Infants begin learning the phonological structure of their native language remarkably early and use this information to extract word-sized chunks from the speech signal. While acquiring the language-specific segmentation strategies appropriate for their native language, infants are simultaneously beginning to form word–object pairings and learning which sound contrasts are meaningful in the native language. They are also working out how to assign words to word classes, paying attention to the use and placement of function words, and learning how speakers of the language string words together to form sensible grammatical utterances. Amazingly, infants tackle all of these tasks simultaneously, with success in each of these domains dependent on success in the others. This review focuses on infants' discovery of word forms in speech, their construction of a proto-lexicon, and the development of linguistic knowledge during their first year and a half of life. By discussing the development of lexical knowledge in relation to other aspects of linguistic development, I demonstrate the advantages of an integrative approach to understanding early language acquisition.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Altvater-Mackensen N, Mani N. 2013. Word-form familiarity bootstraps infant speech segmentation. Dev. Sci. 16:980–90 [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson JL, Morgan JL, White KS. 2003. A statistical basis for speech sound discrimination. Lang. Speech 46:155–82 [Google Scholar]
  3. Arias-Trejo N, Plunkett K. 2013. What's in a link? Associative and taxonomic priming effects in the infant lexicon. Cognition 128:214–27 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aslin RN, Shukla M, Emberson LL. 2015. Hemodynamic correlates of cognition in human infants. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 66:349–79 [Google Scholar]
  5. Aslin RN, Werker JF, Morgan JL. 2002. Innate phonetic boundaries revisited. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112:1257–60 [Google Scholar]
  6. Aslin RN, Woodward J, LaMendola N, Bever T. 1996. Models of word segmentation in fluent maternal speech to infants. Signal to Syntax JL Morgan, K Demuth 117–34 New York: Psychology [Google Scholar]
  7. Batchelder EO. 2002. Bootstrapping the lexicon: a computational model of infant speech segmentation. Cognition 83:167–206 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergelson E, Swingley D. 2012. At 6–9 months, human infants know the meanings of many common nouns. PNAS 109:3253–58 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bloom K, Russell A, Wassenberg K. 1987. Turn taking affects the quality of infant vocalizations. J. Child Lang. 14:211–27 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bloom P. 2001. Précis of “How children learn the meanings of words.”. Behav. Brain Sci. 24:1095–103 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bortfeld H, Morgan JL, Golinkoff RM, Rathbun K. 2005. Mommy and me: Familiar names help launch babies into speech-stream segmentation. Psychol. Sci. 16:298–304 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bouchon C, Floccia C, Fux T, Adda-Decker M, Nazzi T. 2014. Call me Alix, not Elix: Vowels are more important than consonants in own name recognition at 5 months. Dev. Sci. 18:587–98 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bowerman M. 1976. Semantic factors in the acquisition of rules for word use and sentence construction. Directions in Normal and Deficient Language Development D Morehead, A Morehead 99–179 Baltimore: Univ. Park Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Brent MR, Cartwright T. 1996. Distributional regularity and phonotactic constraints are useful for segmentation. Cognition 61:93–125 [Google Scholar]
  15. Brent MR, Siskind JM. 2001. The role of exposure to isolated words in early vocabulary development. Cognition 81:33–44 [Google Scholar]
  16. Brown R. 1973. A First Language: The Early Stages Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Burnham DK. 1986. Developmental loss of speech perception: exposure to and experience with a first language. Appl. Psycholinguist. 7:207–39 [Google Scholar]
  18. Cairns GF, Butterfield EC. 1975. Assessing infant's auditory functioning. Exceptional Infant 3 Assessment and Intervention BF Friedlander 84–108 New York: Brunner/Mazel [Google Scholar]
  19. Cartmill EA, Armstrong BF, Gleitman LR, Goldin-Meadow S, Medina TN, Trueswell JC. 2013. Quality of early parent input predicts child vocabulary 3 years later. PNAS 110:11278–83 [Google Scholar]
  20. Chemla E, Mintz TH, Bernal S, Christophe A. 2009. Categorizing words using “frequent frames”: what cross-linguistic analyses reveal about distributional acquisition strategies. Dev. Sci. 12:396–406 [Google Scholar]
  21. Choi J. 2014. Rediscovering a Forgotten Language Nijmegen, Neth.: Max Planck Inst. Psycholinguist. [Google Scholar]
  22. Christophe A, Guasti T, Nespor M, Dupoux E, Van Ooyen B. 1997. Reflections on phonological bootstrapping: its role for lexical and syntactic acquisition. Lang. Cogn. Process. 12:585–612 [Google Scholar]
  23. Cole RA, Jakimik JA. 1980. A model of speech perception. Perception and Production of Fluent Speech RA Cole 133–42 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  24. Cooper RP, Aslin RN. 1990. Preference for infant-directed speech in the first month after birth. Child Dev. 61:1584–95 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cristia A, Seidl A, Junge C, Soderstrom M, Hagoort P. 2014. Predicting individual variation in language from infant speech perception measures. Child Dev. 85:1330–45 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cutler A. 2012. Native Listening: Language Experience and the Recognition of Spoken Words Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  27. Cutler A, Mehler J. 1993. The periodicity bias. J. Phon. 21:103–8 [Google Scholar]
  28. Cutler A, Norris D. 1988. The role of strong syllables in segmentation for lexical access. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 14:113–21 [Google Scholar]
  29. Dahan D, Brent MR. 1999. On the discovery of novel wordlike units from utterances: an artificial-language study with implications for native-language acquisition. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 128:165–85 [Google Scholar]
  30. Daland R, Pierrehumbert JB. 2011. Learning diphone-based segmentation. Cogn. Sci. 35:119–55 [Google Scholar]
  31. DeCasper AJ, Spence MJ. 1986. Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behav. Dev. 9:133–50 [Google Scholar]
  32. Eimas PD, Siqueland ER, Jusczyk PW, Vigorito J. 1971. Speech perception in infants. First Language Acquisition: The Essential Readings BC Lust, C Foley 279–84 Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  33. Endress AD, Hauser MD. 2010. Word segmentation with universal prosodic cues. Cogn. Psychol. 61:177–99 [Google Scholar]
  34. Endress AD, Mehler J. 2009. The surprising power of statistical learning: when fragment knowledge leads to false memories of unheard words. J. Mem. Lang. 60:351–67 [Google Scholar]
  35. Endress AD, Mehler J. 2010. Perceptual constraints in phonotactic learning. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 36:235–50 [Google Scholar]
  36. Feldman NH, Griffiths TL, Goldwater S, Morgan JL. 2013. A role for the developing lexicon in phonetic category acquisition. Psychol. Rev. 120:751–78 [Google Scholar]
  37. Fenson L, Dale PS, Reznick JS, Bates E, Thal DJ. et al. 1994. Variability in early communicative development. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. 59:174–85 [Google Scholar]
  38. Fernald A, Perfors A, Marchman VA. 2006. Picking up speed in understanding: speech processing efficiency and vocabulary growth across the 2nd year. Dev. Psychol. 42:98–116 [Google Scholar]
  39. Fernald A, Zangl R, Portillo AL, Marchman VA. 2008. Looking while listening: using eye movements to monitor spoken language comprehension by infants and young children. Developmental Psycholinguistics: On-Line Methods in Children's Language Processing IA Sekerina, EM Fernández, H Clahsen 97–135 Amsterdam: Benjamins [Google Scholar]
  40. Frank MC, Goldwater S, Griffiths T, Tenenbaum JB. 2010. Modeling human performance in statistical word segmentation. Cognition 117:107–25 [Google Scholar]
  41. Friedrich M, Friederici AD. 2011. Word learning in 6-month-olds: fast encoding—weak retention. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 23:3228–40 [Google Scholar]
  42. Fulkerson AL, Waxman SR. 2007. Words (but not tones) facilitate object categorization: evidence from 6- and 12-month-olds. Cognition 105:218–28 [Google Scholar]
  43. Gerken L. 2002. Early sensitivity to linguistic form. Annu. Rev. Lang. Acquis. 2:1–36 [Google Scholar]
  44. Gerken L, Landau B, Remez R. 1990. Function morphemes in young children's speech perception and production. Dev. Psychol. 26:204–16 [Google Scholar]
  45. Gervain J, Mehler J. 2010. Speech perception and language acquisition in the first year of life. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 61:191–218 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gervain J, Nespor M, Mazuka R, Horie R, Mehler J. 2008. Bootstrapping word order in prelexical infants: a Japanese–Italian cross-linguistic study. Cogn. Psychol. 57:56–74 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gillette J, Gleitman H, Gleitman L, Lederer A. 1999. Human simulations of vocabulary learning. Cognition 73:135–76 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gogate LJ. 2010. Learning of syllable–object relations by preverbal infants: the role of temporal synchrony and syllable distinctiveness. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 105:178–97 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gogate LJ, Hollich G. 2010. Invariance detection within an interactive system: a perceptual gateway to language development. Psychol. Rev. 117:496–516 [Google Scholar]
  50. Goldstein MH, Schwade JA. 2008. Social feedback to infants' babbling facilitates rapid phonological learning. Psychol. Sci. 19:515–23 [Google Scholar]
  51. Golinkoff RM, Hirsh-Pasek K, Bloom L, Smith LB, Woodward AL. et al. 2000. Becoming a Word Learner: A Debate on Lexical Acquisition New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  52. Graf Estes K, Bowen S. 2013. Learning about sounds contributes to learning about words: effects of prosody and phonotactics on infant word learning. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 114:405–17 [Google Scholar]
  53. Graf Estes K, Evans JL, Alibali MW, Saffran JR, Estes KG. 2013. Can infants map meaning to words in newly segmented words?. Psychol Sci. 18:254–60 [Google Scholar]
  54. Harris ZS. 1955. From phoneme to morpheme. Language 31:190–222 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hart B, Risley TR. 1995. Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children Baltimore: Brookes [Google Scholar]
  56. Hay JF, Pelucchi B, Estes KG, Saffran JR. 2011. Linking sounds to meanings: infant statistical learning in a natural language. Cogn. Psychol. 63:93–106 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hochmann JR, Endress AD, Mehler J. 2010. Word frequency as a cue for identifying function words in infancy. Cognition 115:444–57 [Google Scholar]
  58. Höhle B, Weissenborn J, Kiefer D, Schulz A, Schmitz M. 2004. Functional elements in infants' speech processing: the role of determiners in the syntactic categorization of lexical elements. Infancy 5:341–53 [Google Scholar]
  59. Houston DM, Jusczyk PW. 2000. The role of talker-specific information in word segmentation by infants. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 26:1570–82 [Google Scholar]
  60. Houston DM, Jusczyk PW, Kuijpers C, Coolen R, Cutler A. 2000. Cross-language word segmentation by 9-month-olds. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 7:504–9 [Google Scholar]
  61. Jesse A, Johnson EK. 2012. Prosodic temporal alignment of co-speech gestures to speech facilitate referent resolution. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 38:1567–81 [Google Scholar]
  62. Johnson EK. 2003. Word segmentation during infancy: the role of subphonemic cues to word boundaries PhD thesis, Dep. Psychol. Brain Sci., Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore [Google Scholar]
  63. Johnson EK. 2012. Bootstrapping langauge: Are infant statisticians up to the job?. Statistical Learning and Language Acquisition P Rebuschat, J Williams 55–90 Boston: de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  64. Johnson EK, Jusczyk PW. 2001. Word segmentation by 8-month-olds: when speech cues count more than statistics. J. Mem. Lang. 44:548–67 [Google Scholar]
  65. Johnson EK, Jusczyk PW, Cutler A, Norris D. 2003. Lexical viability constraints on speech segmentation by infants. Cogn. Psychol. 46:65–97 [Google Scholar]
  66. Johnson EK, Lahey M, Ernestus M, Cutler A. 2013. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134:EL534 [Google Scholar]
  67. Johnson EK, McQueen JM, Huettig F. 2011. Toddlers' language-mediated visual search: They need not have the words for it. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 64:1672–82 [Google Scholar]
  68. Johnson EK, Seidl A, Tyler MD. 2014. The edge factor in early word segmentation: Utterance-level prosody enables word form extraction by 6-month-olds. PLOS ONE 9:e83546 [Google Scholar]
  69. Johnson EK, Tyler MD. 2010. Testing the limits of statistical learning for word segmentation. Dev. Sci. 13:339–45 [Google Scholar]
  70. Johnson EK, Zamuner T. 2010. Using infant and toddler testing methods in language acquisition research. Experimental Methods in Language Acquisition Research E Blom, S Unsworth 73–94 Amsterdam: Benjamins [Google Scholar]
  71. Junge C, Cutler A. 2014. Early word recognition and later language skills. Brain Sci. 4:532–59 [Google Scholar]
  72. Jusczyk PW. 1997. The Discovery of Spoken Language Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  73. Jusczyk PW, Aslin RN. 1995. Infants' detection of the sound patterns of words in fluent speech. Cogn. Psychol. 29:1–23 [Google Scholar]
  74. Jusczyk PW, Hohne EA. 1997. Infants' memory for spoken words. Science 277:1984–86 [Google Scholar]
  75. Jusczyk PW, Houston DM, Newsome M. 1999. The beginnings of word segmentation in English-learning infants. Cogn. Psychol. 39:159–207 [Google Scholar]
  76. Keren-Portnoy T, Majorano M, Vihman MM. 2009. From phonetics to phonology: the emergence of first words in Italian. J. Child Lang. 36:235–67 [Google Scholar]
  77. Kim YJ, Sundara M. 2014. Segmentation of vowel-initial words is facilitated by function words. J. Child Lang. 27:1–25 [Google Scholar]
  78. Kooijman V, Johnson EK, Cutler A. 2008. Reflections on reflections of infant word recognition. Early Language Development: Bridging Brain and Behaviour AD Friederici, G Thierry 91–114 Amsterdam: Benjamins [Google Scholar]
  79. Kooijman V, Junge C, Johnson EK, Hagoort P, Cutler A. 2013. Predictive brain signals of linguistic development. Front. Psychol. 4:25 [Google Scholar]
  80. Kuhl PK, Conboy BT, Coffey-Corina S, Padden D, Rivera-Gaxiola M, Nelson T. 2008. Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data and native language magnet theory expanded (NLM-e). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 363:979–1000 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kuhl PK, Meltzoff AN. 1996. Infant vocalizations in response to speech: vocal imitation and developmental change. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100:2425–38 [Google Scholar]
  82. Kuhl PK, Tsao F-M, Liu H-M. 2003. Foreign-language experience in infancy: effects of short-term exposure and social interaction on phonetic learning. PNAS 100:9096–101 [Google Scholar]
  83. Kuhl PK, Williams KA, Lacerda F, Stevens KN, Lindblom B. 1992. Linguistic experience alters phonetic perception in infants by 6 months of age. Science 255:606–8 [Google Scholar]
  84. Labov W, Labov T. 1978. The phonetics of cat and mama. Language 54:816–52 [Google Scholar]
  85. Lecanuet J, Schaal B. 2002. Sensory performances in the human foetus: a brief summary of research. Intellectica 1:29–56 [Google Scholar]
  86. Lew-Williams C, Pelucchi B, Saffran JR. 2011. Isolated words enhance statistical language learning in infancy. Dev. Sci. 14:1323–29 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lidz J, Gagliardi A. 2015. How nature meets nurture: Universal Grammar and statistical learning. Annu. Rev. Linguist. 1:333–53 [Google Scholar]
  88. Liu HM, Kuhl PK, Tsao FM. 2003. An association between mothers' speech clarity and infants' speech discrimination skills. Dev. Sci. 6:1–10 [Google Scholar]
  89. Ma W, Golinkoff RM, Houston D, Hirsh-Pasek K. 2011. Word-learining in infant- and adult-directed speech. Lang. Learn. Dev. 7:209–25 [Google Scholar]
  90. Mampe B, Friederici AD, Christophe A, Wermke K. 2009. Newborns' cry melody is shaped by their native language. Curr. Biol. 19:1994–97 [Google Scholar]
  91. Mandel DR, Jusczyk PW, Pisoni DB. 1995. Infants' recognition of the sound patterns of their own names. Psychol. Sci. 6:314–17 [Google Scholar]
  92. Markman E. 1990. Constraints children place on word meanings. Cogn. Sci. 14:55–77 [Google Scholar]
  93. Martin A, Peperkamp S, Dupoux E. 2013. Learning phonemes with a proto-lexicon. Cogn. Sci. 37:103–24 [Google Scholar]
  94. Mattock K, Molnar M, Polka L, Burnham D. 2008. The developmental course of lexical tone perception in the first year of life. Cognition 106:1367–81 [Google Scholar]
  95. Mattys SL, Jusczyk PW. 2001. Phonotactic cues for segmentation of fluent speech by infants. Cognition 78:91–121 [Google Scholar]
  96. Maye J, Werker JF, Gerken L. 2002. Infant sensitivity to distributional information can affect phonetic discrimination. Cognition 82:B101–11 [Google Scholar]
  97. McMurray B. 2007. Defusing the childhood vocabulary explosion. Science 317:631 [Google Scholar]
  98. McQueen JM. 1998. Segmentation of continuous speech using phonotactics. J. Mem. Lang. 39:21–46 [Google Scholar]
  99. Medina TN, Snedeker J, Trueswell JC, Gleitman LR. 2011. How words can and cannot be learned by observation. PNAS 108:9014–19 [Google Scholar]
  100. Mersad K, Nazzi T. 2012. When mommy comes to the rescue of statistics: Infants combine top-down and bottom-up cues to segment speech. Lang. Learn. Dev. 8:303–15 [Google Scholar]
  101. Monaghan P, Mattock K. 2012. Integrating constraints for learning word–referent mappings. Cognition 123:133–43 [Google Scholar]
  102. Moon C, Cooper RP, Fifer WP. 1993. Two-day-olds prefer their native language. Infant Behav. Dev. 16:495–500 [Google Scholar]
  103. Moon CM, Lagercrantz H, Kuhl PK. 2013. Language experienced in utero affects vowel perception after birth: a two-country study. Acta Paediatr. 102:156–60 [Google Scholar]
  104. Mulak KE, Best CT, Tyler MD, Kitamura C, Irwin JR. 2013. Development of phonological constancy: 19-month-olds, but not 15-month-olds, identify words in a non-native regional accent. Child Dev. 84:2064–78 [Google Scholar]
  105. Naigles L. 1990. Children use syntax to learn verb meanings. J. Child Lang. 17:357–74 [Google Scholar]
  106. Nappa R, Wessel A, McEldoon KL, Gleitman LR, Trueswell JC. 2009. Use of speaker's gaze and syntax in verb learning. Lang. Learn. Dev. 5:203–34 [Google Scholar]
  107. Narayan CR, Werker JF, Beddor PS. 2010. The interaction between acoustic salience and language experience in developmental speech perception: evidence from nasal place discrimination. Dev. Sci. 13:407–20 [Google Scholar]
  108. Nazzi T, Bertoncini J. 2003. Before and after the vocabulary spurt: two modes of word acquisition?. Dev. Sci. 6:136–42 [Google Scholar]
  109. Nazzi T, Bertoncini J, Mehler J. 1998. Language discrimination by newborns: toward an understanding of the role of rhythm. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 24:756–66 [Google Scholar]
  110. Nazzi T, Dilley LC, Jusczyk AM, Shattuck-Hufnagel S, Jusczyk PW. 2005. English-learning infants' segmentation of verbs from fluent speech. Lang. Speech 48:279–98 [Google Scholar]
  111. Nazzi T, Mersad K, Sundara M, Iakimova G, Polka L. 2014. Early word segmentation in infants acquiring Parisian French: task-dependent and dialect-specific aspects. J. Child Lang. 41:600–633 [Google Scholar]
  112. Newman R, Ratner NB, Jusczyk AM, Jusczyk PW, Dow KA. 2006. Infants' early ability to segment the conversational speech signal predicts later language development: a retrospective analysis. Dev. Psychol. 42:643–55 [Google Scholar]
  113. Ngon C, Martin A, Dupoux E, Cabrol D, Dutat M, Peperkamp S. 2013. (Non)words, (non)words, (non)words: evidence for a protolexicon during the first year of life. Dev. Sci. 16:24–34 [Google Scholar]
  114. Paquette-Smith M, Johnson EK. Toddlers' use of grammatical and social cues to learn novel words. Lang. Learn. Dev. Forthcoming [Google Scholar]
  115. Partanen E, Kujala T, Tervaniemi M, Huotilainen M. 2013. Prenatal music exposure induces long-term neural effects. PLOS ONE 8:e78946 [Google Scholar]
  116. Patterson ML, Werker JF. 2003. Two-month-old infants match phonetic information in lips and voice. Dev. Sci. 6:191–96 [Google Scholar]
  117. Pelucchi B, Hay JF, Saffran JR. 2009. Statistical learning in a natural language by 8-month-old infants. Child Dev. 80:674–85 [Google Scholar]
  118. Peña M, Maki A, Kovacić D, Dehaene-Lambertz G, Koizumi H. et al. 2003. Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth. PNAS 100:11702–5 [Google Scholar]
  119. Peters AM. 1977. Language learning strategies: Does the whole equal the sum of the parts?. Language 53:560–73 [Google Scholar]
  120. Peters AM. 1981. Language typology and the segmentation problem in early child language acquisition. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society236–48 Washington, DC: Linguist. Soc. Am. [Google Scholar]
  121. Polka L, Werker JF. 1994. Developmental changes in perception of nonnative vowel contrasts. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 20:421–35 [Google Scholar]
  122. Pruden SM, Hirsh-Pasek K, Golinkoff RM, Hennon EA. 2006. The birth of words: Ten-month-olds learn words through perceptual salience. Child Dev. 77:266–80 [Google Scholar]
  123. Rescorla L. 1980. Overextension in early language development. J. Child Lang. 2:321–35 [Google Scholar]
  124. Romberg AR, Saffran JR. 2010. Statistical learning and language acquisition. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Cogn. Sci. 1:906–14 [Google Scholar]
  125. Roseberry S, Hirsh-Pasek K, Golinkoff RM. 2014. Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language. Child Dev. 85:956–70 [Google Scholar]
  126. Rost GC, McMurray B. 2009. Speaker variability augments phonological processing in early word learning. Dev. Sci. 12:339–49 [Google Scholar]
  127. Rytting CA, Brew C, Fosler-Lussier E. 2010. Segmenting words from natural speech: subsegmental variation in segmental cues. J. Child Lang. 37:513–43 [Google Scholar]
  128. Saffran J, Werker JF, Werner L. 2006. The infant's auditory world: hearing, speech, and the beginnings of language. Handb. Child Dev. 6:58–108 [Google Scholar]
  129. Saffran JR, Aslin RN, Newport EL. 1996. Statistical learning by 8-month-olds. Science 274:1926–28 [Google Scholar]
  130. Sahni SD, Seidenberg MS, Saffran JR. 2010. Connecting cues: Overlapping regularities support cue discovery in infancy. Child Dev. 81:727–36 [Google Scholar]
  131. Saylor MM, Ganea PA, Vázquez MD. 2011. What's mine is mine: Twelve-month-olds use possessive pronouns to identify referents. Dev. Sci. 14:859–64 [Google Scholar]
  132. Schmale R, Cristià A, Seidl A, Johnson EK. 2010. Developmental changes in infants' ability to cope with dialect variation in word recognition. Infancy 15:650–62 [Google Scholar]
  133. Seidl A, Johnson EK. 2006. Infant word segmentation revisited: Edge alignment facilitates target extraction. Dev. Sci. 9:565–73 [Google Scholar]
  134. Seidl A, Johnson EK. 2008. Boundary alignment enables 11-month-olds to segment vowel initial words from speech. J. Child Lang. 35:1–24 [Google Scholar]
  135. Shi R, Cutler A, Werker JF, Cruickshank M. 2006. Frequency and form as determinants of functor sensitivity in English-acquiring infants. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119:EL61–67 [Google Scholar]
  136. Shi R, Melançon A. 2010. Syntactic categorization in French-learning infants. Infancy 15:517–33 [Google Scholar]
  137. Shukla M, Nespor M, Mehler J. 2007. An interaction between prosody and statistics in the segmentation of fluent speech. Cogn. Psychol. 54:1–32 [Google Scholar]
  138. Shukla M, White KS, Aslin RN. 2011. Prosody guides the rapid mapping of auditory word forms onto visual objects in 6-mo-old infants. PNAS 108:6038–43 [Google Scholar]
  139. Shultz S, Vouloumanos A, Bennett RH, Pelphrey K. 2014. Neural specialization for speech in the first months of life. Dev. Sci. 5:766–74 [Google Scholar]
  140. Singh L, Liederman J, Mierzejewski R, Barnes J. 2011. Rapid reacquisition of native phoneme contrasts after disuse: You do not always lose what you do not use. Dev. Sci. 14:949–59 [Google Scholar]
  141. Singh L, Morgan JL, White KS. 2004. Preference and processing: the role of speech affect in early spoken word recognition. J. Mem. Lang. 51:173–89 [Google Scholar]
  142. Singh L, Nestor SS, Bortfeld H. 2008. Overcoming the effects of variation in infant speech segmentation: influences of word familiarity. Infancy 13:57–74 [Google Scholar]
  143. Singh L, Reznick SJ, Xuehua L. 2012. Infant word segmentation and childhood vocabulary development: a longitudinal analysis. Dev. Sci. 15:482–95 [Google Scholar]
  144. Skoruppa K, Pons F, Christophe A, Bosch L, Dupoux E. et al. 2009. Language-specific stress perception by 9-month-old French and Spanish infants. Dev. Sci. 12:914–19 [Google Scholar]
  145. Slobin DI. 1973. Cognitive prerequisites for acquisition of grammar. Studies of Child Language Development CA Ferguson, DJ Slobin 175–208 New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston [Google Scholar]
  146. Sloutsky VM, Fisher AV. 2004. Induction and categorization in young children: a similarity-based model. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 133:166–88 [Google Scholar]
  147. Smith L, Yu C. 2008. Infants rapidly learn word–referent mappings via cross-situational statistics. Cognition 106:1558–68 [Google Scholar]
  148. Smith LB, Suanda SH, Yu C. 2014. The unrealized promise of infant statistical word–referent learning. Trends Cogn. Sci. 18:251–58 [Google Scholar]
  149. Sohail J, Johnson EK. How transitional probabilities and the edge effect contribute to listeners' phonological bootstrapping success. Lang. Learn. Dev. Forthcoming [Google Scholar]
  150. Styles S, Plunkett K. 2009. What is “word understanding” for the parent of a one-year-old? Matching the difficulty of a lexical comprehension task to parental CDI report. J. Child Lang. 36:895–908 [Google Scholar]
  151. Swingley D. 2005. Statistical clustering and the contents of the infant vocabulary. Cogn. Psychol. 50:86–132 [Google Scholar]
  152. Swingley D. 2007. Lexical exposure and word-form encoding in 1.5-year-olds. Dev. Psychol. 43:454–64 [Google Scholar]
  153. Swingley D. 2009. Contributions of infant word learning to language development. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:3617–32 [Google Scholar]
  154. Thiessen ED, Erickson LC. 2013. Discovering words in fluent speech: the contribution of two kinds of statistical information. Front. Psychol. 3:590 [Google Scholar]
  155. Thiessen ED, Hill EA, Saffran JR. 2005. Infant-directed speech facilitates word segmentation. Infancy 7:53–71 [Google Scholar]
  156. Thiessen ED, Saffran JR. 2003. When cues collide: use of stress and statistical cues to word boundaries by 7- to 9-month-old infants. Dev. Psychol. 39:706–16 [Google Scholar]
  157. Thiessen ED, Saffran JR. 2007. Learning to learn: infants' acquisition of stress-based strategies for word segmentation. Lang. Learn. Dev. 3:73–100 [Google Scholar]
  158. Tincoff R, Jusczyk PW. 1999. Some beginnings of word comprehension in 6-month-olds. Psychol. Sci. 10:172–75 [Google Scholar]
  159. Tincoff R, Jusczyk PW. 2012. Six-month-olds comprehend words that refer to parts of the body. Infancy 17:432–44 [Google Scholar]
  160. Tomasello M, Mervis CB. 1994. The instrument is great, but measuring comprehension is still a problem. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. 59:174–79 [Google Scholar]
  161. Trehub SE. 1976. The discrimination of foreign speech contrasts by infants and adults. Child Dev. 47:466–72 [Google Scholar]
  162. Trueswell JC, Medina TN, Hafri A, Gleitman LR. 2013. Propose but verify: Fast mapping meets cross-situational word learning. Cogn. Psychol. 66:126–56 [Google Scholar]
  163. Tyler MD, Best CT, Goldstein LM, Antoniou M. 2014. Investigating the role of articulatory organs and perceptual assimilation of native and non-native fricative place contrasts. Dev. Psychobiol. 56:210–27 [Google Scholar]
  164. van de Weijer JC. 1998. Language Input for Word Discovery Nijmegen, Neth.: Max Planck Inst. Psycholinguist. [Google Scholar]
  165. Van Heugten M, Johnson EK. 2012. Infants exposed to fluent natural speech succeed at cross-gender word recognition. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55:554–60 [Google Scholar]
  166. Van Heugten M, Johnson EK. 2014. Learning to contend with accents in infancy: benefits of brief speaker exposure. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 143:340–50 [Google Scholar]
  167. Vihman MM, McCune L. 1994. When is a word a word?. J. Child Lang. 21:517–42 [Google Scholar]
  168. Waxman SR, Gelman SA. 2009. Early word-learning entails reference, not merely associations. Trends Cogn. Sci. 13:258–63 [Google Scholar]
  169. Weisleder A, Fernald A. 2013. Talking to children matters: Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary. Psychol. Sci. 24:2143–52 [Google Scholar]
  170. Werker JF, Curtin S. 2005. PRIMIR: a developmental framework of infant speech processing. Lang. Learn. Dev. 1:197–234 [Google Scholar]
  171. Werker JF, Tees RC. 1984. Cross-language speech-perception—evidence for perceptual reorganization during the 1st year of life. Infant Behav. Dev. 7:49–63 [Google Scholar]
  172. Willits JA, Seidenberg MS, Saffran JR. 2014. Distributional structure in language: contributions to noun–verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition. Cognition 132:429–36 [Google Scholar]
  173. Wojcik EH, Saffran JR. 2015. Toddlers encode similarities among novel words from meaningful sentences. Cognition 138:10–20 [Google Scholar]
  174. Yang CD. 2004. Universal Grammar, statistics or both?. Trends Cogn. Sci. 8:451–56 [Google Scholar]
  175. Yeung HH, Werker JF. 2009. Learning words' sounds before learning how words sound: 9-month-olds use distinct objects as cues to categorize speech information. Cognition 113:234–43 [Google Scholar]
  176. Yu C, Ballard DH. 2007. A unified model of early word learning: integrating statistical and social cues. Neurocomputing 70:2149–65 [Google Scholar]
  177. Yurovsky D, Smith LB, Yu C. 2013. Statistical word learning at scale: The baby's view is better. Dev. Sci. 16:959–66 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error