1932

Abstract

The author relates his intellectual journey from eye-testing clinician to experimental vision scientist. Starting with the quest for underpinning in physics and physiology of vague clinical propositions and of psychology's acceptance of thresholds as “fuzzy-edged,” and a long career pursuing a reductionist agenda in empirical vision science, his journey led to the realization that the full understanding of human vision cannot proceed without factoring in an observer's awareness, with its attendant uncertainty and open-endedness. He finds support in the loss of completeness, finality, and certainty revealed in fundamental twentieth-century formulations of mathematics and physics. Just as biology prospered with the introduction of the emergent, nonreductionist concepts of evolution, vision science has to become comfortable accepting data and receiving guidance from human observers’ conscious visual experience.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114655
2016-10-14
2024-04-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/vision/2/1/annurev-vision-111815-114655.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114655&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adelson EH, Bergen JR. 1985. Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2:284–99 [Google Scholar]
  2. Barlow HB. 1961. Possible principles underlying the transformations of sensory messages. Sensory Communication WR Rosenblith 217–34 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  3. Barlow HB, Levick WR. 1965. The mechanism of directionally selective units in rabbit's retina. J. Physiol. 178:477–504 [Google Scholar]
  4. Blachowski S. 1913. Studien über den Binnenkontrast. Z. Psychol.-Physiol. Sinnesorg. 47:Abt. II291–330 [Google Scholar]
  5. Brindley GS. 1960. Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway London: Edward Arnold, 1st ed..
  6. de Lange H. 1954. Relationship between the critical flicker frequency and a set of low-frequency characteristics of the eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44:380–89 [Google Scholar]
  7. Ehrenfels C von. 1890. Über Gestaltqualitäten. Vierteljahresschrift Für Wiss. Philosophie 14:249–92 [Google Scholar]
  8. Field DJ. 1987. Relation between the statistics of natural images and the response properties of cortical cells. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4:2379–94 [Google Scholar]
  9. Fitts PM. 1951. Engineering psychology and equipment design. Handbook of Experimental Psychology SS Stevens 1287–340 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  10. Gonshor A, Melvill-Jones GM. 1973. Changes of human vestibulo-ocular response induced by vision-reversal during head rotation. J. Physiol. 234:Suppl.102P–103P [Google Scholar]
  11. Hecht S, Shlaer S, Pirenne MH. 1942. Energy, quanta, and vision. J. Gen. Physiol. 25:819–40 [Google Scholar]
  12. Hering E. 1875. Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne. VI, Mittheilung: Grundzüge einer Theorie des Farbensinnes. Sitz. Kais. Wiss. Wien Math. Naturwiss. Classe 70:Abt. III169–204 [Google Scholar]
  13. Hering E. 1899. Über die Grenzen der Sehschärfe. Ber. Math.-Phys. Classe K. Sächs. Ges. Leipzig (Naturwiss. Teil) 51:16–24 [Google Scholar]
  14. Hess WR. 1941. Charakter der im Zwischenhirn ausgelösten Bewegungseffekte. Pflügers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 244:767–86 [Google Scholar]
  15. Hubel DH, Wiesel TN. 1959. Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat's striate cortex. J. Physiol. 148:574–91 [Google Scholar]
  16. Kuffler SW. 1953. Discharge patterns and functional organization of mammalian retina. J. Neurophysiol. 16:37–68 [Google Scholar]
  17. Lettvin JY, Maturana HR, McCulloch WS, Pitts WH. 1959. What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain. Proc. IRE 47:1940–51 [Google Scholar]
  18. Liang J, Westheimer G. 1993. Method for measuring visual resolution at the retinal level. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10:1691–96 [Google Scholar]
  19. Luneburg RK. 1947. Mathematical Analysis of Binocular Vision Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  20. Mach E. 1865. Über die Wirkung der räumlichen Vertheilung des Lichreizes auf der Netzhaut. Sitz. Kais. Wiss. Wien Math. Naturwiss. Classe 52:Abt. II303–22 [Google Scholar]
  21. Marr D. 1982. Vision San Francisco: W. H. Freeman
  22. Mayr E. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought Cambridge, MA: Belknap
  23. Mayr E. 2004. What Makes Biology Unique? Considerations on the Autonomy of a Scientific Discipline New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  24. Opt. Soc. Am. 1953. The Science of Color New York: Crowell
  25. Penrose R. 1994. Shadows of the Mind Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  26. Rashbass C, Westheimer G. 1961. Disjunctive eye movements. J. Physiol. 159:339–60 [Google Scholar]
  27. Rashevsky N. 1938. Mathematical Biophysics: Physicomathematical Foundations of Biology Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press
  28. Schade OH. 1956. Optical and photoelectric analog of the eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46:721–39 [Google Scholar]
  29. Shannon CE, Weaver W. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication Urbana, IL: Univ. Ill. Press
  30. Stevens SS. 1951. Mathematics, measurement and psychophysics. Handbook of Experimental Psychology, SS Stevens 1–49 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  31. Teller DY. 1984. Linking propositions. Vis. Res. 24:1233–46 [Google Scholar]
  32. Tschermak A. 1921. Der exakte Subjektivismus in der neueren Sinnesphysiologie. Pflügers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 188:1–20 [Google Scholar]
  33. Wertheimer M. 1912. Experimentelle Studien über das Sehen von Bewegung. Z. Psychol. 61:161–265 [Google Scholar]
  34. Wertheimer M. 1923. Untersuchungen von der Lehre der Gestalt. II. Psychol. Forsch. 4:301–50 [Google Scholar]
  35. Westheimer G. 1957. Kinematics of the eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47:967–74 [Google Scholar]
  36. Westheimer G. 1962. The visual world of the new contact lens wearer. J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 34:135–38 [Google Scholar]
  37. Westheimer G. 1981. Donders’, Listing's and Hering's Laws and their implications. Models of Oculomotor Behavior and Control BL Zuber 149–159 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press [Google Scholar]
  38. Westheimer G, McKee SP. 1977. Integration regions for visual hyperacuity. Vis. Res. 17:89–93 [Google Scholar]
  39. Wiener N. 1948. Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine Cambridge, MA: Technol. Press
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114655
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114655
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error