Much remains to be understood about visual system malfunction following injury. The resulting deficits range from dense, visual field scotomas to mild dysfunction of visual perception. Despite the predictive value of anatomical localization studies, much patient-to-patient variability remains regarding () perceptual abilities following injury and () the capacity of individual patients for visual rehabilitation. Visual field perimetry is used to characterize the visual field deficits that result from visual system injury. However, standard perimetry mapping does not always precisely correspond to underlying anatomical or functional deficits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be used to probe the function of surviving visual circuits, allowing us to classify better how the pattern of injury relates to residual visual perception. Identifying pathways that are potentially modifiable by training may guide the development of improved strategies for visual rehabilitation. This review discusses primary visual cortex lesions, which cause dense contralateral scotomas.


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