1932

Abstract

In this review, we discuss the limits of the concept of the modern nation-state to explore language issues in postcolonial contexts, as in Africa. We argue in favor of a revision of the history of the field of language policy and planning (LPP) and sociolinguistics, paying attention to how the colonial issue has been erased and downplayed. We first explore the colonial history of LPP and how this field contributed to frame African multilingualisms as problems to be solved. Second, we briefly discuss how the contemporary understanding of citizenship in Africa is entangled with the colonial history of a particular version of the state in Africa; we focus on Sudan as an example. We problematize the construct of “developing nation” inscribed in the methodological nationalism that characterizes the early LPP framework, which reverberates in contemporary public policies. By doing so, we advocate for a perspective of language that is historically and locally embedded, following a politics that recognizes the importance of Southern epistemologies to language studies.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-030521-052930
2023-01-17
2024-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/linguistics/9/1/annurev-linguistics-030521-052930.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-030521-052930&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abdelhay A. 2010. The politics of writing tribal identities in the Sudan: the case of the colonial Nuba policy. J. Multiling. Multicult. Dev. 31:2201–13
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abdelhay A, Makoni B, Makoni S. 2011. The Naivasha language policy: the language of politics and the politics of language in the Sudan. Lang. Policy 10:21–18
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Abdelhay A, Makoni B, Makoni S. 2016. The colonial linguistics of governance in Sudan: the Rejaf Language Conference, 1928. J. Afr. Cult. Stud. 28:3343–58
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Abdel-Rahim M. 1965. Fourteen Documents on the Problem of the Southern Sudan Khartoum, Sudan: Minist. Foreign Aff.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ansre G 1974. Language standardization in Sub-Saharan Africa. Advances in Language Planning J Fishman 369–89 New York: Mouton
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Asante M. 2020. Radical Insurgencies New York: Universal Write Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Beshir MO. 1968. The Southern Sudan: Background to Conflict London: C. Hurst
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bhambra G. 2007. Rethinking Modernity: Postcolonialism and the Sociological Imagination New York: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bhambra G 2018. The state: postcolonial histories of the concept. Routledge Handbook of Postcolonial Politics O Rutazibwa, R Shilliam 200–9 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bhambra G, Holmwood J. 2021. Colonialism and Modern Social Theory Cambridge, UK: Polity Press
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bhambra G, Narayan J, eds. 2017. European Cosmopolitanism: Colonial Histories and Postcolonial Societies New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Blanchet P. 2020.. ‘ Corsican sociolinguistics’: key words and concepts of a cross-linguistic theory. Int. J. Sociol. Lang. 261:9–26
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brandist C 2006. Mikhail Bakhtin e os primórdios da sociolingüística soviética. Vinte ensaios sobre Mikhail Bakhtin CA Faraco, C Tezza, G de Castro 67–88 Petrópolis, Braz.: Vozes
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Comaroff J, Comaroff JL. 2015. Theory from the South: Or, How Euro-America Is Evolving Toward Africa New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Connell R. 2007. Southern Theory: The Global Dynamics of Knowledge in Social Science Cambridge, UK: Polity Press
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cooper F. 2018. Citizenship, Inequality, and Difference: Historical Perspectives Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Das Gupta J 1970. Language Conflict and National Development: Group Politics and National Language Policy in India Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  18. de Sousa Santos B. 2014. Epistemologies of the South: Justice Against Epistemicide New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  19. DeFrancis J. 1950. Nationalism and Language Reform in China Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  20. deLeon P. 1988. Advice and Consent: The Development of the Policy Sciences New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Deng F. 1995. War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan Washington, DC: Brookings Inst.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fardon R, Furniss G. 1994. African Languages, Development and the State London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Fishman J. 1973. Language modernization and planning in comparison with other types of national modernization and planning. Lang. Soc. 2:123–42
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Fishman J 1974. Language planning and language planning research: the state of the art. Advances in Language Planning J Fishman 79–102 New York: Mouton
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Fishman J, Ferguson C, Das Gupta J, eds. 1968. Language Problems of Developing Nations New York: John Wiley & Sons
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Garang J 1992. The Call for Democracy in Sudan M Khalid London: Kegan Paul Int. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gellner D 2012. Uncomfortable antinomies: going beyond methodological nationalism in social and cultural anthropology. Beyond Methodological Nationalism: Research Methodologies for Cross-Border Studies A Amelina, D Nergiz, T Faist, N Schiller 111–28 New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gillan JA. 1931. Some aspects of Nuba administration Sudan Gov. Memo. 1, Central Rec. Off., Khartoum Sudan:
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Gouws A 2005. (Un)thinking Citizenship: Feminist Debates in Contemporary South Africa Cape Town, South Afr: Univ. Cape Town Press
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hall B. 2005. The question of ‘race’ in the pre-colonial southern Sahara. J. North Afr. Stud. 10:3–4339–67
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Haugen E. 1959. Planning for a standard language in modern Norway. Anthropol. Linguist. 1:38–21
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Haugen E. 1966. Dialect and nation. Am. Anthropol. 68:4922–35
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Heller M. 2010. The commodification of language. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 39:101–14
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Heller M, McElhinny B. 2017. Language, Capitalism, Colonialism: Towards a Critical History Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Irvine JT, Gal S. 2000. Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities, and Identities PV Kroskrity 35–84 Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Adv. Res. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Isin E. 2019. Citizens Without Frontiers New York: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Johnson DC, Ricento T. 2013. Conceptual and theoretical perspectives in language planning and policy: situating the ethnography of language policy. Int. J. Sociol. Lang. 2013:2197–21
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kloss H. 1968. Notes concerning a language-nation typology. See Fishman et al. 1968 69–85
  39. Kloss H 1977. Ten types of language planning. Language Planning and the Building of a National Language B Sibayan, A Gonzalez 52–59 Manila, Philipp: Linguist. Soc. Philipp.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Leong N. 2013. Racial capitalism. Harvard Law Rev. 126:82151–226
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Makoni SB. 1995. Deconstructing the discourses about language in language planning in South Africa. South Afr. J. Afr. Lang. 15:284–88
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Makoni SB, Makoni B, Pennycook A 2020a. On speaking multilanguages: urban lingos and fluid multilingua francas. Linguistic Ideologies, Sociolinguistic Myths and Discourse Strategies in Africa D Bade 221–54 Hong Kong: IAISLC
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Makoni SB, Meinhof U. 2004. Western perspectives in applied linguistics in Africa. AILA Rev. 17:77–104
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Makoni SB, Severo CG, Abdelhay A 2020b. Colonial linguistics and the invention of language. Language Planning and Policy: Ideologies, Ethnicities, and Semiotic Spaces of Power A Abdelhay, SB Makoni, CG Severo 211–28 Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Sch. Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Mamdani M. 2001. Beyond settler and native as political identities: overcoming the political legacy of colonialism. Comp. Stud. Soc. Hist. 43:4651–64
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Mamdani M. 2020. Neither Settler nor Native: The Making and Unmaking of Permanent Minorities Cambridge, MA: Belknap
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Marshall T, Bottomore T. 1992. Citizenship and Social Class London: Pluto Classic
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Mazrui AA. 1979. Churches and multinationals in the spread of modern education: a third world perspective. Third World Q 1:130–49
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Mbembe A. 2003. Necropolitics. Public Cult 15:111–40
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Nadel S. 1947. The Nuba: An Anthropological Study of the Hill Tribes in Kordofan London: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Neustupný JV 1974. Basic types of treatment of language policy. Advances in Language Planning J Fishman 37–48 New York: Mouton
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Pennycook A, Makoni S. 2020. Innovations and Challenges in Applied Linguistics from the Global South New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Rampton B, Cooke M, Leung C, Tomei A, Bryers D et al. 2021. Localising linguistic citizenship Work. Pap. Urban Lang. Lit., WP292. https://wpull.org/product/wp292-localising-linguistic-citizenship/
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Salih K. 1990. British policy and the accentuation of inter-ethnic divisions: the case of the Nuba Mountains region of Sudan, 1920–40. Afr. Aff. 89:356417–36
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Severo CG. 2007. Por uma perspectiva social dialógica da linguagem: repensando a noção de indivíduo PhD Diss., Fed. Univ. Santa Catarina Florianópolis, Braz: https://repositorio.ufsc.br/handle/123456789/89758
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Sharkey H. 2008. Arab identity and ideology in Sudan: the politics of language, ethnicity and race. Afr. Aff. 107:42621–43
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Smith R. 1997. Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Spears AK 2020. Racism, colorism, and language within their macro contexts. The Oxford Handbook of Language and Race HS Alim, A Reyes, PV Kroskrity 47–67 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Spolsky B. 2012. The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Stroud C. 2001. African mother-tongue programmes and the politics of language: linguistic citizenship versus linguistic human rights. J. Multiling. Multicult. Dev. 22:4339–55
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Stroud C, Heugh K 2004. Language rights and linguistic citizenship. Language Rights and Language Survival: Sociolinguistic and Sociocultural Perspectives J Freeland, D Patrick 191–218 Manchester, UK: St. Jerome Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Trimingham JS. 1948. The Christian Approach to Islam in the Sudan London: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  63. UNESCO 2010. Why and how Africa should invest in African languages and multilingual education Policy Brief, UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning Hamburg, Ger:.
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-030521-052930
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error