1932

Abstract

Over the past 20 years, a large body of laboratory and field research has shown that, when people perform in settings in which their group is negatively stereotyped, they may experience a phenomenon called stereotype threat that can undermine motivation and trust and cause underperformance. This review describes that research and places it into an organizational context. First, we describe the processes by which stereotype threat can impair outcomes among people in the workplace. Next, we delineate the situational cues in organizational settings that can exacerbate stereotype threat, and explain how and why these cues affect stereotyped individuals. Finally, we discuss relatively simple empirically based strategies that organizations can implement to reduce stereotype threat and create conditions in which employees and applicants from all groups can succeed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111322
2015-04-10
2024-05-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/orgpsych/2/1/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111322.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111322&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aguinis H. 2004. Test Score Banding in Human Resource Selection: Legal, Technical and Societal Issues Westport, CT: Praeger
  2. Aguinis H, Culpepper SA, Pierce CA. 2010. Revival of test bias research in preemployment testing. J. Appl. Psychol. 95:4648–80 [Google Scholar]
  3. Allmendinger J, Hackman JR. 1995. The more, the better? A four-nation study of the inclusion of women in symphony orchestras. Soc. Forces 74:423–60 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aronson J, Fried CB, Good C. 2002. Reducing the effect of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 38:113–25 [Google Scholar]
  5. Aronson J, Lustina MJ, Good C, Keough K, Steele CM, Brown J. 1999. When white men can’t do math: necessary and sufficient factors in stereotype threat. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 35:29–46 [Google Scholar]
  6. Arvey RD, Faley RH. 1988. Fairness in Selecting Employees Reading, MA:: Addison-Wesley, 2nd ed..
  7. Autin F, Branscombe NR, Croizet J-C. 2014. Creating, closing, and reversing the gender gap in test performance: how selection policies trigger social identity threat or safety among women and men. Psychol. Women Q. 38:327–39 [Google Scholar]
  8. Avery DR. 2003. Reactions to diversity in recruitment advertising—Are differences black and white?. J. Appl. Psychol. 88:4672–79 [Google Scholar]
  9. Avery DR, McKay PF. 2006. Target practice: an organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Pers. Psychol. 59:1157–87 [Google Scholar]
  10. Avery DR, McKay PF, Wilson DC. 2008. What are the odds? How demographic similarity affects the prevalence of perceived employment discrimination. J. Appl. Psychol. 93:2235–49 [Google Scholar]
  11. Avery DR, McKay PF, Wilson DC, Tonidandel S. 2007. Unequal attendance: the relationships between race, organizational diversity cues, and absenteeism. Pers. Psychol. 60:4875–902 [Google Scholar]
  12. Avery DR, Volpone SD, Stewart RW, Luksyte A, Hernandez M et al. 2013. Examining the draw of diversity: how diversity climate perceptions affect job-pursuit intentions. Hum. Resour. Manag. 52:175–93 [Google Scholar]
  13. Beilock SL, Rydell RJ, McConnell AR. 2007. Stereotype threat and working memory: mechanisms, alleviation, and spillover. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 136:2256–76 [Google Scholar]
  14. Berry CM, Clark MA, McClure TK. 2011. Racial/ethnic differences in the criterion-related validity of cognitive ability tests: a qualitative and quantitative review. J. Appl. Psychol. 96:5881–906 [Google Scholar]
  15. Berry CM, Cullen MJ, Meyer JM. 2014. Racial/ethnic subgroup differences in cognitive ability test range restriction: implications for differential validity. J. Appl. Psychol. 99:121–37 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bielby WT. 2008. Promoting racial diversity at work: challenges and solutions. Diversity at Work Brief AP. 53–88 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Blackwell LA, Trzesniewski KH, Dweck CS. 2007. Theories of intelligence and achievement across the junior high school transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Dev. 78:246–63 [Google Scholar]
  18. Blascovich J, Spencer SJ, Quinn D, Steele C. 2001. African Americans and high blood pressure: the role of stereotype threat. Psychol. Sci. 12:3225–29 [Google Scholar]
  19. Blume BD, Baldwin TT, Rubin RS. 2009. Reactions to different types of forced distribution performance evaluation systems. J. Bus. Psychol. 24:177–91 [Google Scholar]
  20. Bommer WH, Johnson J, Rich GA, Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie SB. 1995. On the interchangeability of objective and subjective measures of employee performance: a meta-analysis. Pers. Psychol. 48:3587–605 [Google Scholar]
  21. Bonilla-Silva E. 2006. Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
  22. Bosson JK, Haymovitz EL, Pinel EC. 2004. When saying and doing diverge: the effects of stereotype threat on self-reported versus non-verbal anxiety. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 40:247–55 [Google Scholar]
  23. Breaugh JA. 2013. Employee recruitment. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 64:388–416 [Google Scholar]
  24. Breaugh JA, Greising LA, Taggart JW, Chen H. 2003. The relationship of recruiting sources and pre-hire outcomes: examination of yield ratios and applicant quality. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 33:2267–87 [Google Scholar]
  25. Brief AP, Umphress EE, Dietz J, Burrows JW, Butz RM, Scholten L. 2005. Community matters: realistic group conflict theory and the impact of diversity. Acad. Manag. J. 48:830–44 [Google Scholar]
  26. Brown M, Setren E, Topa G. 2012. Do informal referrals lead to better matches? Evidence from a firm’s employee referral system. Staff Rep. No. 568, Fed. Reserv. Bank N.Y. http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/staff_reports/sr568.pdf
  27. Brown RP, Charnsangavej T, Keough KA, Newman ML, Rentfrow PJ. 2000. Putting the “affirm” into affirmative action: preferential selection and academic performance. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 79:736–37 [Google Scholar]
  28. Brown RP, Day EA. 2006. The difference isn’t black and white: stereotype threat and the race gap on Raven’s advanced progressive matrices. J. Appl. Psychol. 91:979–85 [Google Scholar]
  29. Brown RP, Lee MN. 2005. Stigma consciousness and the race gap in college academic achievement. Self Identity 4:2149–57 [Google Scholar]
  30. Browne I. 1999. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality New York: Russell Sage Found.
  31. Bruce TA. 2013. Sexual orientation harassment in the workplace: the development of a measure. Master’s Thesis, Mich. State Univ., East Lansing
  32. Cable DM, Gino F, Staats BR. 2013. Breaking them in or eliciting their best? Reframing socialization around newcomers’ authentic self-expression. Adm. Sci. Q. 58:11–36 [Google Scholar]
  33. Chao GT. 1997. Mentoring phases and outcomes. J. Vocat. Behav. 51:15–28 [Google Scholar]
  34. Cheryan S, Plaut VC, Davies P, Steele CM. 2009. Ambient belonging: how stereotypical environments impact gender participation in computer science. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 97:1045–60 [Google Scholar]
  35. Chung BG, Ehrhart MG, Ehrhart KH, Hattrup K, Solamon J. 2010. Stereotype threat, state anxiety, and specific self-efficacy as predictors of promotion exam performance. Group Organ. Manag. 35:177–107 [Google Scholar]
  36. Cohen GL, Garcia J. 2008. Identity, belonging, and achievement: a model, interventions, implications. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 17:365–69 [Google Scholar]
  37. Cohen GL, Garcia J, Purdie-Vaughns V, Apfel N, Brzustoski P. 2009. Recursive processes in self-affirmation: intervening to close the minority achievement gap. Science 324:400–3 [Google Scholar]
  38. Cohen GL, Steele CM. 2002. A barrier of mistrust: how stereotypes affect cross-race mentoring. Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education Aronson J. 305–31 Oxford, UK: Academic [Google Scholar]
  39. Cohen GL, Steele CM, Ross LD. 1999. The mentor’s dilemma: providing critical feedback across the racial divide. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 25:1302–18 [Google Scholar]
  40. Cohen LL, Swim JK. 1995. The differential impact of gender ratios on women and men: tokenism, self-confidence, and expectations. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 21:876–84 [Google Scholar]
  41. Correll SJ. 2004. Constraints into preferences: gender, status, and emerging career aspirations. Am. Sociol. Rev. 69:93–113 [Google Scholar]
  42. Crocker J, Voelkl K, Testa M, Major B. 1991. Social stigma: the affective consequences of attributional ambiguity. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 60:2218–28 [Google Scholar]
  43. Croizet JC, Claire T. 1998. Extending the concept of stereotype threat to social class: the intellectual underperformance of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 24:588–94 [Google Scholar]
  44. Crosby FJ. 1999. The developing literature on developmental relationship. Mentoring Dilemmas: Developmental Relationship Within Multicultural Organizations Murrell AJ, Crosby FJ, RJ Ely. 1–18 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  45. Cullen MJ, Hardison CM, Sackett PR. 2004. Using SAT-grade and ability-job performance relationships to test predictions derived from stereotype threat theory. J. Appl. Psychol. 89:220–30 [Google Scholar]
  46. Czukor G, Bayazit M. 2014. Casting a wide net? Performance deficit, priming, and subjective performance evaluation in organizational stereotype threat research. Ind. Organ. Psychol. 7:409–13 [Google Scholar]
  47. Danaher K, Crandall CS. 2008. Stereotype threat in applied settings re-examined. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 38:1639–55 [Google Scholar]
  48. Davies PG, Spencer SJ, Steele CM. 2005. Clearing the air: Identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women’s leadership aspirations. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 88:276–87 [Google Scholar]
  49. De Corte W, Lievens F, Sackett PR. 2007. Combining predictors to achieve optimal trade-offs between selection quality and adverse impact. J. Appl. Psychol. 92:51380–93 [Google Scholar]
  50. DiTomaso N. 2012. The American Non-Dilemma: Racial Inequality Without Racism New York: Russell Sage Found
  51. Dovidio JF, Gaertner SL. 2004. Aversive racism. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 36:1–52 [Google Scholar]
  52. Dovidio JF, Hebl MR, Richeson JA, Shelton JN. 2006. Nonverbal communication, race, and intergroup interaction. The Sage Handbook of Nonverbal Communication Manusov V, Patterson ML. 481–500 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  53. Dovidio JF, Kawakami K, Gaertner SL. 2002. Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 82:162–68 [Google Scholar]
  54. Duckworth AL, Peterson C, Matthews MD, Kelly DR. 2007. Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 92:1087–101 [Google Scholar]
  55. Duckworth AL, Seligman ME. 2005. Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychol. Sci. 16:12939–44 [Google Scholar]
  56. Duguid M. 2011. Female tokens in high-prestige work groups: catalysts or inhibitors of group diversification?. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 116:1104–15 [Google Scholar]
  57. Dweck CS. 2006. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success New York: Random House
  58. Eagly AH, Karau SJ. 2002. Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychol. Rev. 109:573–98 [Google Scholar]
  59. Ely RJ. 1995. The power of demography: women’s social constructions of gender identity at work. Acad. Manag. J. 38:589–634 [Google Scholar]
  60. Ely RJ, Thomas DA. 2001. Cultural diversity at work: the effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes. Adm. Sci. Q. 46:229–73 [Google Scholar]
  61. Emerson KTU, Murphy MC. 2014. Identity threat at work: how social identity threat and situational cues contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in the workplace. Cult. Divers. Ethnic Minor. Psychol. 20:4508–20 [Google Scholar]
  62. Emerson KTU, Murphy MC. 2015. A company I can trust? Organizational lay theories moderate stereotype threat for women. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 41:2295–307 [Google Scholar]
  63. Erman S, Walton GM. 2015. Stereotype threat and anti-discrimination law: Affirmative steps to promote meritocracy and racial equality in education. South. Calif. Law Rev. 88:2 In press [Google Scholar]
  64. Ford JK, Kraiger K, Schechtman SL. 1986. Study of race effects in objective indices and subjective evaluations of performance: a meta-analysis of performance criteria. Psychol. Bull. 99:3330–37 [Google Scholar]
  65. Frear KA, Paustian-Underdahl S. 2011. From elusive to obvious: improving performance management through specificity. Ind. Organ. Psychol. 4:2198–200 [Google Scholar]
  66. Garcia J, Cohen GL. 2012. A social psychological approach to educational intervention. Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy Shafir E. 329–47 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  67. Gaucher D, Friesen J, Kay AC. 2011. Evidence that gendered wording in job advertisements exists and sustains gender inequality. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 101:109–28 [Google Scholar]
  68. Giumetti GW, Schroeder AN, Switzer FS. 2014. Forced distribution rating systems: When does “rank and yank” lead to adverse impact?. J. Appl. Psychol. 100:118093 [Google Scholar]
  69. Goff PA, Steele CM, Davies PG. 2008. The space between us: stereotype threat and distance in interracial contexts. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 94:91–107 [Google Scholar]
  70. Golubovich J, Grand J, Ryan AM, Schmitt N. 2014. An examination of common sensitivity review practices in test development. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 22:1–11 [Google Scholar]
  71. Golubovich J, Ryan AM. 2012. Demographic cues in video-based situational judgment items. Presented at Annu. Conf. Soc. Ind. Organ. Psych. Conference, 27th, Apr. 26–28, San Diego
  72. Good C, Aronson J, Harder JA. 2008. Problems in the pipeline: stereotype threat and women’s achievement in high-level math courses. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 29:17–28 [Google Scholar]
  73. Good C, Aronson J, Inzlicht M. 2003. Improving adolescents’ standardized test performance: an intervention to reduce the effects of stereotype threat. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 24:645–62 [Google Scholar]
  74. Grand J. 2012. An examination of stereotype threat effects on knowledge acquisition in an exploratory learning paradigm. PhD Thesis, Mich. State Univ., East Lansing
  75. Grand JA, Ryan AM, Schmitt N, Hmurovic J. 2011. How far does stereotype threat reach? The potential detriment of face validity in cognitive ability testing. Hum. Perform. 24:1–28 [Google Scholar]
  76. Greenhaus JH, Parasuraman S, Wormley WM. 1990. Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Acad. Manag. J. 33:64–86 [Google Scholar]
  77. Harber KD. 1998. Feedback to minorities: evidence of a positive bias. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 74:3622–28 [Google Scholar]
  78. Hattrup K, Rock J. 2002. A comparison of predictor-based and criterion-based methods for weighing predictors to reduce adverse impact. Appl. HRM Res. 7:1/222–38 [Google Scholar]
  79. Hebl MR, Foster JB, Mannix LM, Dovidio JF. 2002. Formal and interpersonal discrimination: a field study of bias toward homosexual applicants. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 28:6815–25 [Google Scholar]
  80. Herdman AO, McMillan-Capehart A. 2010. Establishing a diversity program is not enough: exploring the determinants of diversity climate. J. Bus. Psychol. 25:39–53 [Google Scholar]
  81. Hess TM, Auman C, Colcombe S, Rahhal T. 2003. The impact of stereotype threat on age differences in memory performance. J. Gerontol. B Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci. 58:3–11 [Google Scholar]
  82. Hmurovic J, Ryan AM, Schmitt N, Grand J. 2009. Sensitivity or stereotype threat? Effects of gendered test content. Presented at Annu. Conf. Soc. Ind. Organ. Psychol., 24th, Apr. 2–4, New Orleans, LA
  83. Holleran SE, Whitehead J, Schmader T, Mehl MR. 2011. Talking shop and shooting the breeze: a study of workplace conversation and job disengagement among STEM faculty. Soc. Psychol. Personal. Sci. 2:165–71 [Google Scholar]
  84. Holoien DS, Shelton JN. 2012. You deplete me: the cognitive costs of colorblindness on ethnic minorities. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 48:2562–65 [Google Scholar]
  85. Homan AC, Van Knippenberg D, Van Kleef GA, De Dreu CKW. 2007. Interacting dimensions of diversity: cross-categorization and the functioning of diverse work groups. Group Dyn. 11:279–94 [Google Scholar]
  86. Hough LM, Oswald FL, Ployhart RE. 2001. Determinants, detection and amelioration of adverse impact in personnel selection procedures: issues, evidence and lessons learned. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 9:1/2152–94 [Google Scholar]
  87. Huffcutt AI, Roth PL. 1998. Racial group differences in employment interview evaluations. J. Appl. Psychol. 83:2179–89 [Google Scholar]
  88. Ilgen DR, Youtz MA. 1986. Factors affecting the evaluation and development of minorities in organizations. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management: A Research Annual Rowland K, Ferris G. 307–37 Greenwich, CT: JAI [Google Scholar]
  89. Inzlicht M, Ben-Zeev T. 2000. A threatening intellectual environment: why females are susceptible to experiencing problem-solving deficits in the presence of males. Psychol. Sci. 11:365–71 [Google Scholar]
  90. Inzlicht M, Schmader T. 2012. Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  91. Ioannides YM, Loury LD. 2004. Job information networks, neighborhood effects, and inequality. J. Econ. Lit. 42:1056–93 [Google Scholar]
  92. Jackson PB, Thoits PA, Taylor HF. 1995. Composition of the workplace and psychological well-being: the effects of tokenism on America’s Black elite. Soc. Forces 74:2543–57 [Google Scholar]
  93. James EH. 2000. Race-related differences in promotions and support: underlying effects of human and social capital. Organ. Sci. 11:493–508 [Google Scholar]
  94. Jamieson JP, Mendes WB, Blackstock E, Schmader T. 2010. Turning the knots in your stomach into bows: Reappraising arousal improves performance on the GRE. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 46:1208–12 [Google Scholar]
  95. Johns J, Inzlicht M, Schmader T. 2008. Stereotype threat and executive resource depletion: examining the influence of emotion regulation. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 137:691–705 [Google Scholar]
  96. Johns M, Schmader T, Martens A. 2005. Knowing is half the battle: teaching stereotype threat as a means of improving women’s math performance. Psychol. Sci. 16:175–79 [Google Scholar]
  97. Kabat-Farr D, Cortina LM. 2014. Sex-based harassment in employment: new insights into gender and context. Law Hum. Behav. 38:158–72 [Google Scholar]
  98. Kalev A, Dobbin F, Kelly E. 2006. Best practices or best guesses? Assessing the efficacy of corporate affirmative action and diversity policies. Am. Sociol. Rev. 71:589–617 [Google Scholar]
  99. Kalokerinos EK, Von Hippel C, Zacher H. 2014. Is stereotype threat a useful construct for organizational psychology research and practice?. Ind. Organ. Psychol. 7:381–402 [Google Scholar]
  100. Kanter RM. 1979. Differential access to opportunity and power. Discrimination in Organizations Alvarez R. 52–68 San Francisco: Jossey-Bass [Google Scholar]
  101. Karsten MF. 2006. Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in the Workplace: Management, Gender, and Ethnicity in the United States Vol. 1 Westport, CT: Praeger
  102. Kasinitz P, Rosenberg J. 1996. Missing the connection: social isolation and employment on the Brooklyn waterfront. Soc. Probl. 43:180–96 [Google Scholar]
  103. Kirby D, Jackson JS. 1999. Mitigating perceptions of racism: the importance of work group composition and supervisor’s race. Mentoring Dilemmas: Developmental Relationship Within Multicultural Organizations Murrell AJ, Crosby FJ, Ely RJ. 143–55 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  104. Kirnan JP, Alfieri JA, Bragger JD, Harris RS. 2009. An investigation of stereotype threat in employment tests. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 39:359–88 [Google Scholar]
  105. Klein HJ, Polin B. 2012. Are organizations on board with best practices onboarding?. The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Socialization Wanberg CR. 267–87 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  106. Kray LJ, Shirako A. 2012. Stereotype threat in organizations: an examination of its scope, triggers and possible interventions. See Inzlicht & Schmader 2012, pp. 173–87
  107. Kray LJ, Thompson L, Galinsky A. 2001. Battle of the sexes: gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 80:942–58 [Google Scholar]
  108. Landau J. 1995. The relationship of race and gender to managers’ ratings of promotion potential. J. Organ. Behav. 16:391–400 [Google Scholar]
  109. Leskinen EA, Cortina LM. 2014. Dimensions of disrespect: mapping and measuring gender harassment in organizations. Psychol. Women Q. 38:1107–23 [Google Scholar]
  110. Logel C, Iserman EC, Davies PG, Quinn DM, Spencer SJ. 2009a. The perils of double consciousness: the role of thought suppression in stereotype threat. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 45:299–312 [Google Scholar]
  111. Logel C, Walton GM, Spencer SJ, Iserman EC, Von Hippel W, Bell A. 2009b. Interacting with sexist men triggers social identity threat among female engineers. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 96:1089–103 [Google Scholar]
  112. London M. 1997. Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking, and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
  113. Madera JM, Hebl MR. 2013. “Don’t stigmatize”: the ironic effects of equal opportunity guidelines in interviews. Basic Appl. Soc. Psych. 35:123–30 [Google Scholar]
  114. Mannix E, Neale MA. 2006. What differences make a difference? The promise and reality of diverse teams in organizations. Psychol. Sci. Public Interest 6:31–55 [Google Scholar]
  115. Markus HR, Steele CM, Steele DM. 2000. Color blindness as a barrier to inclusion: assimilation and nonimmigrant minorities. Engaging Cultural Differences: The Multicultural Challenge in Liberal Democracies Shweder RA, Minow M. 453–72 New York: Russell Sage Found. [Google Scholar]
  116. Marsden PV, Gorman EH. 2001. Social networks, job changes, and recruitment. Sourcebook of Labor Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes Vol. 4 Berg I, Kalleberg AL. 467–502 New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum [Google Scholar]
  117. Martens A, Johns M, Greenberg J, Schimel J. 2006. Combating stereotype threat: the effect of self-affirmation on women’s intellectual performance. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 42:236–43 [Google Scholar]
  118. Marx DM, Goff PA. 2005. Clearing the air: the effect of experimenter race on target’s test performance and subjective experience. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 44:645–57 [Google Scholar]
  119. Massey DS, Fischer MJ. 2005. Stereotype threat and academic performance: new findings from a racially diverse sample of college freshmen. Du Bois Rev. 2:45–67 [Google Scholar]
  120. McConnell AR, Leibold JM. 2001. Relations among the Implicit Association Test, discriminatory behavior, and explicit measures of racial attitudes. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 37:435–42 [Google Scholar]
  121. McDonald S. 2011. What’s in the “old boys” network? Accessing social capital in gendered and racialized networks. Soc. Netw. 33:4317–30 [Google Scholar]
  122. McIntyre RB, Paulson RM, Lord CG. 2003. Alleviating women’s mathematics stereotype threat through salience of group achievements. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 39:83–90 [Google Scholar]
  123. McKay PF, Avery DR, Tonidandel S, Morris MA, Hernandez M, Hebl MR. 2007. Racial differences in employee retention: Are diversity climate perceptions the key?. Pers. Psychol. 60:35–62 [Google Scholar]
  124. McLean B, Elkind P. 2003. Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron New York: Penguin
  125. Miyake A, Smith-Kost LE, Finkelstein ND, Pollock SJ, Cohen GL, Ito TA. 2010. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation. Science 330:1234–37 [Google Scholar]
  126. Moss P, Tilly C. 2001. Stories Employers Tell: Race, Skill, and Hiring in America New York: Russell Sage Found.
  127. Mueller CW, De Coster S, Estes SB. 2001. Sexual harassment in the workplace: unanticipated consequences of modern social control in organizations. Work Occup. 28:4411–46 [Google Scholar]
  128. Murphy MC, Dweck CS. 2010. A culture of genius: how an organization’s lay theory shapes people’s cognition, affect, and behavior. Personal. Psychol. Bull. 36:283–96 [Google Scholar]
  129. Murphy MC, Richeson JA, Shelton JN, Rheinschmidt ML, Bergsieker HB. 2013. Cognitive costs of contemporary prejudice. Group Process. Intergroup Relat. 16:560–71 [Google Scholar]
  130. Murphy MC, Steele CM, Gross JJ. 2007. Signaling threat: how situational cues affect women in math, science, and engineering settings. Psychol. Sci. 18:879–85 [Google Scholar]
  131. Murphy MC, Taylor VJ. 2012. The role of situational cues in signaling and maintaining stereotype threat. See Inzlicht & Schmader 2012, pp. 17–33
  132. Murphy MC, Walton GM. 2013. From prejudiced people to prejudiced places. Stereotyping and Prejudice Stangor C, CS Crandall. 181–203 New York: Psychol. Press [Google Scholar]
  133. Nguyen HD, Ryan AM. 2008. Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence. J. Appl. Psychol. 93:1314–34 [Google Scholar]
  134. Niemann YF, Dovidio JF. 1998. Relationship of solo status, academic rank, and perceived distinctiveness to job satisfaction of racial/ethnic minorities. J. Appl. Psychol. 83:55–71 [Google Scholar]
  135. Obama M, Obama B. 2014. Remarks by the President and First Lady. Presented at Coll. Oppor. Summit, Jan. 16, Washington, DC. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/01/16/remarks-president-and-first-lady-college-opportunity-summit
  136. Osborne JW. 2006. Gender, stereotype threat, and anxiety: psychophysiological and cognitive evidence. Electron. J. Res. Educ. Psychol. 4:1109–38 [Google Scholar]
  137. Paunesku D, Walton GM, Romero CL, Smith EN, Yeager DS, Dweck CS. In press. Mindset interventions are a scalable treatment for academic underperformance. Psychol. Sci.
  138. Plaut VC, Garnett FG, Buffardi L, Sanchez-Burks J. 2011. What about me? Perceptions of exclusion and Whites’ reactions to multiculturalism. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 101:337–53 [Google Scholar]
  139. Plaut VC, Thomas KM, Goren MJ. 2009. Is multiculturalism or color blindness better for minorities?. Psychol. Sci. 20:444–46 [Google Scholar]
  140. Purdie-Vaughns V, Steele CM, Davies PG, Ditlmann R, Crosby JR. 2008. Social identity contingencies: how diversity cues signal threat or safety for African Americans in mainstream institutions. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 94:4615–30 [Google Scholar]
  141. Raeburn N. 2004. Lesbian and Gay Workplace Rights: Changing Corporate America from Inside Out Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
  142. Reskin BF, McBrier DB, Kmec JA. 1999. The determinants and consequences of workplace sex and race composition. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 25:335–61 [Google Scholar]
  143. Richeson JA, Shelton JN. 2012. Stereotype threat in interracial interactions. See Inzlicht & Schmader 2012, pp. 231–48
  144. Roberson L, Deitch EA, Brief AP, Block CJ. 2003. Stereotype threat and feedback seeking in the workplace. J. Vocat. Behav. 62:1176–88 [Google Scholar]
  145. Roberson L, Galvin BM, Charles AC. 2007. When group identities matter: bias in performance appraisal. Acad. Manag. Ann. 1:617–50 [Google Scholar]
  146. Roberson L, Kulik CT. 2007. Stereotype threat at work. Acad. Manag. Perspect. 21:224–40 [Google Scholar]
  147. Ross L, Nisbett RE. 1991. The Person and the Situation: Perspectives of Social Psychology New York: McGraw-Hill
  148. Roth PL, Le H, Oh I, Van Iddekinge CH, Buster MA et al. 2014. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?. J. Appl. Psychol. 99:11–20 [Google Scholar]
  149. Ryan AM, Sackett PR. 2013. Stereotype threat in assessments. APA Handbook of Testing and Assessment in Psychology, Vol. 1: Test Theory and Testing and Assessment in Industrial and Organizational Psychology Geisinger KF, Bracken BA, Carlson JF, Hansen JC, Kuncel NR. 661–73 Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc. [Google Scholar]
  150. Ryan CS, Hunt JS, Weible JA, Peterson CR, Casas JF. 2007. Multicultural and colorblind ideology, stereotypes, and ethnocentrism among Black and White Americans. Group Process. Intergroup Relat. 10:617–37 [Google Scholar]
  151. Rydell RJ, Shiffrin RM, Boucher KL, Van Loo K, Rydell MT. 2010. Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:14042–47 [Google Scholar]
  152. Sackett PR, Roth L. 1991. A Monte Carlo examination of banding and rank order methods of test score use in personnel selection. Hum. Perform. 4:279–95 [Google Scholar]
  153. Sackett PR, Ryan AM. 2012. Concerns about generalizing stereotype threat research findings to operational high-stakes testing. See Inzlicht & Schmader 2012, pp. 249–63
  154. Sackett PR, Wilk SL. 1994. Within-group norming and other forms of score adjustment in preemployment testing. Am. Psychol. 49:929–54 [Google Scholar]
  155. Saenz DS, Lord CG. 1989. Reversing roles: a cognitive strategy for undoing memory deficits associated with token status. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 56:698–708 [Google Scholar]
  156. Salvatore J, Shelton JN. 2007. Cognitive costs of exposure to racial prejudice. Psychol. Sci. 18:810–15 [Google Scholar]
  157. Schleicher DJ, Bull RA, Green SG. 2009. Rater reactions to forced distribution rating systems. J. Manag. 35:4899–927 [Google Scholar]
  158. Schmader T, Beilock S. 2012. An integration of processes that underlie stereotype threat. See Inzlicht & Schmader 2012, pp. 34–50
  159. Schmader T, Johns M. 2003. Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 85:440–52 [Google Scholar]
  160. Schmader T, Johns M, Forbes C. 2008. An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. Psychol. Rev. 115:2336–56 [Google Scholar]
  161. Schneider KT, Swan S, Fitzgerald LF. 1997. Job-related and psychological effects of sexual harassment in the workplace: empirical evidence from two organizations. J. Appl. Psychol. 82:401–15 [Google Scholar]
  162. Sekaquaptewa D, Espinoza P, Thompson M, Vargas P, Von Hippel W. 2003. Stereotypic explanatory bias: implicit stereotyping as a predictor of discrimination. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 39:175–82 [Google Scholar]
  163. Sekaquaptewa D, Thompson M. 2002. The differential effects of solo status on members of high- and low-status groups. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 28:5694–707 [Google Scholar]
  164. Sekaquaptewa D, Thompson M. 2003. Solo status, stereotype threat, and performance expectancies: their effects on women’s performance. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 39:168–74 [Google Scholar]
  165. Sherman DK, Cohen GL. 2006. The psychology of self-defense: self-affirmation theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Vol. 38 Zanna MP. 183–242 San Diego: Academic [Google Scholar]
  166. Sherman DK, Hartson KA. 2011. Reconciling self-defense with self-criticism: self-affirmation theory. Handbook of Self-Enhancement and Self-Protection Alicke MD, Sedikides C. 128–51 New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  167. Sherman DK, Hartson KA, Binning KR, Purdie-Vaughns V, Garcia J et al. 2013. Deflecting the trajectory and changing the narrative: how self-affirmation affects academic performance and motivation under identity threat. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 104:591–618 [Google Scholar]
  168. Shih M, Young MJ, Bucher A. 2013. Working to reduce the effects of discrimination: identity management strategies in organizations. Am. Psychol. 68:3145–57 [Google Scholar]
  169. Singh B, Winkel DE, Selvarajan TT. 2013. Managing diversity at work: Does psychological safety hold the key to racial differences in employee performance?. J. Occup. Organ. Psychol. 86:242–63 [Google Scholar]
  170. Spencer SJ, Steele CM, Quinn DM. 1999. Stereotype threat and women’s math performance. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 35:4–28 [Google Scholar]
  171. Stangor C, Carr C, Kiang L. 1998. Activating stereotypes undermines task performance expectations. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 75:51191–97 [Google Scholar]
  172. Steele CM. 1997. A threat in the air: how stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. Am. Psychol. 52:613–29 [Google Scholar]
  173. Steele CM. 2010. Whistling Vivaldi: And Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us New York: Norton
  174. Steele CM, Aronson J. 1995. Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 69:797–811 [Google Scholar]
  175. Steele CM, Spencer SJ, Aronson J. 2002. Contending with group image: the psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Vol. 34 Zanna MP. 379–440 San Diego: Academic [Google Scholar]
  176. Steele DM, Cohn-Vargas B. 2013. Identity Safe Classrooms: Places to Belong and Learn Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
  177. Sternberg RJ. Rainbow Proj. Collab 2006. The Rainbow Project: enhancing the SAT through assessments of analytical, practical, and creative skills. Intelligence 34:321–50 [Google Scholar]
  178. Stevens FG, Plaut VC, Sanchez-Burks J. 2008. Unlocking the benefits of diversity: all-inclusive multiculturalism and positive organizational change. J. Appl. Behav. Sci. 44:116–33 [Google Scholar]
  179. Stoker JI, Van der Velde M, Lammers J. 2012. Factors relating to managerial stereotypes: the role of gender of the employee and the manager and management gender ratio. J. Bus. Psychol. 27:31–42 [Google Scholar]
  180. Stone J, Lynch CI, Sjomeling M, Darley JM. 1999. Stereotype threat effects on Black and White athletic performance. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 77:1213–27 [Google Scholar]
  181. Tapia AH, Kvasny L. 2004. Recruitment is never enough: retention of women and minorities in the IT workplace. Proc. 2004 SIGMIS Conf. Comput. Pers. Res.: Careers Cult. Ethics Netw. Environ., Tucson, AZ, pp. 84–91. New York: Assoc. Comput. Mach.
  182. Taylor VJ, Walton GM. 2011. Stereotype threat undermines academic learning. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 37:1055–67 [Google Scholar]
  183. Thomas DA, Kram KE. 1988. Promoting career-enhancing relationships in organizations: the role of the human resource professional. The Human Resource Professional and Employee Career Development London M, Mone E. 49–66 New York: Greenwood [Google Scholar]
  184. Thomas KM. 2008. Diversity Resistance in Organizations New York: Erlbaum-Taylor Francis
  185. Topa G. 2011. Labor markets and referrals. Handbook of Social Economics Benhabib J, Bisin A, Jackson MO. 1193–221 Amsterdam: Elsevier North Holland [Google Scholar]
  186. Tracey JB, Tannenbaum SI, Kavanagh MJ. 1995. Applying trained skills on the job: the importance of the work environment. J. Appl. Psychol. 80:2239–52 [Google Scholar]
  187. Turner ME, Pratkanis AR. 1994. Social identity maintenance prescriptions for preventing groupthink: reducing identity protection and enhancing intellectual conflict. Int. J. Conflict Manag. 5:3254–70 [Google Scholar]
  188. Voyles E, Finkelstein L, King E. 2014. A tale of two theories: stereotype threat and metastereotypes. Ind. Organ. Psychol. 7:419–22 [Google Scholar]
  189. Walton GM, Carr PB. 2012. Social belonging and the motivation and intellectual achievement of negatively stereotyped students. See Inzlicht & Schmader 2012, pp. 89–106
  190. Walton GM, Cohen GL. 2003. Stereotype lift. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 39:456–67 [Google Scholar]
  191. Walton GM, Cohen GL. 2007. A question of belonging: race, social fit, and achievement. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 92:82–96 [Google Scholar]
  192. Walton GM, Cohen GL. 2011. A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. Science 331:1447–51 [Google Scholar]
  193. Walton GM, Logel C, Peach J, Spencer S, Zanna MP. 2014. Two brief interventions to mitigate a “chilly climate” transform women’s experience, relationships, and achievement in engineering. J. Educ. Psychol. In press [Google Scholar]
  194. Walton GM, Spencer SJ. 2009. Latent ability: grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students. Psychol. Sci. 20:1132–39 [Google Scholar]
  195. Walton GM, Spencer SJ, Erman S. 2013. Affirmative meritocracy. Soc. Issues Policy Rev. 7:1–35 [Google Scholar]
  196. Wee S, Newman DA, Joseph DL. 2014. More than g: selection quality and adverse impact implications of considering second-stratum cognitive abilities. J. Appl. Psychol. 99:4547–63 [Google Scholar]
  197. Wiesenfeld BM, Brockner J, Martin C. 1999. A self-affirmation analysis of survivors’ reactions to unfair organizational downsizings. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 35:5441–60 [Google Scholar]
  198. Williams JR, Miller CE, Steelman LA, Levy PE. 1999. Increasing feedback seeking in public contexts: It takes two (or more) to tango. J. Appl. Psychol. 84:6969–76 [Google Scholar]
  199. Wolsko C, Park B, Judd CM, Wittenbrink B. 2000. Framing interethnic ideology: effects of multicultural and color-blind perspectives on judgments of groups and individuals. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 78:635–54 [Google Scholar]
  200. Woodcock A, Hernandez PR, Estrada M, Schultz PW. 2012. The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 103:4635–46 [Google Scholar]
  201. Yeager DS, Paunesku D, Walton GM, Dweck CS. 2013. How can we instill productive mindsets at scale? A review of the evidence and an initial R&D agenda. Prepared for White House Meet. Excell. Educ.: Importance Acad. Mindsets, May 10, Washington, DC
  202. Yeager DS, Walton GM. 2011. Social-psychological interventions in education: They’re not magic. Rev. Educ. Res. 81:267–301 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111322
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111322
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error