1932

Abstract

Multiple global environmental changes (GECs) now under way, including climate change, biodiversity loss, freshwater depletion, tropical deforestation, overexploitation of fisheries, ocean acidification, and soil degradation, have substantial, but still imperfectly understood, implications for human health. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) make a major contribution to the global burden of disease. Many of the driving forces responsible for GEC also influence NCD risk through a range of mechanisms. This article provides an overview of pathways linking GEC and NCDs, focusing on five pathways: () energy, air pollution, and climate change; () urbanization; () food, nutrition, and agriculture; () the deposition of persistent chemicals in the environment; and () biodiversity loss.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043706
2019-04-01
2024-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/publhealth/40/1/annurev-publhealth-040218-043706.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043706&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1. 
    Adams ZW, Sumner JA, Danielson CK, McCauley JL, Resnick HS et al. 2014. Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 55:1047–55
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2. 
    Agyemang C, Meeks K, Beune E, Owusu-Dabo E, Mockenhaupt FP et al. 2016. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africans - Is the burden in today's Africa similar to African migrants in Europe? The RODAM study. BMC Med 14:166
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3. 
    Allen L 2017. Non-communicable disease funding. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 5:92
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4. 
    Allen LN, Feigl AB 2017. What's in a name? A call to reframe non-communicable diseases. Lancet Global Health 5:e129–30
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5. 
    Anand SS, Hawkes C, de Souza RJ, Mente A, Dehghan M et al. 2015. Food consumption and its impact on cardiovascular disease: importance of solutions focused on the globalized food system: a report from the workshop convened by the World Heart Federation. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66:1590–614
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6. 
    Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF et al. 2005. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA 294:2455–64
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7. 
    Atkinson RW, Butland BK, Dimitroulopoulou C, Heal MR, Stedman JR et al. 2016. Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and mortality: a quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from cohort studies. BMJ Open 6:e009493
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8. 
    Avio CG, Gorbi S, Regoli F 2017. Plastics and microplastics in the oceans: from emerging pollutants to emerged threat. Mar. Environ. Res. 128:2–11
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. 
    Barrios S, Bertinelli L, Strobl E 2006. Climatic change and rural–urban migration: the case of sub-Saharan Africa. J. Urban Econ. 60:357–71
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10. 
    Basu S, Babiarz KS, Ebrahim S, Vellakkal S, Stuckler D, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD 2013. Palm oil taxes and cardiovascular disease mortality in India: economic-epidemiologic model. BMJ 347:f6048
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11. 
    Battilani P, Toscano P, Van der Fels-Klerx HJ, Moretti A, Camardo Leggieri M et al. 2016. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change. Sci. Rep. 6:24328
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12. 
    Bernstein AS 2014. Biological diversity and public health. Annu. Rev. Public Health 35:153–67
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13. 
    Biswas A, Oh PI, Faulkner GE, Bajaj RR, Silver MA et al. 2015. Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann. Intern. Med. 162:123–32
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14. 
    Bloom DE, Cafiero ET, Jané-Llopis E, Abrahams-Gessel S, Bloom LR et al. 2011. The Global Economic Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases Geneva: World Econ. Forum, Harvard Sch. Public Health
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15. 
    Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, El Ghissassi F et al. 2015. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. Lancet Oncol 16:1599–600
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. 
    Bowe B, Xie Y, Li T, Yan Y, Xian H, Al-Aly Z 2018. The 2016 global and national burden of diabetes mellitus attributable to PM2.5 air pollution. Lancet Planet. Health 2:e301–12
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17. 
    Brown SC, Lombard J, Wang K, Byrne MM, Toro M et al. 2016. Neighborhood greenness and chronic health conditions in Medicare beneficiaries. Am. J. Prev. Med. 51:78–89
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18. 
    Burnett R, Chen H, Szyszkowicz M, Fann N, Hubbell B et al. 2018. Global estimates of mortality associated with long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter. PNAS 115:389592–97
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19. 
    Bygbjerg IC 2012. Double burden of noncommunicable and infectious diseases in developing countries. Science 337:1499–501
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20. 
    Cao L, Wang W, Yang Y, Yang C, Yuan Z et al. 2007. Environmental impact of aquaculture and countermeasures to aquaculture pollution in China. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 14:452–62
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21. 
    Cappuccio FP, Cooper D, D'Elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA 2011. Sleep duration predicts cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur. Heart J. 32:1484–92
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22. 
    CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.). 2018. Fourth national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. Updated tables Rep., CDC Atlanta: https://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/index.html
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23. 
    Cherr GN, Fairbairn E, Whitehead A 2017. Impacts of petroleum-derived pollutants on fish development. Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci. 5:185–203
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24. 
    Clayton S, Manning C, Krygsman K, Speiser M 2017. Mental Health and Our Changing Climate: Impacts, Implications, and Guidance Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc., EcoAmerica
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25. 
    Clifford A, Lang L, Chen R, Anstey KJ, Seaton A 2016. Exposure to air pollution and cognitive functioning across the life course—a systematic literature review. Environ. Res. 147:383–98
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26. 
    Clonan A, Roberts KE, Holdsworth M 2016. Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 75:367–73
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27. 
    Cohen AJ, Brauer M, Burnett R, Anderson HR, Frostad J et al. 2017. Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015. Lancet 389:1907–18
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28. 
    Comte L, Olden JD 2017. Climatic vulnerability of the world's freshwater and marine fishes. Nat. Clim. Change 7:718–22
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29. 
    de Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E 2012. Prevalence and trends of stunting among pre-school children, 1990–2020. Public Health Nutr 15:142–48
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30. 
    De Sy V, Herold M, Achard F, Beuchle R, Clevers JGPW et al. 2015. Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America. Environ. Res. Lett. 10:124004
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. 
    Deutsch CA, Tewksbury JJ, Tigchelaar M, Battisti DS, Merrill SC et al. 2018. Increase in crop losses to insect pests in a warming climate. Science 361:916–19
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32. 
    Diamond ML, de Wit CA, Molander S, Scheringer M, Backhaus T et al. 2015. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution. Environ. Int. 78:8–15
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33. 
    Dimakakou E, Johnston HJ, Streftaris G, Cherrie JW 2018. Exposure to environmental and occupational particulate air pollution as a potential contributor to neurodegeneration and diabetes: a systematic review of epidemiological research. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15:1704
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34. 
    Economist. 2017. The most neglected threat to public health in China is toxic soil. Economist June 8. https://www.economist.com/briefing/2017/06/08/the-most-neglected-threat-to-public-health-in-china-is-toxic-soil
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35. 
    Eisenman D, McCaffrey S, Donatello I, Marshal G 2015. An ecosystems and vulnerable populations perspective on solastalgia and psychological distress after a wildfire. EcoHealth 12:602–10
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36. 
    Evans GW, Lercher P, Meis M, Ising H, Kofler WW 2001. Community noise exposure and stress in children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109:1023–27
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37. 
    Eze IC, Hemkens LG, Bucher HC, Hoffman B, Schindler C et al. 2015. Association between ambient air pollution and diabetes mellitus in Europe and North America: systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ. Health Perspect. 123:5381–89
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38. 
    Ezeh A, Oyebode O, Satterthwaite D, Chen Y-F, Ndugwa R et al. 2017. The history, geography, and sociology of slums and the health problems of people who live in slums. Lancet 389:547–58
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39. 
    FAO (Food Agric. Organ.). 2006. Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options Rome: FAO
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40. 
    FAO (Food Agric. Organ.). 2016. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Rome: FAO
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41. 
    Fattore E, Bosetti C, Brighenti F, Agostoni C, Fattore G 2014. Palm oil and blood lipid–related markers of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary intervention trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 99:1331–50
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42. 
    Fernandez A, Black J, Jones M, Wilson L, Salvador-Carulla L et al. 2015. Flooding and mental health: a systematic mapping review. PLOS ONE 10:e0119929
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43. 
    Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, eds. 2014. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44. 
    Folino F, Buja G, Zanotto G, Marras E, Allocca G et al. 2017. Association between air pollution and ventricular arrhythmias in high-risk patients (ARIA study): a multicentre longitudinal study. Lancet Planet. Health 1:e58–64
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45. 
    Freeman MD, Kohles SS 2012. Plasma levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and causation. J. Environ. Public Health 2012:258981
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46. 
    Friel S, Bowen K, Campbell-Lendrum D, Frumkin H, McMichael AJ, Rasanathan K 2011. Climate change, noncommunicable diseases, and development: the relationships and common policy opportunities. Annu. Rev. Public Health 32:133–47
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47. 
    Frumkin H, Frank LD, Jackson RJ 2004. Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities Washington, DC: Island Press
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48. 
    Galea S, Brewin CR, Gruber M, Jones RT, King DW et al. 2007. Exposure to hurricane-related stressors and mental illness after Hurricane Katrina. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64:1427–34
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49. 
    Gascon M, Triguero-Mas M, Martinez D, Dadvand P, Forns J et al. 2015. Mental health benefits of long-term exposure to residential green and blue spaces: a systematic review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12:4354–79
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50. 
    Gascon M, Triguero-Mas M, Martínez D, Dadvand P, Rojas-Rueda D et al. 2016. Residential green spaces and mortality: a systematic review. Environ. Int. 86:60–67
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51. 
    Gasparrini A, Guo Y, Sera F, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Huber V et al. 2017. Projections of temperature-related excess mortality under climate change scenarios. Lancet Planet. Health 1:e360–67
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. 
    GBD Risk Factors Collab 2016. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388:1659–724
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. 
    Giugni M, Simonis I, Bucchignani E, Capuano P, De Paola F et al. 2015. The impacts of climate change on African cities. Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa: A Multidisciplinary Approach S Pauleit, A Coly, S Fohlmeister, P Gasparini, G Jørgensen et al.37–75 Cham, Switz: Springer Int.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54. 
    Global Comm. Econ. Clim. 2015. Seizing the global opportunity: partnerships for better growth and a better climate. The 2015 New Climate Economy report Rep., New Clim. Econ New York/London: http://newclimateeconomy.report/2015/
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55. 
    Golden CD, Allison EH, Cheung WWL, Dey MM, Halpern BS et al. 2016. Nutrition: fall in fish catch threatens human health. Nature 534:317–20
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56. 
    Goldmann E, Galea S 2014. Mental health consequences of disasters. Annu. Rev. Public Health 35:169–83
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57. 
    Goodman A, Brand C, Ogilvie D 2012. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study. Environ. Health 11:52
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58. 
    Gore AC, Chappell VA, Fenton SE, Flaws JA, Nadal A et al. 2015. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's second scientific statement on endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Endocr. Rev. 36:E1–150
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59. 
    Green R, Milner J, Joy EJ, Agrawal S, Dangour AD 2016. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review. Br. J. Nutr. 116:142–48
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60. 
    Güneralp B, Güneralp İ, Liu Y 2015. Changing global patterns of urban exposure to flood and drought hazards. Glob. Environ. Change 31:217–25
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61. 
    Haines A, McMichael AJ, Smith KR, Roberts I, Woodcock J et al. 2009. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers. Lancet 374:2104–14
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62. 
    Hart CR, Berry HL, Tonna AM 2011. Improving the mental health of rural New South Wales communities facing drought and other adversities. Aust. J. Rural Health 19:231–38
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63. 
    He D, Wu S, Zhao H, Qiu H, Fu Y et al. 2017. Association between particulate matter 2.5 and diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J. Diabetes Investig. 8:687–96
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64. 
    Hoek G, Krishnan RM, Beelen R, Peters A, Ostro B et al. 2013. Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio-respiratory mortality: a review. Environ. Health 12:43
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65. 
    Hou L, Zhang X, Wang D, Baccarelli A 2012. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics. Int. J. Epidemiol. 41:79–105
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. 
    IEA (Int. Energy Agency). 2016. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2016: Energy and Air Pollution Paris: IEA
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67. 
    Jaacks LM, Staimez LR 2015. Association of persistent organic pollutants and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes and diabetes-related health outcomes in Asia: a systematic review. Environ. Int. 76:57–70
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68. 
    Janssen NAH, Gerlofs-Nijland ME, Lanki T, Salonen RO, Cassee F et al. 2012. Health Effects of Black Carbon Copenhagen: World Health Organ.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69. 
    Ji M, Cohan DS, Bell ML 2011. Meta-analysis of the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and respiratory hospital admissions. Environ. Res. Lett. 6:024006
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70. 
    Johnston FH, Henderson SB, Chen Y, Randerson JT, Marlier M et al. 2012. Estimated global mortality attributable to smoke from landscape fires. Environ. Health Perspect. 120:695–701
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71. 
    Karagulian F, Belis CA, Dora CFC, Prüss-Ustün AM, Bonjour S et al. 2015. Contributions to cities' ambient particulate matter (PM): a systematic review of local source contributions at global level. Atmos. Environ. 120:475–83
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72. 
    Kessler RC, Galea S, Gruber MJ, Sampson NA, Ursano RJ, Wessely S 2008. Trends in mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina. Mol. Psychiatry 13:374–84
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73. 
    Khan AE, Scheelbeek PFD, Shilpi AB, Chan Q, Mojumder SK et al. 2014. Salinity in drinking water and the risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in coastal Bangladesh: a case-control study. PLOS ONE 9:e108715
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74. 
    Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng YM, Huang YZ, Zhu YG 2008. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ. Poll. 152:686–92
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75. 
    Klein A-M, Vaissière BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA et al. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proc. R. Soc. B 274:303–13
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76. 
    Knuiman MW, Christian HE, Divitini ML, Foster SA, Bull FC et al. 2014. A longitudinal analysis of the influence of the neighborhood built environment on walking for transportation: the RESIDE study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 180:453–61
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77. 
    Koplitz SN, Jacob DJ, Sulprizio MP, Myllyvirta L, Reid C 2017. Burden of disease from rising coal-fired power plant emissions in Southeast Asia. Environ. Sci. Technol. 51:1467–76
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78. 
    Lachowycz K, Jones AP 2011. Greenspace and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence. Obes. Rev. 12:e183–89
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79. 
    Landrigan PJ, Fuller R, Acosta NJR, Adeyi O, Arnold R et al. 2017. The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. Lancet 391:10119
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80. 
    Larsson SC, Orsini N 2014. Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Am. J. Epidemiol. 179:282–89
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81. 
    Lear SA, Hu W, Rangarajan S, Gasevic D, Leong D et al. 2017. The effect of physical activity on mortality and cardiovascular disease in 130 000 people from 17 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: the PURE study. Lancet 390:p2643–54
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82. 
    Lee DH, Porta M, Jacobs DR Jr, Vandenberg LN 2014. Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Endocr. Rev. 35:557–601
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83. 
    Lee JY, Sim T-B, Lee J-E, Na H-K 2017. Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of fish oil derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on colon carcinogenesis. Clin. Nutr. Res. 6:147–60
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84. 
    Lee S, Lee B 2014. The influence of urban form on GHG emissions in the U.S. household sector. Energy Policy 68:534–49
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85. 
    Leung DYC 2015. Outdoor-indoor air pollution in urban environment: challenges and opportunity. Front. Environ. Sci. 2:69
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86. 
    Lloyd SJ, Kovats RS, Chalabi Z 2011. Climate change, crop yields, and undernutrition: development of a model to quantify the impact of climate scenarios on child undernutrition. Environ. Health Perspect. 119:1817–23
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87. 
    Loladze I 2014. Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO2 depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition. eLife 3:e02245
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88. 
    Lunyera J, Mohottige D, von Isenburg M, Jeuland M, Patel UD, Stanifer JW 2016. CKD of uncertain etiology: a systematic review. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11:379–85
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89. 
    Mackay D, Fraser A 2000. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals: mechanisms and models. Environ. Poll. 110:375–91
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90. 
    Malley CS, Henze DK, Kuylenstierna JCI, Vallack HW, Davila Y et al. 2017. Updated global estimates of respiratory mortality in adults ≥30 years of age attributable to long-term ozone exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 125:087021
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91. 
    Mammen G, Faulkner G 2013. Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. Am. J. Prev. Med. 45:649–57
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92. 
    McMichael AJ 2013. Globalization, climate change, and human health. New Engl. J. Med. 368:1335–43
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93. 
    Myers SS, Zanobetti A, Kloog I, Huybers P, Leakey ADB et al. 2014. Increasing CO2 threatens human nutrition. Nature 510:139–42
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94. 
    Nadal M, Marquès M, Mari M, Domingo JL 2015. Climate change and environmental concentrations of POPs: a review. Environ. Res. 143:177–85
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95. 
    Naghavi M, Abajobir AA, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abd-Allah F et al. 2017. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 390:1151–210
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96. 
    Newbold T, Hudson LN, Arnell AP, Contu S, De Palma A et al. 2016. Has land use pushed terrestrial biodiversity beyond the planetary boundary? A global assessment. Science 353:288–91
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97. 
    Nordberg GF, Fowler BA, Nordberg M, eds. 2015. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals San Diego: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98. 
    O'Brien LV, Berry HL, Coleman C, Hanigan IC 2014. Drought as a mental health exposure. Environ. Res. 131:181–87
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99. 
    Obradovich N, Fowler JH 2017. Climate change may alter human physical activity patterns. Nat. Hum. Behav. 1:0097
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100. 
    Obradovich N, Migliorini R, Mednick SC, Fowler JH 2017. Nighttime temperature and human sleep loss in a changing climate. Sci. Adv. 3:e1601555
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101. 
    Omran AR 1971. The epidemiologic transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Mem. Fund. Q. 49:509–38
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102. 
    Orru H, Ebi KL, Forsberg B 2017. The interplay of climate change and air pollution on health. Curr. Environ. Health Rep. 4:504–13
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103. 
    Pearce N, Ebrahim S, McKee M, Lamptey P, Barreto ML et al. 2015. Global prevention and control of NCDs: limitations of the standard approach. J. Public Health Policy 36:408–25
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104. 
    Phelan PE, Kaloush K, Miner M, Golden J, Phelan B et al. 2015. Urban heat island: mechanisms, implications, and possible remedies. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 40:285–307
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105. 
    Pincetl S 2017. Cities in the age of the Anthropocene: climate change agents and the potential for mitigation. Anthropocene 20:74–82
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106. 
    Popkin BM 2015. Nutrition transition and the global diabetes epidemic. Curr. Diab. Rep. 15:64
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107. 
    Popkin BM, Adair LS, Ng SW 2012. Global nutrition transition: the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr. Rev. 70:3–21
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108. 
    Porta M, Puigdomènech E, Ballester F, Selva J, Ribas-Fitó N et al. 2008. Monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population: the international experience. Environ. Int. 34:546–61
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109. 
    Porter JR, Xie L, Challinor AJ, Cochrane K, Howden M et al. 2014. Food security and food production systems. See Ref 43485–533
  110. 110. 
    Rangel-Huerta OD, Gil A 2017. Omega 3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease risk factors: an updated systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Clin. Nutr. 37:72–77
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111. 
    Recio A, Linares C, Banegas JR, Díaz J 2016. Road traffic noise effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic health: an integrative model of biological mechanisms. Environ. Res. 146:359–70
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112. 
    Rigby M 2017. Renaming non-communicable diseases. Lancet Glob. Health 5:e653
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113. 
    Rochman CM, Hoh E, Hentschel BT, Kaye S 2013. Long-term field measurement of sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic pellets: implications for plastic marine debris. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:1646–54
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 114. 
    Rochman CM, Tahir A, Williams SL, Baxa DV, Lam R et al. 2015. Anthropogenic debris in seafood: plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption. Sci. Rep. 5:14340
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115. 
    Ryan B, Franklin RC, Burkle FM Jr, Aitken P, Smith E et al. 2015. Identifying and describing the impact of cyclone, storm and flood related disasters on treatment management, care and exacerbations of non-communicable diseases and the implications for public health. PLOS Curr. Disast. 7: https://doi.org/10.1371/currents.dis.62e9286d152de04799644dcca47d9288
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  116. 116. 
    Sallis JF, Cerin E, Conway TL, Adams MA, Frank LD et al. 2016. Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: a cross-sectional study. Lancet 387:2207–17
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 117. 
    Satterthwaite D 2011. Editorial: Why is urban health so poor even in many successful cities?. Environ. Urban. 23:5–11
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 118. 
    Savilaakso S, Garcia C, Garcia-Ulloa J, Ghazoul J, Groom M et al. 2014. Systematic review of effects on biodiversity from oil palm production. Environ. Evidence 3:4
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 119. 
    Scheelbeek PFD, Chowdhury MAH, Haines A, Alam DS, Hoque MA et al. 2017. Drinking water salinity and raised blood pressure: evidence from a cohort study in coastal Bangladesh. Environ. Health Perspect. 125:057007
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 120. 
    Scovronick N, Lloyd SJ, Kovats RS 2015. Climate and health in informal urban settlements. Environ. Urban. 27:657–78
    [Google Scholar]
  121. 121. 
    Selin NE 2009. Global biogeochemical cycling of mercury: a review. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 34:43–63
    [Google Scholar]
  122. 122. 
    Senftleber NK, Nielsen SM, Andersen JR, Bliddal H, Tarp S et al. 2017. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Nutrients 9:42
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 123. 
    Shah AS, Langrish JP, Nair H, McAllister DA, Hunter AL et al. 2013. Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 382:1039–48
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 124. 
    Shoemaker JK, Schrag DP, Molina MJ, Ramanathan V 2013. What role for short-lived climate pollutants in mitigation policy?. Science 342:1323–24
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 125. 
    Smit W, Hancock T, Kumaresen J, Santos-Burgoa C, Sánchez-Kobashi Meneses R, Friel S 2011. Toward a research and action agenda on urban planning/design and health equity in cities in low and middle-income countries. J. Urban Health 88:875–85
    [Google Scholar]
  126. 126. 
    Smith KR, Woodward A, Campbell-Lendrum D, Chadee DD, Honda Y et al. 2014. Human health: impacts, adaptation, and co-benefits. See Ref 43709–54
  127. 127. 
    Smith MR, Myers SS 2018. Impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on global human nutrition. Nature Climate Change 8:834–39
    [Google Scholar]
  128. 128. 
    Smith MR, Singh GM, Mozaffarian D, Myers SS 2015. Effects of decreases of animal pollinators on human nutrition and global health: a modelling analysis. Lancet 386:1964–72
    [Google Scholar]
  129. 129. 
    Solari CD, Mare RD 2012. Housing crowding effects on children's wellbeing. Soc. Sci. Res. 41:464–76
    [Google Scholar]
  130. 130. 
    Springmann M, Mason-D'Croz D, Robinson S, Garnett T, Godfray HC et al. 2016. Global and regional health effects of future food production under climate change: a modelling study. Lancet 387:1937–46
    [Google Scholar]
  131. 131. 
    Steffen W, Crutzen PJ, McNeill JR 2007. The Anthropocene: Are humans now overwhelming the great forces of nature?. AMBIO: J. Hum. Environ. 36:614–21
    [Google Scholar]
  132. 132. 
    Stone B, Hess JJ, Frumkin H 2010. Urban form and extreme heat events: Are sprawling cities more vulnerable to climate change than compact cities?. Environ. Health Perspect. 118:1425–28
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 133. 
    Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Rosenbaum S, Firth J, Cosco T et al. 2017. An examination of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for people with anxiety and stress-related disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res 249:102–8
    [Google Scholar]
  134. 134. 
    Sunega P, Lux M 2016. Subjective perception versus objective indicators of overcrowding and housing affordability. J. Hous. Built Environ. 31:695–717
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 135. 
    Tang B, Liu X, Liu Y, Xue C, Zhang L 2014. A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters. BMC Public Health 14:623
    [Google Scholar]
  136. 136. 
    Tasian GE, Pulido JE, Gasparrini A, Saigal CS, Horton BP et al. 2014. Daily mean temperature and clinical kidney stone presentation in five U.S. metropolitan areas: a time-series analysis. Environ. Health Perspect. 122:1081–87
    [Google Scholar]
  137. 137. 
    Taylor KW, Novak RF, Anderson HA, Birnbaum LS, Blystone C et al. 2013. Evaluation of the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and diabetes in epidemiological studies: a national toxicology program workshop review. Environ. Health Perspect. 121:774–83
    [Google Scholar]
  138. 138. 
    Taylor RG, Scanlon B, Döll P, Rodell M, van Beek R et al. 2013. Ground water and climate change. Nat. Clim. Change 3:322–29
    [Google Scholar]
  139. 139. 
    Thurstan RH, Roberts CM 2014. The past and future of fish consumption: Can supplies meet healthy eating recommendations?. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 89:5–11
    [Google Scholar]
  140. 140. 
    Timaeus IM 2012. Stunting and obesity in childhood: a reassessment using longitudinal data from South Africa. Int. J. Epidemiol. 41:764–72
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 141. 
    Turner MC, Jerrett M, Pope CA 3rd, Krewski D, Gapstur SM et al. 2016. Long-term ozone exposure and mortality in a large prospective study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 193:1134–42
    [Google Scholar]
  142. 142. 
    U. N.-Habitat 2011. Cities and Climate Change: Global Report on Human Settlements 2011 London/Washington, DC: U. N.-Habitat, Earthscan
    [Google Scholar]
  143. 143. 
    U. N., Dep. Econ. Soc. Aff., Popul. Div. 2014. World Urbanization Prospects. The 2014 Revision New York: U. N.
    [Google Scholar]
  144. 144. 
    Ürge-Vorsatz D, Herrero ST, Dubash NK, Lecocq F 2014. Measuring the co-benefits of climate change mitigation. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 39:549–82
    [Google Scholar]
  145. 145. 
    Vos T, Abajobir AA, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abate KH et al. 2017. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 390:1211–59
    [Google Scholar]
  146. 146. 
    Walker SP, Chang SM, Wright A, Osmond C, Grantham-McGregor SM 2015. Early childhood stunting is associated with lower developmental levels in the subsequent generation of children. J. Nutr. 145:823–28
    [Google Scholar]
  147. 147. 
    Wang Q, Li C, Guo Y, Barnett AG, Tong S et al. 2017. Environmental ambient temperature and blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci. Total Environ. 575:276–86
    [Google Scholar]
  148. 148. 
    Wang X, Sun D, Yao T 2016. Climate change and global cycling of persistent organic pollutants: a critical review. Sci. China Earth Sci. 59:1899–911
    [Google Scholar]
  149. 149. 
    Wania F, Mackay D 1995. A global distribution model for persistent organic chemicals. Sci. Total Environ. 160:211–32
    [Google Scholar]
  150. 150. 
    Warburton DER, Nicol CW, Bredin SSD 2006. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. CMAJ 174:801–9
    [Google Scholar]
  151. 151. 
    Warn E, Adamo SB 2014. The impact of climate change: migration and cities in South America. WMO Bull 63:10–14
    [Google Scholar]
  152. 152. 
    Watts N, Adger WN, Agnolucci P, Blackstock J, Byass P et al. 2015. Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health. Lancet 386:1861–914
    [Google Scholar]
  153. 153. 
    Wesseling C, Aragón A, González M, Weiss I, Glaser J et al. 2016. Kidney function in sugarcane cutters in Nicaragua—a longitudinal study of workers at risk of Mesoamerican nephropathy. Environ. Res. 147:125–32
    [Google Scholar]
  154. 154. 
    Whitmee S, Haines A, Beyrer C, Boltz F, Capon AG et al. 2015. Safeguarding human health in the Anthropocene epoch: report of The Rockefeller Foundation–Lancet Commission on planetary health. Lancet 386:1973–2028
    [Google Scholar]
  155. 155. 
    WHO (World Health Organization). 2013. Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020 Rep., WHO, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/94384/9789241506236_eng.pdf;jsessionid=71BCEA94B3F85737AB42F3C84216E54A?sequence=1
    [Google Scholar]
  156. 156. 
    WHO (World Health Organization). 2014. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases, 2014 Rep., WHO, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/148114/9789241564854_eng.pdf?sequence=1
    [Google Scholar]
  157. 157. 
    WHO (World Health Organization). 2016. Ambient air pollution: a global assessment of exposure and burden of disease Rep., WHO, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/250141/9789241511353-eng.pdf?sequence=1
    [Google Scholar]
  158. 158. 
    WHO (World Health Organization). 2017. Preventing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) by reducing environmental risk factors Rep., WHO, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/258796/WHO-FWC-EPE-17.01-eng.pdf?sequence=1
    [Google Scholar]
  159. 159. 
    Wu G, Bazer FW, Cross HR 2014. Land-based production of animal protein: impacts, efficiency, and sustainability. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1328:18–28
    [Google Scholar]
  160. 160. 
    Zou G, Decoster K, McPake B, Witter S 2017. Renaming non-communicable diseases. Lancet Global Health 5:e656
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043706
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043706
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error