1932

Abstract

Many viruses induce shutoff of host gene expression (host shutoff) as a strategy to take over cellular machinery and evade host immunity. Without host shutoff activity, these viruses generally replicate poorly in vivo, attesting to the importance of this antiviral strategy. In this review, we discuss one particularly advantageous way for viruses to induce host shutoff: triggering widespread host messenger RNA (mRNA) decay. Viruses can trigger increased mRNA destruction either directly, by encoding RNA cleaving or decapping enzymes, or indirectly, by activating cellular RNA degradation pathways. We review what is known about the mechanism of action of several viral RNA degradation factors. We then discuss the consequences of widespread RNA degradation on host gene expression and on the mechanisms of immune evasion, highlighting open questions. Answering these questions is critical to understanding how viral RNA degradation factors regulate host gene expression and how this process helps viruses evade host responses and replicate.

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2022-09-29
2024-06-18
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