In recent years, organizational routines have been studied in a wide variety of settings, including law, medicine, accounting, and engineering. This fieldwork has led to a broader understanding of organizational routines as repetitive, recognizable patterns of interdependent action, carried out by multiple actors. Routines are seen as practices that are situated in a social/material context. Within an organizational routine, individual actions are situated in a broader pattern of actions that can be represented as a network. Recognizing patterns of interdependent action as a unit of analysis entails a research paradigm that has implications for a range of topics in organizational behavior.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abbott A. 1992. From causes to events: notes on narrative positivism. Sociol. Methods Res. 20:4428–55 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abbott A. 1995. Sequence analysis: new methods for old ideas. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 21:193–113 [Google Scholar]
  3. Abell P. 1987. The syntax of social life: the theory and method of comparative narratives Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press [Google Scholar]
  4. Abell P, Felin T, Foss NJ. 2008. Building micro-foundations for the routines, capabilities, and performance links. Manag. Decis. Econ 29:489–502 [Google Scholar]
  5. Aldrich H. 1999. Organizations Evolving Beverly Hills, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  6. Allison C, Hayes J. 2012. The Cognitive Style Index London: Pearson [Google Scholar]
  7. Ashforth BE, Fried Y. 1988. The mindlessness of organizational behaviors. Hum. Relat. 41:4305–29 [Google Scholar]
  8. Autor DH, Dorn D. 2013. The growth of low-skill service jobs and the polarization of the US labor market. Am. Econ. Rev. 103:51553–97 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bal M. 1985. Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press [Google Scholar]
  10. Becker MC. 2004. Organizational routines: a review of the literature. Ind. Corp. Change 13:643–78 [Google Scholar]
  11. Becker MC. 2005. The concept of routines: some clarifications. Camb. J. Econ. 29:249–62 [Google Scholar]
  12. Becker MC. 2008. Handbook of Organizational Routines Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  13. Birnholtz JP, Cohen MD, Hoch SV. 2007. Organizational character: on the regeneration of Camp Poplar Grove. Organ. Sci 18:2315–32 [Google Scholar]
  14. Blau P. 1955. The Dynamics of Bureaucracy Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  15. Boland RJ Jr, Collopy F. 2004. Managing as Designing Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  16. Boudreau MC, Robey D. 2005. Enacting integrated information technology: a human agency perspective. Organ. Sci. 16:13–18 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bourdieu P. 1990. The Logic of Practice Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  18. Bresman H. 2013. Changing routines: a process model of vicarious group learning in pharmaceutical R&D. Acad. Manag. J. 56:35–61 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bromiley P. 2010. Looking at prospect theory. Strateg. Manag. J. 31:1357–70 [Google Scholar]
  20. Brown AD, Lewis MA. 2011. Identities, discipline and routines. Organ. Stud. 32:7871–95 [Google Scholar]
  21. Bruns HC. 2009. Leveraging functionality in safety routines: examining the divergence of rules and performance. Hum. Relat. 62:1399–426 [Google Scholar]
  22. Brynjolfsson E, McAfee A. 2011. Race Against the Machine Lexington, MA: Dig. Front. [Google Scholar]
  23. Burns J, Quinn M. 2011. The routinisation of management controls in software. J. Manag. Control 22:15–24 [Google Scholar]
  24. Burns J, Scapens RW. 2008. Organizational routines in accounting. See Becker 2008, pp. 15–30 [Google Scholar]
  25. Chan D. 1998. Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: a typology of composition models. J. Appl. Psychol. 83:2234–46 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cohen MD. 2007. Reading Dewey: reflections on the study of routine. Organ. Stud. 28:5773–86 [Google Scholar]
  27. Cohen MD. 2012. Perceiving and remembering routine action: fundamental micro-level origins. J. Manag. Stud. 49:1383–88 [Google Scholar]
  28. Cohen MD, Bacdayan P. 1994. Organizational routines are stored as procedural memory: evidence from a laboratory study. Organ. Sci. 5:4554–68 [Google Scholar]
  29. Cohen MD, Burkhart R, Dosi G, Egidi M, Marengo L et al. 1996. Routines and other recurring action patterns of organizations: contemporary research issues. Ind. Corp. Change 5:3653–98 [Google Scholar]
  30. Cohen MD, Levinthal DA, Warglien M. 2014. Collective performance: modeling the interaction of habit-based actions. Ind. Corp. Change 23:329–60 [Google Scholar]
  31. Cohendet P, Llerena P. 2003. Routines and incentives: the role of communities in the firm. Ind. Corp. Change 12:271–97 [Google Scholar]
  32. Constantinides P, Barrett M. 2012. A narrative networks approach to understanding coordination practices in emergency response. Inf. Organ. 22:4273–94 [Google Scholar]
  33. Corsaro WA, Heise DR. 1990. Event structure models from ethnographic data. Sociol. Methodol. 20:1–57 [Google Scholar]
  34. Cyert RM, March JG. 1963. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall [Google Scholar]
  35. D’Adderio L. 2003. Configuring software, reconfiguring memories: the influence of integrated systems on the reproduction of knowledge and routines. Ind. Corp. Change 12:321–50 [Google Scholar]
  36. D’Adderio L. 2008. The performativity of routines: theorising the influence of artefacts and distributed agencies on routines dynamics. Res. Policy 37:5769–89 [Google Scholar]
  37. D’Adderio L. 2011. Artifacts at the centre of routines: performing the material turn in routines theory. J. Inst. Econ 7:2197–230 [Google Scholar]
  38. D’Adderio L, Feldman MS, Lazaric N, Pentland BT. 2012. Call for papers—special issue on routine dynamics: exploring sources of stability and change in organizations. Organ. Sci. 23:61782–83 [Google Scholar]
  39. Dane E, Pratt MG. 2007. Exploring intuition and its role in managerial decision making. Acad. Manag. Rev. 32:133–54 [Google Scholar]
  40. DeSanctis G, Poole MS. 1994. Capturing the complexity in advanced technology use: adaptive structuration theory. Organ. Sci. 5:2121–47 [Google Scholar]
  41. Dionysiou DD, Tsoukas H. 2013. Understanding the (re)creation of routines from within: a symbolic interactionist perspective. Acad. Manag. Rev. 38:2181–205 [Google Scholar]
  42. Edmondson AC, Bohmer RM, Pisano GP. 2001. Disrupted routines: team learning and new technology implementation in hospitals. Adm. Sci. Q. 46:4685–716 [Google Scholar]
  43. Evans JSB. 2008. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59:255–78 [Google Scholar]
  44. Farjoun M. 2010. Beyond dualism: stability and change as a duality. Acad. Manag. Rev. 35:2202–25 [Google Scholar]
  45. Feldman MS. 2000. Organizational routines as a source of continuous change. Organ. Sci. 11:6611–29 [Google Scholar]
  46. Feldman MS. 2003. A performative perspective on stability and change in organizational routines. Ind. Corp. Change 12:4727–52 [Google Scholar]
  47. Feldman MS, Orlikowski WJ. 2011. Theorizing practice and practicing theory. Organ. Sci. 22:51240–53 [Google Scholar]
  48. Feldman MS, Pentland BT. 2003. Reconceptualizing organizational routines as a source of flexibility and change. Adm. Sci. Q. 48:194–118 [Google Scholar]
  49. Felin T, Foss NJ. 2005. Strategic organization: a field in search of micro-foundations. Strateg. Organ 3:4441–55 [Google Scholar]
  50. Felin T, Foss NJ, Heimeriks KH, Madsen TL. 2012. Microfoundations of routines and capabilities: individuals, processes, and structure. J. Manag. Stud. 49:81351–74 [Google Scholar]
  51. Foldy EG, Buckley TR. 2010. Re-creating street-level practice: the role of routines, work groups, and team learning. J. Public Adm. Res. Theory 20:23–52 [Google Scholar]
  52. Garud R, Kumaraswamy A, Karnøe P. 2010. Path dependence or path creation?. J. Manag. Stud. 47:760–74 [Google Scholar]
  53. Gaskin JE, Schutz DM, Berente N, Lyytinen K. 2010. The DNA of design work: physical and digital materiality in project-based design organizations. Acad. Manag. Proc 2010:11–6 [Google Scholar]
  54. Geertz C. 1973. The Interpretation of Culture New York: Basic Books [Google Scholar]
  55. Gersick CJG, Hackman JR. 1990. Habitual routines in task-performing groups. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 47:65–97 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gherardi S. 2000. Practice-based theorizing on learning and knowing in organizations. Organization 7:2211–23 [Google Scholar]
  57. Giddens A. 1984. The Constitution of Society Oxford, UK: Polity [Google Scholar]
  58. Gigerenzer G. 2000. Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  59. Gigerenzer G, Todd PM. 1999. Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  60. Goh JM, Gao G, Agarwal R. 2011. Evolving work routines: adaptive routinization of information technology in healthcare. Inf. Syst. Res. 22:3565–85 [Google Scholar]
  61. Greenhalgh T. 2008. Role of routines in collaborative work in healthcare organisations. BMJ 337:a2448 [Google Scholar]
  62. Greve HR. 2013. Microfoundations of management: behavioral strategies and levels of rationality in organizational action. Acad. Manag. Perspect. 27:2103–19 [Google Scholar]
  63. Grote G. 2012. Safety management in different high-risk domains—all the same?. Saf. Sci. 50:101983–92 [Google Scholar]
  64. Grote G, Weichbrodt JC, Günter H, Zala-Mezö E, Künzle B. 2009. Coordination in high-risk organizations: the need for flexible routines. Cogn. Technol. Work 11:117–27 [Google Scholar]
  65. Gupta N, Hollingshead AB. 2010. Differentiated versus integrated transactive memory effectiveness: It depends on the task. Group Dyn. 14:4384–98 [Google Scholar]
  66. Hackman JR, Wageman R. 1995. Total quality management: empirical, conceptual and practical issues. Adm. Sci. Q. 40:309–43 [Google Scholar]
  67. Hærem T, Pentland BT, Miller KD. 2015. Task complexity: extending a core concept. Acad. Manag. Rev In press. doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0350 [Google Scholar]
  68. Hayes GR, Lee CP, Dourish P. 2011. Organizational routines, innovation, and flexibility: the application of narrative networks to dynamic workflow. Int. J. Med. Inform. 80:8e161–77 [Google Scholar]
  69. Hendricks WO. 1973. Methodology of narrative structural analysis. Semiotica 7:163–84 [Google Scholar]
  70. Hodgkinson GP, Sadler-Smith E, Burke LA, Claxton G, Sparrow PR. 2009. Intuition in organizations: implications for strategic management. Long Range Plann. 42:3277–97 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hodgson GM. 2008. The concept of a routine. See Becker 2008, pp. 15–30 [Google Scholar]
  72. Hogarth RM. 2001. Educating Intuition Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  73. Hollingshead AB. 2001. Cognitive interdependence and convergent expectations in transactive memory. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 81:61080–89 [Google Scholar]
  74. Howard-Grenville JA. 2005. The persistence of flexible organizational routines: the role of agency and organizational context. Organ. Sci. 16:6618–36 [Google Scholar]
  75. Hutchins E. 1995. Cognition in the Wild Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  76. Kahneman D. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow New York: Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  77. Kahneman D, Klein G. 2009. Conditions for intuitive expertise: a failure to disagree. Am. Psychol. 64:6515 [Google Scholar]
  78. Kahneman D, Tversky A. 1974. Subjective probability: a judgment of representativeness. The Concept of Probability in Psychological Experiments Staël von Holstein CA. 25–48 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  79. Keren G, Schul Y. 2009. Two is not always better than one: a critical evaluation of two-system theories. Perspect. Psychol. Sci 4:6533–50 [Google Scholar]
  80. Kozlowski SWJ, Chao GT, Grand JA, Braun MT, Kuljanin G. 2013. Advancing multilevel research design: capturing the dynamics of emergence. Organ. Res. Methods 16:4581–615 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kruglanski AW, Gigerenzer G. 2011. Intuitive and deliberate judgments are based on common principles. Psychol. Rev. 118:197–109 [Google Scholar]
  82. Langer EJ. 1989. Mindfulness Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley [Google Scholar]
  83. Latour B. 2005. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  84. Lave J. 1988. Cognition in Practice: Mind, Mathematics and Culture in Everyday Life Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press [Google Scholar]
  85. Law J. 1992. Notes on the theory of the actor-network: ordering, strategy, and heterogeneity. Syst. Pract. 5:4379–93 [Google Scholar]
  86. Lazaric N. 2011. Organizational routines and cognition: an introduction to empirical and analytical contributions. J. Inst. Econ. 7:2147–56 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lazaric N, Denis B. 2005. Routinization and memorization of tasks in a workshop: the case of the introduction of ISO norms. Ind. Corp. Change 14:873–96 [Google Scholar]
  88. Leonardi PM. 2011. When flexible routines meet flexible technologies: affordance, constraint, and the imbrication of human and material agencies. Manag. Inf. Syst. Q. 35:1147–67 [Google Scholar]
  89. Levinthal D, Rerup C. 2006. Crossing an apparent chasm: bridging mindful and less-mindful perspectives on organizational learning. Organ. Sci. 17:4502–13 [Google Scholar]
  90. Lewin AY, Massini S, Peeters C. 2011. Microfoundations of internal and external absorptive capacity routines. Organ. Sci. 22:181–98 [Google Scholar]
  91. Lewis K. 2003. Measuring transactive memory systems in the field: scale development and validation. J. Appl. Psychol. 88:4587–604 [Google Scholar]
  92. March JG. 1991. Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organ. Sci 2:171–87 [Google Scholar]
  93. March JG, Simon HA. 1958. Organizations Newark: NJ: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  94. Meyer RD, Dalal RS, Hermida R. 2010. A review and synthesis of situational strength in the organizational sciences. J. Manag. 36:1121–40 [Google Scholar]
  95. Milkman KL, Chugh D, Bazerman MH. 2009. How can decision making be improved?. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 4:4379–83 [Google Scholar]
  96. Miller KD, Pentland BT, Choi S. 2012. Dynamics of performing and remembering organizational routines. J. Manag. Stud. 49:81536–58 [Google Scholar]
  97. Nelson RR, Winter SG. 1982. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  98. Nicolini D. 2011. Practice as the site of knowing: insights from the field of telemedicine. Organ. Sci. 22:3602–20 [Google Scholar]
  99. Norman DA. 2002. The Design of Everyday Things New York: Basic Books [Google Scholar]
  100. Nyberg D. 2009. Computers, customer service operatives and cyborgs: intra-actions in call centres. Organ. Sci. 30:111181–99 [Google Scholar]
  101. Orlikowski WJ. 2007. Sociomaterial practices: exploring technology at work. Organ. Stud. 28:91435–48 [Google Scholar]
  102. Pacini R, Epstein S. 1999. The relation of rational and experiential information processing styles to personality, basic beliefs, and the ratio-bias phenomenon. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 76:6972–87 [Google Scholar]
  103. Parmigiani A, Howard-Grenville J. 2011. Routines revisited: exploring the capabilities and practice perspectives. Acad. Manag. Ann. 5:1413–53 [Google Scholar]
  104. Pentland BT. 2003. Conceptualizing and measuring variety in organizational work processes. Manag. Sci. 49:7857–70 [Google Scholar]
  105. Pentland BT, Feldman MS. 2005. Organizational routines as a unit of analysis. Ind. Corp. Change 14:5793–815 [Google Scholar]
  106. Pentland BT, Feldman MS. 2007. Narrative networks: patterns of technology and organization. Organ. Sci 18:5781–95 [Google Scholar]
  107. Pentland BT, Feldman MS. 2008. Designing routines: on the folly of designing artifacts, while hoping for patterns of action. Inf. Organ. 18:4235–50 [Google Scholar]
  108. Pentland BT, Feldman MS, Becker MC, Liu P. 2012. Dynamics of organizational routines: a generative model. J. Manag. Stud. 49:81484–508 [Google Scholar]
  109. Pentland BT, Hærem T, Hillison D. 2010. Comparing organizational routines as recurrent patterns of action. Organ. Stud. 31:7917–40 [Google Scholar]
  110. Pentland BT, Hærem T, Hillison D. 2011. The (n)ever changing world: stability and change in organizational routines. Organ. Sci 22:61369–83 [Google Scholar]
  111. Pentland BT, Rueter HH. 1994. Organizational routines as grammars of action. Adm. Sci. Q. 39:3484–510 [Google Scholar]
  112. Plous S. 1993. The Psychology of Judgment and Decision Making New York: McGraw-Hill [Google Scholar]
  113. Puranam P, Raveendran M, Knudsen T. 2012. Organization design: the epistemic interdependence perspective. Acad. Manag. Rev. 37:3419–40 [Google Scholar]
  114. Quinn M. 2014. Stability and change in management accounting over time: a century or so of evidence from Guinness. Manag. Account. Res. 25:76–92 [Google Scholar]
  115. Radwan L, Kinder S. 2013. Practising the diffusion of organizational routines. Environ. Plann. A 45:2442–58 [Google Scholar]
  116. Ragin CC, Becker HS. 1992. What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  117. Rerup C, Feldman MS. 2011. Routines as a source of change in organizational schemata: the role of trial-and-error learning. Acad. Manag. J. 54:577–610 [Google Scholar]
  118. Reynaud B. 2005. The void at the heart of rules: routines in the context of rule-following. The case of the Paris Metro Workshop. Ind. Corp. Change 14:847–71 [Google Scholar]
  119. Rice RE, Cooper SD. 2010. Organizations and Unusual Routines: A Systems Analysis of Dysfunctional Feedback Processes Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  120. Robey D, Raymond B, Anderson C. 2012. Theorizing information technology as a material artifact in information systems research. Materiality and Organizing Leonardi PM, Nardi BA, Kallinikos J. 217–36 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  121. Rousseau DM. 1997. Organizational behavior in the new organizational era. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 48:1515–46 [Google Scholar]
  122. Russo JE, Schoemaker PJH. 2002. Winning Decisions: Getting It Right the First Time New York: Random House [Google Scholar]
  123. Ryle G. 1949. The Concept of Mind London: Hutchinson House [Google Scholar]
  124. Sánchez D, Tentori M, Favela J. 2008. Activity recognition for the smart hospital. IEEE Intell. Syst. 23:250–57 [Google Scholar]
  125. Schneider W, Chein JM. 2003. Controlled & automatic processing: behavior, theory, and biological mechanisms. Cogn. Sci. 27:3525–59 [Google Scholar]
  126. Schulz M. 2008. Staying on track: a voyage to the internal mechanisms of routine reproduction. See Becker 2008, pp. 228–55 [Google Scholar]
  127. Silver MS. 1991. Decisional guidance for computer-based decision support. Manag. Inf. Syst. Q. 15:1105–22 [Google Scholar]
  128. Simon HA. 1959. Theories of decision-making in economics and behavioral science. Am. Econ. Rev. 49:3253–83 [Google Scholar]
  129. Simon HA. 1987. Making management decisions: the role of intuition and emotion. Acad. Manag. Exec. 1:157–64 [Google Scholar]
  130. Simon HA. 1992. What is an “explanation” of behavior?. Psychol. Sci 3:3150–61 [Google Scholar]
  131. Sleesman DJ, Conlon DE, McNamara G, Miles JE. 2012. Cleaning up the big muddy: a meta-analytic review of the determinants of escalation of commitment. Acad. Manag. J 55:3541–62 [Google Scholar]
  132. Stanovich KE, West RF. 2000. Advancing the rationality debate. Behav. Brain Sci. 23:05701–17 [Google Scholar]
  133. Su NM, Brdiczka O, Begole B. 2013. The routineness of routines: measuring rhythms of media interaction. Hum. Comput. Interact. 28:4287–334 [Google Scholar]
  134. Suchman LA. 1987. Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-Machine Communication Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  135. Sydow J, Schreyögg G, Koch J. 2009. Organizational path dependence: opening the black box. Acad. Manag. Rev. 34:4689–709 [Google Scholar]
  136. Thompson JD. 1967. Organizations in Action: Social Science Bases of Administrative Theory New York: McGraw-Hill [Google Scholar]
  137. Tsoukas H, Chia R. 2002. On organizational becoming: rethinking organizational change. Organ. Sci. 13:5567–82 [Google Scholar]
  138. Turner SF, Fern MJ. 2012. Examining the stability and variability of routine performances: the effects of experience and context change. J. Manag. Stud. 49:81407–34 [Google Scholar]
  139. Turner SF, Rindova V. 2012. A balancing act: how organizations pursue consistency in routine functioning in the face of ongoing change. Organ. Sci. 23:124–46 [Google Scholar]
  140. Tversky A, Kahneman D. 1973. Availability: a heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cogn. Psychol. 5:2207–32 [Google Scholar]
  141. Tversky A, Kahneman D. 1974. Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science 185:41571124–31 [Google Scholar]
  142. Vromen JJ. 2011. Routines as multilevel mechanisms. J. Inst. Econ. 7:175–96 [Google Scholar]
  143. Weick KE. 1969. The Social Psychology of Organizing Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley [Google Scholar]
  144. Weick KE, Roberts KH. 1993. Collective mind in organizations: heedful interrelating on flight decks. Adm. Sci. Q. 38:3357–81 [Google Scholar]
  145. Wenger E. 1998. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  146. Whyte G. 1989. Groupthink reconsidered. Acad. Manag. Rev. 14:140–56 [Google Scholar]
  147. Winter SG. 1985. The case for “mechanistic” decision making. Organizational Strategy and Change Pennings JM. 99–113 San Francisco: Jossey-Bass [Google Scholar]
  148. Winter SG. 2003. Understanding dynamic capabilities. Strateg. Manag. J. 24:10991–95 [Google Scholar]
  149. Winter SG. 2013. Habit, deliberation, and action: strengthening the microfoundations of routines and capabilities. Acad. Manag. Perspect. 27:2120–37 [Google Scholar]
  150. Yeow A, Faraj S. 2011. Using narrative networks to study enterprise systems and organizational change. Int. J. Account. Inf. Syst. 12:2116–25 [Google Scholar]
  151. Zammuto RF, Griffith TL, Majchrzak A, Dougherty DJ, Faraj S. 2007. Information technology and the changing fabric of organization. Organ. Sci. 18:5749–62 [Google Scholar]
  152. Zbaracki MJ, Bergen M. 2010. When truces collapse: a longitudinal study of price-adjustment routines. Organ. Sci. 21:5955–72 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error