1932

Abstract

This article focuses on the construct of language dominance in bilinguals and the ways in which this construct has been operationalized. Language dominance is often seen as relative proficiency in two languages, but it can also be analyzed in terms of language use—that is, how frequently bilinguals use their languages and how these are divided across domains. Assessing language dominance is important because it has become clear that the level of bilinguals’ proficiency in each language and the relative strength of each language affect performance on tasks. A key distinction is made between direct measures of language dominance, which assess an aspect of language proficiency (e.g., vocabulary or grammar), and indirect ones, which measure variability in exposure to different languages and bilinguals’ use of them. The article includes an evaluation of the extent to which the latter can be interpreted as a proxy for the former.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011817-045554
2019-01-14
2024-06-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/linguistics/5/1/annurev-linguistics-011817-045554.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011817-045554&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Altarriba J, Heredia RR 2011. An Introduction to Bilingualism: Principles and Processes Oxford, UK: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Antoniou M 2019. The advantages of bilingualism debate. Annu. Rev. Linguist. 5:395–415
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Argyri E, Sorace A 2007. Crosslinguistic influence and language dominance in older bilingual children. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 10:79–99
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Aronin L 2013. Fishman, Joshua A. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics Oxford, UK: Wiley Online https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0415
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Bachman LF, Palmer A 2010. Language Assessment in Practice Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bahrick HP, Hall LK, Goggin JP, Bahrick LE, Berger SA 1994. Fifty years of language maintenance and language dominance in bilingual Hispanic immigrants. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 123:264–83
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baker C 2006. Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bedore LM, Pena ED, Summers CL, Boerger KM, Resendiz MD et al. 2012. The measure matters: language dominance profiles across measures in Spanish–English bilingual children. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 15:616–29
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bernardini P, Schlyter S 2004. Growing syntactic structure and code-mixing in the weaker language: the Ivy Hypothesis. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 7:49–69
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bialystok E, Luk G, Kwan E 2005. Bilingualism, biliteracy, and learning to read: interactions among languages and writing systems. Sci. Stud. Read. 9:43–61
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bialystok E, Luk G, Peets KF, Yang S 2010. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 13:525–31
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bird H, Franklin S, Howard D 2001. Age of acquisition and imageability ratings for a large set of words, including verbs and function words. Behav. Res. Methods 33:73–79
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Birdsong D 2016. Dominance in bilingualism: foundations of measurement, with insights from the study of handedness. See Silva-Corvalán & Treffers-Daller 2016 85–105
  14. Bishop DVM 2003. Test for Reception of Grammar 2 London: Pearson
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Blom E 2010. Effects of input on the early grammatical development of bilingual children. Int. J. Biling. 14:422–46
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Brown R 1973. A First Language: The Early Stages Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chiat S, Armon-Lotem S, Marinis T, Polišenká K, Roy P, Seeff-Gabriel B 2013. Assessment of language abilities in sequential bilingual children: the potential of sentence imitation tasks. Issues in the Assessment of Bilinguals VCM Gathercole 56–89 Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cook V 1991. The poverty-of-the-stimulus argument and multi-competence. Second Lang. Res. 7:103–17
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cook V 2016. Premises of multicompetence. The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Multi-Competence V Cook, W Li 1–25 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dale PS, Penfold MM 2011. MacArthur-Bates CDI Adaptations in Other Languages MacArthur-Bates CDI Stanford, CA: http://mb-cdi.stanford.edu/adaptations.html
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Daller MH, Yıldız C, de Jong NH, Kan S, Başbağı R 2011. Language dominance in Turkish–German bilinguals: methodological aspects of measurements in structurally different languages. Int. J. Biling. 15:215–36
    [Google Scholar]
  22. De Houwer A 1990. The Acquisition of Two Languages from Birth: A Case Study Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  23. De Houwer A 1998. By way of introduction: methods in studies of bilingual first language acquisition. Int. J. Biling. 2:249–63
    [Google Scholar]
  24. De Houwer A 2003. Home languages spoken in officially monolingual Flanders: a survey. Plurilingua 24:71–87
    [Google Scholar]
  25. De Houwer A 2007. Parental language input patterns and children's bilingual use. Appl. Psycholinguist. 28:411–24
    [Google Scholar]
  26. De Houwer A, Bornstein MH 2016. Balance patterns in early bilingual acquisition: a longitudinal study of word comprehension and production. See Silva-Corvalán & Treffers-Daller 2016 134–55
  27. De Houwer A, Bornstein MH, Putnick DL 2014. A bilingual–monolingual comparison of young children's vocabulary size: evidence from comprehension and production. Appl. Psycholinguist. 35:1189–211
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Deuchar M, Muntz R 2003. Factors accounting for code-mixing in an early developing bilingual. (In)vulnerable Domains in Multilingualism N Müller 161–90 Amsterdam: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Döpke S 2000. Generation of and retraction from cross-linguistically motivated structures in bilingual first language acquisition. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 3:209–26
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Dunn AL, Fox Tree JE 2009. A quick, gradient bilingual dominance scale. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 12:273–89
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Dunn DM, Dunn LM 2007. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test San Antonio, TX: Pearson
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Dunn LM, Dunn L, Whetton C, Burley J 1997. British Picture Vocabulary Scale—II Windsor, UK: nferNelson
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Dunn LM, Lugo D, Padilla E, Dunn L 1986. Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody Circle Pines, MN: Am. Guid. Serv.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Dunn LM, Thériault-Whalen CM, Dunn LM 1993. Échelle de vocabulaire en images Peabody (EVIP) Paris: Pearson
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Fenson L, Dale PS, Reznick JS, Thal D, Bates E et al. 1993. The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories: User's Guide and Technical Manual San Diego, CA: Singular
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Firth JR 1968. A synopsis of linguistic theory, 1930–1955. Selected Papers of J. R. Firth 1952–1959 FR Palmer 168–205 London: Longman
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Fishman JA 1965. Who speaks what language to whom and when?. Linguistique 1:67–88
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Fishman JA 1972. Language in Sociocultural Change 6 Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Fishman JA, Cooper RL 1969. Alternative measures of bilingualism. J. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. 8:276–82
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Fishman JA, Cooper RL, Ma R 1968. Alternative measures of bilingualism. Bilingualism in the Barrio: Final Report483–512 ERIC rep. ED026546 Washington, DC: Off. Educ., US Dep. Health Educ. Welf.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Flege JE, MacKay IR, Piske T 2002. Assessing bilingual dominance. Appl. Psycholinguist. 23:567–98
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Gathercole VCM, Thomas EM 2007. Prawf geirfa Cymraeg [Welsh vocabulary test] Sch. Psychol Bangor Univ., UK: http://www.pgc.bangor.ac.uk
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Gathercole VCM, Thomas EM 2009. Bilingual first-language development: dominant language takeover, threatened minority language take-up. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 12:213–37
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Gathercole VCM, Thomas EM, Roberts E, Hughes C, Hughes EK 2013. Why assessment needs to take exposure into account: vocabulary and grammatical abilities in bilingual children. Issues in the Assessment of Bilinguals VCM Gathercole 20–55 Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Gawlitzek-Maiwald I, Tracy R 1996. Bilingual bootstrapping. Linguistics 34:901–26
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Genesee F, Nicoladis E, Paradis J 1995. Language differentiation in early bilingual development. J. Child Lang. 22:611–32
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Gertken LM, Amengual M, Birdsong D 2014. Assessing language dominance with the bilingual language profile. Measuring L2 Proficiency: Perspectives from SLA P Leclercq, A Edmonds, H Hilton 208–25 Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Grosjean F 1985. The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker-hearer. J. Multiling. Multicult. Dev. 6:467–77
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Grosjean F 1989. Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person. Brain Lang 36:3–15
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Grosjean F 1997. The bilingual individual. Interpreting 2:163–87
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Grosjean F 1998. Studying bilinguals: methodological and conceptual issues. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 1:131–49
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Grosjean F 2010. Bilingual: Life and Reality Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Grosjean F 2012. An attempt to isolate and then differentiate transfer and interference. Int. J. Biling. 16:11–21
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Grosjean F 2016. The Complementarity Principle and its impact on processing, acquisition, and dominance. See Silva-Corvalán & Treffers-Daller 2016 66–84
  55. Gutiérrez-Clellen VF, Restrepo MA, Simón-Cereijido G 2006. Evaluating the discriminant accuracy of a grammatical measure with Spanish-speaking children. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 49:1209–23
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Haitana T, Pitama S, Rucklidge JJ 2010. Cultural biases in the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. III: Testing Tamariki in a New Zealand sample. N. Z. J. Psychol. 39:25–34
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Haman E, Łuniewska M, Pomiechowska B 2015. Designing cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLTs) for bilingual preschool children. Methods for Assessing Multilingual Children: Disentangling Bilingualism from Language Impairment S Armon-Lotem, J de Jong, M Meir 194–238 Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hinkel E 2006. Current perspectives on teaching the four skills. TESOL Q 40:109–31
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Hohenstein J, Eisenberg A, Naigles L 2006. Is he floating across or crossing afloat? Cross-influence of L1 and L2 in Spanish–English bilingual adults. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 9:249–61
    [Google Scholar]
  60. House J 1997. Translation Quality Assessment: A Model Revisited Tübingen, Ger: Gunter Narr
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Hulstijn J 2012. The construct of language proficiency in the study of bilingualism from a cognitive perspective. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 15:422–33
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Jaccard R, Cividin V 2001. Le principe de complémentarité chez la personne bilingue: Le cas du bilinguisme français-italien en Suisse Romande Master's thesis, Univ Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switz.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Jarvis S, Pavlenko A 2008. Crosslinguistic Influence in Language and Cognition New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Jia G, Aaronson D, Wu Y 2002. Long-term language attainment of bilingual immigrants: predictive variables and language group differences. Appl. Psycholinguist. 23:599–621
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Jia G, Fuse A 2007. Acquisition of English grammatical morphology by native Mandarin speaking children and adolescents: age-related differences. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 50:1280–99
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Kootstra GJ, Doedens WJ 2016. How multiple sources of experience influence bilingual syntactic choice: immediate and cumulative cross-language effects of structural priming, verb bias, and language dominance. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 19:710–32
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Kupisch T 2008. Dominance, mixing and cross-linguistic influence. First Language Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax: Perspectives Across Languages and Learners P Guijarro-Fuentes, P Larrañaga, J Clibbens 209–34 Amsterdam: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Kupisch T, van de Weijer J 2016. The role of the childhood environment for language dominance: a study of adult simultaneous bilingual speakers of German and French. See Silva-Corvalán & Treffers-Daller 2016 174–94
  69. La Morgia F 2016. Assessing the relationship between input and strength of language development: a study on Italian–English bilingual children. See Silva-Corvalán & Treffers-Daller 2016 195–218
  70. Labov W 1966. The Social Stratification of English in New York City Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Langdon HW, Wiig EH, Nielsen NP 2005. Dual-dimension naming speed and language-dominance ratings by bilingual Hispanic adults. Biling. Res. J. 29:319–36
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Lanza E 2004. Language Mixing in Infant Bilingualism: A Sociolinguistic Perspective Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Leopold WF 1939–1949. Speech Development of a Bilingual Child: A Linguist's Record Evanston, IL: Northwest. Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Lim VP, Liow SJR, Lincoln M, Chan YH, Onslow M 2008. Determining language dominance in English–Mandarin bilinguals: development of a self-report classification tool for clinical use. Appl. Psycholinguist. 29:389–412
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Luce PA, Pisoni DB 1998. Recognizing spoken words: the neighborhood activation model. Ear Hear 19:1–36
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Luk G, Bialystok E 2013. Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: interaction between language proficiency and usage. J. Cogn. Psychol. 25:605–21
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Marian V, Blumenfeld HK, Kaushanskaya M 2007. The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 50:940–67
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Marinis T, Armon-Lotem S 2015. Sentence repetition. Assessing Multilingual Children: Disentangling Bilingualism from Language Impairment S Armon-Lotem, J de Jong, N Meir 95–122 Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Meisel JM 2001. The simultaneous acquisition of two first languages. Trends in Bilingual Acquisition J Cenoz, F Genesee 11–41 Amsterdam: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Meisel JM 2007. The weaker language in early child bilingualism: acquiring a first language as a second language?. Appl. Psycholinguist. 28:495–514
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Milton J 2009. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Montrul S 2016. Dominance and proficiency in early and late bilingualism. See Silva-Corvalán & Treffers-Daller 2016 15–35
  83. Nation ISP 2013. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Oller K, Eilers RE 2002. Language and Literacy in Bilingual Children Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  85. O'Toole C 2013. Using parent report to assess bilingual vocabulary acquisition: a model from Irish. Solutions for the Assessment of Bilinguals VCM Gathercole 81–102 Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Pavlenko A 2009. The Bilingual Mental Lexicon: Interdisciplinary Approaches Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Pavlenko A 2014. The Bilingual Mind: And What It Tells Us About Language and Thought Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Pearson BZ, Fernández SC, Oller DK 1993. Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers: comparison to monolingual norms. Lang. Learn. 43:93–120
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Place S, Hoff E 2011. Properties of dual language exposure that influence two-year-olds’ bilingual proficiency. Child Dev 82:1834–49
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Rodd J, Gaskell G, Marslen-Wilson W 2002. Making sense of semantic ambiguity: semantic competition in lexical access. J. Mem. Lang. 46:245–66
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Romaine S 1989. Bilingualism Oxford, UK: Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Scarborough HS, Rescorla L, Tager-Flusberg H, Fowler AE, Sudhalter V 1991. The relation of utterance length to grammatical complexity in normal and language-disordered groups. Appl. Psycholinguist. 12:23–46
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Schlyter S 1993. The weaker language in bilingual Swedish–French children. Progression and Regression in Language: Sociocultural, Neuropsychological, and Linguistic Perspectives K Hyltenstam, A Viberg 289–308 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Schmeißer A, Hager M, Arnaus Gil L, Jansen V, Geveler J et al. 2016. Related but different: the two concepts of language dominance and language proficiency. See Silva-Corvalán & Treffers-Daller 2016 36–65
  95. Segalowitz N 2010. Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Silva-Corvalán C, Treffers-Daller J 2016. Language Dominance in Bilinguals: Issues of Measurement and Operationalization Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Snape N, Kupisch T 2016. Second Language Acquisition: Second Language Systems London: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Sorace A 2011. Pinning down the concept of “interface” in bilingualism. Linguist. Approaches Biling. 1:1–33
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Sorace A, Serratrice L 2009. Internal and external interfaces in bilingual language development: beyond structural overlap. Int. J. Biling. 13:195–210
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Thordardottir E 2011. The relationship between bilingual exposure and vocabulary development. Int. J. Biling. 15:426–45
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Treffers-Daller J 2009. Code-switching and transfer: an exploration of similarities and differences. The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code-Switching BE Bullock, AJ Toribio 58–74 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Treffers-Daller J 2016. Language dominance: the construct, its measurement and operationalization. See Silva-Corvalán & J Treffers-Daller 2016 235–65
  103. Treffers-Daller J, Korybski T 2016. Using lexical diversity measures to operationalise language dominance in bilinguals. See Silva-Corvalán & Treffers-Daller 2016 106–33
  104. Treffers-Daller J, Parslow P, Williams S 2018. Back to basics: how measures of lexical diversity can help discriminate between CEFR levels. Appl. Linguist. 39:302–27
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Unsworth S 2016. Amount of exposure as a proxy for dominance in bilingual language acquisition. See Silva-Corvalán & Treffers-Daller 2016 156–73
  106. Unsworth S 2017. BiLEC (Bilingual Language Experience Calculator). Digital parental questionnaire https://www.iris-database.org/iris/app/home/detail?id=york%3a928327&ref=search
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Verhoeven L 2007. Early bilingualism, language transfer, and phonological awareness. Appl. Psycholinguist. 28:425–39
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Wang X 2013. Language dominance in translation priming: evidence from balanced and unbalanced Chinese–English bilinguals. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 66:727–43
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Weinreich U 1953. Languages in Contact: Findings and Problems New York: Linguist. Circle N. Y.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Wiig E, Semel E, Secord WA 2013. Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals London: Pearson
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Wray A 2000. Formulaic Language and the Lexicon Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Yip V, Matthews S 2006. Assessing language dominance in bilingual acquisition: a case for mean length utterance differentials. Lang. Assess. Q. 3:97–116
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Zipf GK 1945. The meaning–frequency relationship of words. J. Gen. Psychol. 33:251–56
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011817-045554
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error