. 10:121–36
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011718-011919
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011718-011919
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error